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Macedonia vs. Kosovo

Introduction

MacedoniaKosovo
BackgroundMacedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991. Greek objection to Macedonia’s name, insisting it implies territorial pretensions to the northern Greek province of the same name, and democratic backsliding have stalled the country’s movement toward Euro-Atlantic integration. Immediately after Macedonia declared independence, Greece sought to block Macedonian efforts to gain UN membership if the name “Macedonia” was used. Macedonia was eventually admitted to the UN in 1993 as “The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,” and at the same time it agreed to UN-sponsored negotiations on the name dispute. In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, but the issue of the name remained unresolved and negotiations for a solution are ongoing. Since 2004, the US and over 130 other nations have recognized Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia. Ethnic Albanian grievances over perceived political and economic inequities escalated into an insurgency in 2001 that eventually led to the internationally brokered Ohrid Framework Agreement (OFA), which ended the fighting and established guidelines for constitutional amendments and the creation of new laws that enhanced the rights of minorities. Relations between Macedonians and ethnic Albanians remain fragile, however.
Macedonia has been engulfed in a political crisis that began after the 2014 legislative and presidential election, and which escalated in 2015 when the opposition party began releasing wiretap content that it alleged showed widespread government corruption. Although Macedonia became an EU candidate in 2005, the country still faces challenges, including overcoming the political crisis, fully implementing the OFA, resolving the outstanding name dispute with Greece, improving relations with Bulgaria, halting democratic backsliding, and stimulating economic growth and development. At the 2008 NATO Summit in Bucharest, Romania, the Allies agreed that Macedonia would be invited to join the Alliance as soon as a mutually acceptable resolution to the name dispute was reached with Greece.
The central Balkans were part of the Roman and Byzantine Empires before ethnic Serbs migrated to the territories of modern Kosovo in the 7th century. During the medieval period, Kosovo became the center of a Serbian Empire and saw the construction of many important Serb religious sites, including many architecturally significant Serbian Orthodox monasteries. The defeat of Serbian forces at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 led to five centuries of Ottoman rule during which large numbers of Turks and Albanians moved to Kosovo. By the end of the 19th century, Albanians replaced Serbs as the dominant ethnic group in Kosovo. Serbia reacquired control over the region from the Ottoman Empire during the First Balkan War of 1912. After World War II, Kosovo's present-day boundaries were established when Kosovo became an autonomous province of Serbia in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (S.F.R.Y.). Despite legislative concessions, Albanian nationalism increased in the 1980s, which led to riots and calls for Kosovo's independence. The Serbs - many of whom viewed Kosovo as their cultural heartland - instituted a new constitution in 1989 revoking Kosovo's autonomous status. Kosovo's Albanian leaders responded in 1991 by organizing a referendum declaring Kosovo independent. Serbia undertook repressive measures against the Kosovar Albanians in the 1990s, provoking a Kosovar Albanian insurgency.
Beginning in 1998, Serbia conducted a brutal counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians (some 800,000 ethnic Albanians were forced from their homes in Kosovo). After international attempts to mediate the conflict failed, a three-month NATO military operation against Serbia beginning in March 1999 forced the Serbs to agree to withdraw their military and police forces from Kosovo. UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999) placed Kosovo under a transitional administration, the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), pending a determination of Kosovo's future status. A UN-led process began in late 2005 to determine Kosovo's final status. The 2006-07 negotiations ended without agreement between Belgrade and Pristina, though the UN issued a comprehensive report on Kosovo's final status that endorsed independence. On 17 February 2008, the Kosovo Assembly declared Kosovo independent. Since then, over 110 countries have recognized Kosovo, and it has joined numerous international organizations. In October 2008, Serbia sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on the legality under international law of Kosovo's declaration of independence. The ICJ released the advisory opinion in July 2010 affirming that Kosovo's declaration of independence did not violate general principles of international law, UN Security Council Resolution 1244, or the Constitutive Framework. The opinion was closely tailored to Kosovo's unique history and circumstances.
Demonstrating Kosovo’s development into a sovereign, multi-ethnic, democratic country the international community ended the period of Supervised Independence in 2012. Elections were held throughout Kosovo in 2013 and 2014, at the municipal and national level respectively. Serbia continues to reject Kosovo's independence, but the two countries reached an agreement to normalize their relations in April 2013 through EU-facilitated talks and are currently engaged in the implementation process. Kosovo seeks full integration into the international community, and has pursued bilateral recognitions and eventual membership in international organizations, such as the UN, EU, and NATO.

Geography

MacedoniaKosovo
LocationSoutheastern Europe, north of Greece
Southeast Europe, between Serbia and Macedonia
Geographic coordinates41 50 N, 22 00 E
42 35 N, 21 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 25,713 sq km
land: 25,433 sq km
water: 280 sq km
total: 10,887 sq km
land: 10,887 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than Vermont
slightly larger than Delaware
Land boundariestotal: 838 km
border countries (5): Albania 181 km, Bulgaria 162 km, Greece 234 km, Kosovo 160 km, Serbia 101 km
total: 714 km
border countries (4): Albania 112 km, Macedonia 160 km, Montenegro 76 km, Serbia 366 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatewarm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
influenced by continental air masses resulting in relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns; Mediterranean and alpine influences create regional variation; maximum rainfall between October and December
Terrainmountainous with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
flat fluvial basin at an elevation of 400-700 m above sea level surrounded by several high mountain ranges with elevations of 2,000 to 2,500 m
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 741 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m
mean elevation: 450 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Drini i Bardhe/Beli Drim 297 m (located on the border with Albania)
highest point: Gjeravica/Deravica 2,656 m
Natural resourceslow-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
nickel, lead, zinc, magnesium, lignite, kaolin, chrome, bauxite
Land useagricultural land: 44.3%
arable land 16.4%; permanent crops 1.4%; permanent pasture 26.5%
forest: 39.8%
other: 15.9% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 52.8%
arable land 27.4%; permanent crops 1.9%; permanent pasture 23.5%
forest: 41.7%
other: 5.5% (2001 est.)
Irrigated land1,280 sq km (2012)
NA
Geography - notelandlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
the 41-km long Nerodimka River divides into two branches each of which flows into a different sea: the northern branch flows into the Sitnica River, which via the Ibar, Morava, and Danube Rivers ultimately flows into the Black Sea; the southern branch flows via the Lepenac and Vardar Rivers into the Aegean Sea
Population distributiona fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations
pockets of agglomeration exist throughout the country, the largest being in the east in and around the capital of Pristina

Demographics

MacedoniaKosovo
Population2,100,025 (July 2016 est.)
1,883,018 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 17.27% (male 187,752/female 174,935)
15-24 years: 13.69% (male 148,340/female 139,195)
25-54 years: 43.65% (male 465,622/female 451,028)
55-64 years: 12.3% (male 126,548/female 131,749)
65 years and over: 13.09% (male 117,787/female 157,069) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 25.39% (male 248,366/female 229,732)
15-24 years: 17.38% (male 171,363/female 155,928)
25-54 years: 42.43% (male 421,620/female 377,362)
55-64 years: 7.65% (male 72,444/female 71,659)
65 years and over: 7.15% (male 56,407/female 78,137) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 37.5 years
male: 36.4 years
female: 38.6 years (2016 est.)
total: 28.7 years
male: 28.3 years
female: 29 years (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian
noun: Kosovar (Albanian), Kosovac (Serbian)
adjective: Kosovar (Albanian), Kosovski (Serbian)
note: Kosovan, a neutral term, is sometimes also used as a noun or adjective
Ethnic groupsMacedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Romani 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 est.)
note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 6.5–13% of Macedonia’s population
Albanians 92.9%, Bosniaks 1.6%, Serbs 1.5%, Turk 1.1%, Ashkali 0.9%, Egyptian 0.7%, Gorani 0.6%, Romani 0.5%, other/unspecified 0.2%
note: these estimates may under-represent Serb, Romani, and some other ethnic minorities because they are based on the 2011 Kosovo national census, which excluded northern Kosovo (a largely Serb-inhabited region) and was partially boycotted by Serb and Romani communities in southern Kosovo (2011 est.)
ReligionsMacedonian Orthodox 64.8%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.4%, other and unspecified 1.5% (2002 est.)
Muslim 95.6%, Roman Catholic 2.2%, Orthodox 1.5%, other 0.07%, none 0.07%, unspecified 0.6% (2011 est.)
LanguagesMacedonian (official) 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Romani 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 est.)
note: minority languages are co-official with Macedonian in municipalities whre they are spoken by at least 20% of the population; Albanian is co-official in Tetovo, Brvenica, Vrapciste, and other municipalities; Turkish is co-official in Centar Zupa and Plasnica; Romani is co-official in Suto Orizari; Aromanian is co-official in Drusevo; Serbian is co-official in Cucer Sandevo
Albanian (official) 94.5%, Bosnian 1.7%, Serbian (official) 1.6%, Turkish 1.1%, other 0.9% (includes Romani), unspecified 0.1%
note: in municipalities where a community's mother tongue is not one of Kosovo's official languages, the language of that community may be given official status according to the 2006 Law on the Use of Languages (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.8%
male: 98.8%
female: 96.8% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.9%
male: 96.6%
female: 87.5% (2003 est.)
Major cities - populationSKOPJE (capital) 503,000 (2015)
PRISTINA (capital) 207,062 (2014)

Government

MacedoniaKosovo
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form: Macedonia
local long form: Republika Makedonija
local short form: Makedonija
note: the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is the ""former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"" (FYROM)
former: People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia
etymology: the country name derives from the ancient kingdom of Macedon (7th to 2nd centuries B.C.)
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Kosovo
conventional short form: Kosovo
local long form: Republika e Kosoves (Republika Kosovo)
local short form: Kosova (Kosovo)
etymology: name derives from the Serbian ""kos"" meaning ""blackbird,"" an ellipsis (linguistic omission) for ""kosove polje"" or ""field of the blackbirds""
"
Government typeparliamentary republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Skopje
geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 21 26 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Pristina (Prishtine, Prishtina)
geographic coordinates: 42 40 N, 21 10 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions70 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina) and 1 city* (grad); Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Caska, Centar Zupa, Cesinovo-Oblesevo, Cucer Sandevo, Debar, Debarca, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rostusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Skopje*, Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vrapciste, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci
38 municipalities (komunat, singular - komuna (Albanian); opstine, singular - opstina (Serbian)); Decan (Decani), Dragash (Dragas), Ferizaj (Urosevac), Fushe Kosove (Kosovo Polje), Gjakove (Dakovica), Gjilan (Gnjilane), Gllogovc (Glogovac), Gracanice (Gracanica), Hani i Elezit (Deneral Jankovic), Istog (Istok), Junik, Kacanik, Kamenice (Kamenica), Kline (Klina), Kllokot (Klokot), Leposaviq (Leposavic), Lipjan (Lipljan), Malisheve (Malisevo), Mamushe (Mamusa), Mitrovice e Jug (Juzna Mitrovica) [South Mitrovica], Mitrovice e Veriut (Severna Mitrovica) [North Mitrovica], Novoberde (Novo Brdo), Obiliq (Obilic), Partesh (Partes), Peje (Pec), Podujeve (Podujevo), Prishtine (Pristina), Prizren, Rahovec (Orahovac), Ranillug (Ranilug), Shterpce (Strpce), Shtime (Stimlje), Skenderaj (Srbica), Suhareke (Suva Reka), Viti (Vitina), Vushtrri (Vucitrn), Zubin Potok, Zvecan
Independence8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Yugoslavia)
17 February 2008 (from Serbia)
National holidayIndependence Day, 8 September (1991); also known as National Day
Independence Day, 17 February (2008)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by at least 30 members of the Assembly, or by petition of at least 150,000 citizens; draft amendments require approval by majority vote of Assembly members, followed by public debate; final passage requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; amended several times, last in 2015 (2016)
history: previous 1974, 1990; latest (postindependence) draft finalized 2 April 2008, signed 7 April 2008, ratified 9 April 2008, entered into force 15 June 2008; note - amendment 24, passed by the Assembly in August 2015, established the Kosovo Relocated Specialist Institution, a court established to try war crimes allegedly committed by the Kosovo Liberation Army in the late 1990s
amendments: proposed by the government, by the president of the republic, or by one-fourth of Assembly deputies; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly, including two-thirds majority vote of deputies representing non-majority communities, followed by a favorable Constitutional Court assessment; amended several times, last in 2016 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
civil law system; note- the European Union Rule of Law Mission (EULEX) retains limited executive powers related to the investigation of such issues as war crimes
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Gjorge IVANOV (since 12 May 2009)
head of government: Prime Minister Zoran ZAEV (since 31 May 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Assembly by simple majority vote; note - the 2014 cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO-DPMNE, DUI, and several small parties; as a result of an agreement reached in July 2015 between the largest parties to resolve a 16-month opposition boycott of the Assembly, several minister and deputy minister positions were also given to the opposition SDSM from November 2015 though May 2016 in preparation for elections originally scheduled for 24 April 2016, and then pushed back to 5 June 2016, and then again from September through December 2016
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 and 27 April 2014 (next to be held in 2019); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coaliton is usually elected prime minister by the Assembly
election results: Gjorge IVANOV reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Gjorge IVANOV (independent) 55.3%, Stevo PENDAROVSKI (SDSM) 41.1%, other 3.6%
chief of state: President Hashim THACI (since 7 April 2016)
head of government: Prime Minister (vacant); note - Prime Minister Isa MUSTAFA (since 9 December 2014) lost no-confidence vote on 10 May 2017
cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Assembly
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly for a 5-year term; if a candidate does not receive a two-third majority in the first two ballots, the candidate receiving a simple majority of votes in the third ballot is elected (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 February 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister indirectly elected by the Assembly
election results: Hashim THACI elected president; Assembly vote: third-round results - Hashim THACI (PDK) 71, Rafet RAMA (PDK) 0, invalid 10; Isa MUSTAFA (LDK) selected prime minister by the President in consultation with the LDK/PDK/PD/LB/PSHDK/PK coalition
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (123 seats; 120 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 3 directly elected in diaspora constituencies worldwide by simple majority vote, provided candidates meet a specified minimum vote count; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 11 December 2016, with a second round held in one polling station on 25 December 2016 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - VMRO-DPMNE 38.1%, SDSM coalition 36.7%, BDI 7.3%, Besa Movement 4.9%, Alliance for Albanians 3.1%, PDSh 2.7%, other 7.2%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE 51, SDSM coalition 49, BDI 10, Besa Movement 5, Alliance for Albanians 3, PDSh 2
description: unicameral Assembly or Kuvendi i Kosoves/Skupstina Kosova (120 seats; 100 members directly elected by proportional representation vote with 20 seats reserved for ethnic minorities - 10 for Serbs and 10 for other ethnic minorities; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 11 June 2017 (next to be held in 2021); note - early elections were held after a no-confidence vote on 10 May 2017 led to the dismissal of Prime Minister Isa MUSTAFA
election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - PAN Coalition 33.7%, VV 27.5%, LAA Coalition 25.5%, Serb List 6.1%, KDTP 1.1% VAKAT .9%, other 5.2%; seats by party/coalition - PAN Coalition 39, VV 32, LAA Coalition 29, Serb List 9, KDTP 2, VAKAT 2, other 7
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 22 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial Council, a 7-member body of legal professionals, and appointed by the Assembly; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Assembly for nonrenewable, 9-year terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Basic Courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and NA judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 7 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Kosovo Judicial Council, a 13-member independent body staffed by judges and lay members, and also responsible for overall administration of Kosovo's judicial system; judges appointed by the president of the Republic of Kosovo; judges appointed until mandatory retirement age; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the Kosovo Assembly and appointed by the president of the republic to serve single, 9-year terms
subordinate courts: subordinate courts: Court of Appeals (organized into 4 departments: General, Serious Crime, Commercial Matters, and Administrative Matters; Basic Court (located in 7 municipalities, each with several branches)
note: in August 2015, the Kosovo Assembly approved a constitutional amendment that establishes the Kosovo Relocated Specialist Judicial Institution; the court - to be located at the Hague in the Netherlands and expected to be in operation by early 2017 - will try alleged crimes by members of the Kosovo Liberation Army during the late 1990s; the court will be attached to each level of the Kosovo court system and consist of 4 Specialist Chambers with international judges and the Prosecutor's Office
Political parties and leadersAlliance for Albanians [Ziadin SELA]
Besa Movement [Bilal KASAMI]
Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh [Menduh THACI]
Democratic Union for Integration or BDI [Ali AHMETI]
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]
Social Democratic Union of Macedonia or SDSM [Zoran ZAEV]
note: during the 2016 parliamentary elections VMRO-DPMNE and SDSM each led coalitions
Albanian Christian Democratic Party of Kosovo or PSHDK [Uke BERISHA]
Alliance for the Future of Kosovo or AAK [Ramush HARADINAJ]
Conservative Party of Kosovo or PK [Munir BASHA]
Democratic League of Kosovo or LDK [Isa MUSTAFA]
Democratic Party of Kosovo or PDK [Kadri VESELI]
Initiative for Kosovo or NISMA [Fatmir LIMAJ]
Justice Party of Kosovo or PD [Ferid AGANI]
LAA Coalition [Isa MUSTAFA] (includes LDK, AKR, The Alternative)
Movement for Self-Determination (Vetevendosje) or VV [Visar YMERI]
Movement for Unification or LB [Valon MURATI]
New Kosovo Alliance or AKR [Behgjet PACOLLI]
PAN Coalition [Kadri VESELI] (includes PDK, AAK, NISMA)
Serb List [Slavko SIMIC]
The Alternative [Mimoza KUSATI-LILA]
Turkish Democratic Party of Kosovo or KDTP [Mahir YAGCILAR]
Vakat Coalition or VAKAT [Rasim DEMIRI]
Political pressure groups and leadersConfederation of Free Trade Unions [Blagoja RALPOVSKI]
Federation of Trade Unions of Macedonia or SSM [Zivko MITREVSKI]
Trade Union of Education, Science and Culture or SONK [Jakim NEDELKOV]
Student Plenum
Eco Guerilla [Arianit XHAFERI]
CiviKos Platform [Valdete IDRIZI]
Council for the Defense of Human Rights and Freedom (human rights) [Behxhet SHALA]
Group for Political and Legal Studies [Fisnik KORENICA]
KLA War Veterans Organization [Muharrem XHEMAJLI]
Kosova Women's Network [Igballe ROGOVA]
Kosovar Civil Society Foundation [Venera HAJRULLAHU]
Kosovo Democratic Institute [Ismet KRYEZIU]
Organization for Democracy, Anti-Corruption and Dignity Rise! [Arton DEMHASAJ, acting chairman]
Serb National Council (SNV)
Speak Up [Petrit ZOGAJ, executive director]
International organization participationBIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (candidate country), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
IBRD, IDA, IFC, IMF, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OIF (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Vasko NAUMOVSKI (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2131
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Detroit, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Vlora CITAKU (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 2175 K Street, NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: 202-450-2130
FAX: 202-735-0609
consulate(s) general: New York
consulate(s): Des Moines (IA)
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Jess L. BAILY (since 12 February 2015)
embassy: Str. Samolilova, Nr. 21, 1000 Skopje
mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, US Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone: [389] (2) 310-2000
FAX: [389] (2) 310-2499
chief of mission: Ambassador Gregory T. DELAWIE (since 21 August 2015)
embassy: Arberia/Dragodan, Nazim Hikmet 30, Pristina, Kosovo
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [381] 38 59 59 3000
FAX: [381] 38 549 890
Flag descriptiona yellow sun (the Sun of Liberty) with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field; the red and yellow colors have long been associated with Macedonia
centered on a dark blue field is a gold-colored silhouette of Kosovo surmounted by six white, five-pointed stars arrayed in a slight arc; each star represents one of the major ethnic groups of Kosovo: Albanians, Serbs, Turks, Gorani, Roma, and Bosniaks
note: one of only two national flags that uses a map as a design element; the flag of Cyprus is the other
National anthem"name: ""Denes nad Makedonija"" (Today Over Macedonia)
lyrics/music: Vlado MALESKI/Todor SKALOVSKI
note: written in 1943 and adopted in 1991 , the song previously served as the anthem of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia while part of Yugoslavia
"
"name: ""Europe""
lyrics/music: no lyrics/Mendi MENGJIQI
note: adopted 2008; Kosovo chose to exclude lyrics in its anthem so as not to offend the country's minority ethnic groups
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)eight-rayed sun; national colors: red, yellow
six, five-pointed, white stars; national colors: blue, gold, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Macedonia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kosovo
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

MacedoniaKosovo
Economy - overviewSince its independence in 1991, Macedonia has made progress in liberalizing its economy and improving its business environment. Its low tax rates and free economic zones have helped to attract foreign investment, which is still low relative to the rest of Europe. Corruption and weak rule of law remain significant problems. Some businesses complain of opaque regulations and unequal enforcement of the law.

Macedonia’s economy is closely linked to Europe as a customer for exports and source of investment, and has suffered as a result of prolonged weakness in the euro zone. Unemployment has remained consistently high at about 23%, but may be overstated based on the existence of an extensive gray market, estimated to be between 20% and 45% of GDP, which is not captured by official statistics.

Macedonia is working to build a country-wide natural gas pipeline and distribution network. Currently, Macedonia receives its small natural gas supplies from Russia via Bulgaria. In 2016, Macedonia signed a memorandum of understanding with Greece to build an interconnector that could connect to the Trans-Adriatic Pipeline that will traverse the region once complete, or to an LNG import terminal in Greece.

Macedonia maintained macroeconomic stability through the global financial crisis by conducting prudent monetary policy, which keeps the domestic currency pegged to the euro, and inflation at a low level. However, in the last two years, the internal political crisis has hampered economic performance, with GDP slowing in 2016, and both domestic private and public investments declining. Fiscal policies were lax, with unproductive public expenditures, including subsidies and pension increases, and rising guarantees for the debt of state owned enterprises, and fiscal targets were consistently missed. In 2016, public debt reached 50.5% of GDP before being revised down to 47.8% of GDP by year’s end, still relatively low compared to its Western Balkan neighbors and the rest of Europe. In 2016, Macedonia issued a Eurobond worth approximately $495 million to finance 2016 and part of 2017 budget needs.
Kosovo's economy has shown progress in transitioning to a market-based system and maintaining macroeconomic stability, but it is still highly dependent on the international community and the diaspora for financial and technical assistance. Remittances from the diaspora - located mainly in Germany, Switzerland, and the Nordic countries - are estimated to account for about 17% of GDP and international donor assistance accounts for approximately 10% of GDP. With international assistance, Kosovo has been able to privatize a majority of its state-owned enterprises.

Kosovo's citizens are the second poorest in Europe, after Moldova, with a per capita GDP (PPP) of $9,600 in 2016. An unemployment rate of 33%, and a youth unemployment rate near 60%, in a country where the average age is 26, encourages emigration and fuels a significant informal, unreported economy. Emigration remains challenging, however, because Kosovo lacks visa-free travel to the EU. Most of Kosovo's population lives in rural towns outside of the capital, Pristina. Inefficient, near-subsistence farming is common - the result of small plots, limited mechanization, and a lack of technical expertise. Kosovo enjoys lower labor costs than the rest of the region. However, high levels of corruption, little contract enforcement, and unreliable electricity supply have discouraged potential investors. The official currency of Kosovo is the euro, but the Serbian dinar is also used illegally in Serb majority communities. Kosovo's tie to the euro has helped keep core inflation low.

Minerals and metals production - including lignite, lead, zinc, nickel, chrome, aluminum, magnesium, and a wide variety of construction materials - once the backbone of industry, has declined because of ageing equipment and insufficient investment, problems exacerbated by competing and unresolved ownership claims of Kosovo’s largest mines. A limited and unreliable electricity supply is a major impediment to economic development, but Kosovo has received technical assistance to help improve the sector’s performance. In 2012, Kosovo privatized its electricity supply and distribution network. The US Government is cooperating with the Ministry of Economic Development (MED) and the World Bank to conclude a commercial tender for the construction of Kosovo C, a new lignite-fired power plant that would leverage Kosovo’s large lignite reserves. MED also has plans for the rehabilitation of an older coal power plant, Kosovo B, and the development of a coal mine that could supply both plants.

In June 2009, Kosovo joined the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, and began servicing its share of the former Yugoslavia's debt. In order to help integrate Kosovo into regional economic structures, UNMIK signed (on behalf of Kosovo) its accession to the Central Europe Free Trade Area (CEFTA) in 2006. Kosovo joined the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in 2012 and the Council of Europe Development Bank in 2013. In 2016, Kosovo implemented the Stabilization and Association Agreement negotiations (SAA) with the EU, focused on trade liberalization. Under the SAA, Kosovo—which gets approximately 58% of government revenue from tariffs on imports—is required to phase out tariffs on EU goods over the next seven years. In 2014, nearly 60% of customs duty-eligible imports into Kosovo were EU goods. In 2015, Kosovo negotiated a $185 million Stand-by Arrangement (SBA) with the IMF following the conclusion of its previous SBA in 2014. The IMF requested an extension of the current SBA to August 2017 to facilitate policy continuity and allow sufficient time for ongoing structural reforms to progress. In August 2015, as part of its EU-facilitated normalization process with Serbia, Kosovo signed agreements on telecommunications and energy distribution, but disagreements over who owns economic assets, such as the Trepca mining conglomerate, within Kosovo continue.

Kosovo experienced its first federal budget deficit in 2012, when government expenditures climbed sharply. In May 2014, the government introduced a 25% salary increase for public sector employees and an equal increase in certain social benefits. Central revenues could not sustain these increases, and the government was forced to reduce its planned capital investments. The government, led by Prime Minister MUSTAFA - a trained economist - recently made several changes to its fiscal policy, expanding the list of duty-free imports, decreasing the Value Added Tax (VAT) for basic food items and public utilities, and increasing the VAT for all other goods.

While Kosovo’s economy continued to make progress, it needs further reform and investment to enable the level of growth required to reduce unemployment and raise living standards in a meaningful way.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$29.52 billion (2016 est.)
$28.82 billion (2015 est.)
$27.77 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars; Macedonia has a large informal sector that may not be reflected in these data
$18.49 billion (2016 est.)
$17.83 billion (2015 est.)
$17.27 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.4% (2016 est.)
3.8% (2015 est.)
3.6% (2014 est.)
3.7% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
1.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$14,500 (2016 est.)
$14,000 (2015 est.)
$13,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$9,600 (2016 est.)
$9,300 (2015 est.)
$9,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 US dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 8.4%
industry: 25.2%
services: 66.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 12.9%
industry: 22.6%
services: 64.5% (2009 est.)
Population below poverty line21.5% (2015 est.)
30% (2013 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)-0.2% (2016 est.)
-0.3% (2015 est.)
0.2% (2016 est.)
-0.5% (2015 est.)
Labor force950,300 (2016 est.)
483,200
note: includes those estimated to be employed in the grey economy (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 16.6%
industry: 29.6%
services: 53.8% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 5.9%
industry: 16.8%
services: 77.3% (2013)
Unemployment rate23.1% (2016 est.)
24.6% (2015 est.)
34.8% (2016 est.)
34.6% (2015 est.)
note: Kosovo has a large informal sector that may not be reflected in these data
Distribution of family income - Gini index33.7 (2015)
35.2 (2014)
30 (FY05/06)
Budgetrevenues: $3.041 billion
expenditures: $3.33 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $1.396 billion
expenditures: $1.61 billion (2014 est.)
Industriesfood processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals, automotive parts
mineral mining, construction materials, base metals, leather, machinery, appliances, foodstuffs and beverages, textiles
Agriculture - productsgrapes, tobacco, vegetables, fruits; milk, eggs
wheat, corn, berries, potatoes, peppers, fruit; dairy, livestock; fish
Exports$4.787 billion (2016 est.)
$4.49 billion (2015 est.)
$349 million (2014 est.)
$408 million (2013 est.)
Exports - commoditiesfoodstuffs, beverages, tobacco; textiles, miscellaneous manufactures, iron, steel; automotive parts
mining and processed metal products, scrap metals, leather products, machinery, appliances, prepared foodstuffs, beverages and tobacco, vegetable products, textiles and apparel
Exports - partnersGermany 33.2%, Kosovo 11.5%, Bulgaria 5.1%, Greece 4.5% (2015)
Italy 25.8%, Albania 14.6%, Macedonia 9.6%, China 5.5%, Germany 5.4%, Switzerland 5.4%, Turkey 4.1% (2012 est.)
Imports$6.757 billion (2016 est.)
$6.4 billion (2015 est.)
$2.687 billion (2014 est.)
$3.398 billion (2013 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products
foodstuffs, livestock, wood, petroleum, chemicals, machinery, minerals, textiles, stone, ceramic and glass products, electrical equipment
Imports - partnersGermany 15.9%, UK 13.6%, Greece 10.9%, Serbia 8.7%, Bulgaria 6.7%, Turkey 5.5%, Italy 4.7% (2015)
Germany 11.9%, Macedonia 11.5%, Serbia 11.1%, Italy 8.5%, Turkey 9%, China 6.4%, Albania 4.4% (2012 est.)
Debt - external$7.646 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.873 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.4 billion (2016 est.)
$1.3 billion (2015 est.)
Exchange ratesMacedonian denars (MKD) per US dollar -
56.82 (2016 est.)
55.537 (2015 est.)
55.537 (2014 est.)
46.437 (31 December 2013 est.)
47.89 (2012 est.)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)
Public debt47.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
46.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: official data from Ministry of Finance; data cover central government debt; this data excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; includes treasury debt held by foreign entitites; excludes debt issued by sub-national entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; there are no debt instruments sold for social funds
10.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
9.1% of GDP (2013)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$2.732 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.471 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$NA
Current Account Balance-$336 million (2016 est.)
-$207 million (2015 est.)
-$651 million (2016 est.)
-$548 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$10.49 billion (2016 est.)
$6.56 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$5.628 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.232 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$21.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$26.24 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate4% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.3% (31 December 2015 est.)
12.8% (30 June 2013 est.)
13.7% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$5.073 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.043 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.02 billion (2014 est.)
$2.505 billion (2013 est.)
Stock of broad money$6.308 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.964 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.511 billion (2014 est.)
$2.773 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues29% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 53.1%
male: 52%
female: 55% (2014 est.)
total: 55.3%
male: 52%
female: 63.8% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 68%
government consumption: 15.7%
investment in fixed capital: 18%
investment in inventories: 12.8%
exports of goods and services: 49.3%
imports of goods and services: -63.8% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 90.5%
government consumption: 16%
investment in fixed capital: 28.2%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 5.8%
imports of goods and services: -43.5% (2014 est.)
Gross national saving30.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
30.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
29.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
12.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
12.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

MacedoniaKosovo
Electricity - production5.303 billion kWh (2016 est.)
5.324 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption6.455 billion kWh (2016 est.)
2.887 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports58.5 million kWh (2016 est.)
474.8 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports2.191 billion kWh (2016 est.)
875 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves2,551 bbl (31 December 2016 )
NA bbl
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (31 December 2016 )
NA cu m
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2016)
0 cu m (2016)
Natural gas - consumption213.4 million cu m (2016 est.)
0 cu m (2016)
Electricity - installed generating capacity2.057 million kW (2016 est.)
1.6 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels64.3% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
97.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants32.8% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
2.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources2.9% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption20,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
13,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports3,900 bbl/day (2016 est.)
17 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports23,400 bbl/day (2016 est.)
12,160 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy7.9 million Mt (2013 est.)
7.576 million Mt (2012 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

MacedoniaKosovo
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 372,557
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (July 2015 est.)
total: 831,470
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 45 (2013)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 2.223 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (July 2015 est.)
total: 562,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (July 2015 est.)

Transportation

MacedoniaKosovo
Railwaystotal: 699 km
standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (223 km electrified) (2017)
total: 333 km
standard gauge: 333 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 14,182 km (includes 242 km of expressways)
paved: 9,633 km
unpaved: 4,549 km (2014)
total: 2,003 km
paved: 1,883 km (includes 38 km of expressways)
unpaved: 120 km (2014)
Airports10 (2013)
6 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2013)

Military

MacedoniaKosovo
Military branchesArmy of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM; includes General Staff and subordinate Joint Operational Command, Training and Doctrine Command, Special Operations Regiment) (2012)
Kosovo does not have a military force; the Kosovo Security Force was established in 2009 and maintains a non-military mandate in four core competencies: search-and-rescue, firefighting, demining, and hazardous material response (2015)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.07% of GDP (2015)
1.09% of GDP (2014)
1.17% of GDP (2013)
1.23% of GDP (2012)
1.26% of GDP (2011)
0.78% of GDP (2015)
0.73% of GDP (2014)
0.69% of GDP (2013)
0.67% of GDP (2012)
0.76% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

MacedoniaKosovo
Disputes - internationalKosovo and Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008; Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia
Serbia with several other states protest the US and other states' recognition of Kosovo's declaration of its status as a sovereign and independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led Kosovo Force peacekeepers under UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo authority continue to keep the peace within Kosovo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority in Kosovo; Kosovo and Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 600 (2016)
note: 478,090 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - July 2017)
IDPs: 17,000 (primarily ethnic Serbs displaced during the 1998-1999 war fearing reprisals from the majority ethnic-Albanian population; a smaller number of ethnic Serbs, Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptians fled their homes in 2004 as a result of violence) (2015)

Source: CIA Factbook