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Lithuania vs. Poland

Introduction

LithuaniaPoland
BackgroundLithuanian lands were united under MINDAUGAS in 1236; over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler. In 1569, Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This entity survived until 1795 when its remnants were partitioned by surrounding countries. Lithuania regained its independence following World War I but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004. In January 2014, Lithuania assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2014-15 term; in January 2015, Lithuania joined the euro zone.
"Poland's history as a state began near the middle of the 10th century. By the mid-16th century, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ruled a vast tract of land in Central and Eastern Europe. During the 18th century, internal disorders weakened the nation, and in a series of agreements between 1772 and 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria partitioned Poland among themselves. Poland regained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war, but its government was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union ""Solidarity"" that over time became a political force with over 10 million members. Free elections in 1989 and 1990 won Solidarity control of the parliament and the presidency, bringing the communist era to a close. A ""shock therapy"" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe. Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. With its transformation to a democratic, market-oriented country largely completed and with large investments in defense, energy, and other infrastructure, Poland is an increasingly active member of Euro-Atlantic organizations.
"

Geography

LithuaniaPoland
LocationEastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia, west of Belarus
Central Europe, east of Germany
Geographic coordinates56 00 N, 24 00 E
52 00 N, 20 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 65,300 sq km
land: 62,680 sq km
water: 2,620 sq km
total: 312,685 sq km
land: 304,255 sq km
water: 8,430 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than West Virginia
about twice the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than New Mexico
Land boundariestotal: 1,549 km
border countries (4): Belarus 640 km, Latvia 544 km, Poland 104 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 261 km
total: 3,071 km
border countries (7): Belarus 418 km, Czech Republic 796 km, Germany 467 km, Lithuania 104 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 210 km, Slovakia 541 km, Ukraine 535 km
Coastline90 km
440 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: defined by international treaties
Climatetransitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers
temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers
Terrainlowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 110 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Aukstojas 294 m
mean elevation: 173 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: near Raczki Elblaskie -2 m
highest point: Rysy 2,499 m
Natural resourcespeat, arable land, amber
coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt, amber, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 44.8%
arable land 34.9%; permanent crops 0.5%; permanent pasture 9.4%
forest: 34.6%
other: 20.6% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 48.2%
arable land 36.2%; permanent crops 1.3%; permanent pasture 10.7%
forest: 30.6%
other: 21.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land44 sq km (2012)
970 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsNA
flooding
Environment - current issuescontamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases
decreased emphasis on heavy industry and increased environmental concern by post-communist governments has improved environment; air pollution remains serious because of emissions from coal-fired power plants and the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is also a problem, as is disposal of hazardous wastes
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
Geography - notefertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits
historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain
Population distributionfairly even population distribution throughout the country, but somewhat greater concentrations in the southern cities of Vilnius and Kaunas, and the western port of Klaipeda
population concentrated in the southern (Krakow) and central (Warsaw, Lodz) areas, with an extension to the northern coastal city of Gdansk

Demographics

LithuaniaPoland
Population2,854,235 (July 2016 est.)
38,523,261 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 14.93% (male 218,453/female 207,643)
15-24 years: 11.55% (male 170,494/female 159,283)
25-54 years: 40.36% (male 566,159/female 585,862)
55-64 years: 13.73% (male 172,987/female 218,955)
65 years and over: 19.42% (male 187,340/female 367,059) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 14.72% (male 2,915,840/female 2,754,098)
15-24 years: 11.11% (male 2,195,587/female 2,082,634)
25-54 years: 43.5% (male 8,456,789/female 8,301,167)
55-64 years: 14.42% (male 2,623,838/female 2,931,215)
65 years and over: 16.26% (male 2,460,648/female 3,801,445) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 43.4 years
male: 39.5 years
female: 46.7 years (2016 est.)
total: 40.3 years
male: 38.6 years
female: 42 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate-1.06% (2016 est.)
-0.11% (2016 est.)
Birth rate10 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate14.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
10.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-6.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.79 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.51 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 74.9 years
male: 69.5 years
female: 80.6 years (2016 est.)
total population: 77.6 years
male: 73.7 years
female: 81.7 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.59 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.34 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
0.07% (2014 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Lithuanian(s)
adjective: Lithuanian
noun: Pole(s)
adjective: Polish
Ethnic groupsLithuanian 84.1%, Polish 6.6%, Russian 5.8%, Belarusian 1.2%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.2% (2011 est.)
Polish 96.9%, Silesian 1.1%, German 0.2%, Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 1.7%
note: represents ethnicity declared first (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
NA
ReligionsRoman Catholic 77.2%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Old Believer 0.8%, Evangelical Lutheran 0.6%, Evangelical Reformist 0.2%, other (including Sunni Muslim, Jewish, Greek Catholic, and Karaite) 0.8%, none 6.1%, unspecified 10.1% (2011 est.)
Catholic 87.2% (includes Roman Catholic 86.9% and Greek Catholic, Armenian Catholic, and Byzantine-Slavic Catholic .3%), Orthodox 1.3% (almost all are Polish Autocephalous Orthodox), Protestant 0.4% (mainly Augsburg Evangelical and Pentacostal), other 0.4% (includes Jehovah's Witness, Buddhist, Hare Krishna, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Muslim, Jewish, Mormon), unspecified 10.8% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
NA
LanguagesLithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other 0.9%, unspecified 3.5% (2011 est.)
Polish (official) 98.2%, Silesian 1.4%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.3%
note: data represents the language spoken at home; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Poland ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in 2009 recognizing Kashub as a regional language, Czech, Hebrew, Yiddish, Belarusian, Lithuanian, German, Armenian, Russian, Slovak, and Ukrainian as national minority languages, and Karaim, Lemko, Romani (Polska Roma and Bergitka Roma), and Tatar as ethnic minority languages (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.8% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.9%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: intermediate
vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2016)
degree of risk: intermediate
vectorborne disease: tickborne encephalitis (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 17 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2014)
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2013)
Education expenditures4.6% of GDP (2013)
4.9% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 66.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.53% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 60.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 99.7% of population
rural: 90.4% of population
total: 96.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.3% of population
rural: 9.6% of population
total: 3.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.3% of population
rural: 96.9% of population
total: 98.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.7% of population
rural: 3.1% of population
total: 1.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 97.2% of population
rural: 82.8% of population
total: 92.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.8% of population
rural: 17.2% of population
total: 7.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 96.7% of population
total: 97.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 3.3% of population
total: 2.8% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationVILNIUS (capital) 517,000 (2015)
WARSAW (capital) 1.722 million; Krakow 760,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate10 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
3 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures6.6% of GDP (2014)
6.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density4.33 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
2.27 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
6.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate27.5% (2014)
27% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth26.8 years (2013 est.)
27.2 years (2013 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 50.1
youth dependency ratio: 21.8
elderly dependency ratio: 28.3
potential support ratio: 3.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 43.8
youth dependency ratio: 21.5
elderly dependency ratio: 22.3
potential support ratio: 4.5 (2015 est.)

Government

LithuaniaPoland
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form: Lithuania
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
local short form: Lietuva
former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: meaning of the name ""Lietuva"" remains unclear; it may derive from the Lietava, a stream in east central Lithuania
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Poland
conventional short form: Poland
local long form: Rzeczpospolita Polska
local short form: Polska
etymology: name derives from the Polanians, a west Slavic tribe that united several surrounding Slavic groups (9th-10th centuries A.D.) and who passed on their name to the country; the name of the tribe likely comes from the Slavic ""pole"" (field or plain), indicating the flat nature of their country
"
Government typesemi-presidential republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Vilnius
geographic coordinates: 54 41 N, 25 19 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Warsaw
geographic coordinates: 52 15 N, 21 00 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions60 municipalities (savivaldybe, singular - savivaldybe); Akmene, Alytaus Miestas, Alytus, Anksciai, Birstono, Birzai, Druskininkai, Elektrenai, Ignalina, Jonava, Joniskis, Jurbarkas, Kaisiadorys, Kalvarijos, Kauno Miestas, Kaunas, Kazlu Rudos, Kedainiai, Kelme, Klaipedos Miestas, Klaipeda, Kretinga, Kupiskis, Lazdijai, Marijampole, Mazeikiai, Moletai, Neringa, Pagegiai, Pakruojis, Palangos Miestas, Panevezio Miestas, Panevezys, Pasvalys, Plunge, Prienai, Radviliskis, Raseiniai, Rietavo, Rokiskis, Sakiai, Salcininkai, Siauliu Miestas, Siauliai, Silale, Silute, Sirvintos, Skuodas, Svencionys, Taurage, Telsiai, Trakai, Ukmerge, Utena, Varena, Vilkaviskis, Vilniaus Miestas, Vilnius, Visaginas, Zarasai
16 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo); Dolnoslaskie (Lower Silesia), Kujawsko-Pomorskie (Kuyavia-Pomerania), Lodzkie (Lodz), Lubelskie (Lublin), Lubuskie (Lubusz), Malopolskie (Lesser Poland), Mazowieckie (Masovia), Opolskie (Opole), Podkarpackie (Subcarpathia), Podlaskie, Pomorskie (Pomerania), Slaskie (Silesia), Swietokrzyskie (Holy Cross), Warminsko-Mazurskie (Warmia-Masuria), Wielkopolskie (Greater Poland), Zachodniopomorskie (West Pomerania)
Independence11 March 1990 (declared independence from the Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (recognized by the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 6 July 1253 (coronation of MINDAUGAS, traditional founding date), 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created), 16 February 1918 (independence from Soviet Russia)
11 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 966 (adoption of Christianity, traditional founding date), 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created)
National holidayIndependence Day (or National Day), 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 was the date Lithuania established its statehood and its concomitant independence from Soviet Russia and Germany; 11 March 1990 was the date it declared the restoration of Lithuanian statehood and its concomitant independence from the Soviet Union
Constitution Day, 3 May (1791)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted by referendum 25 October 1992, entered into force 2 November 1992
amendments: proposed by at least one-fourth of all Parliament members or by petition of at least 300,000 voters; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament in each of two readings three months apart and a presidential signature; amendments to constitutional articles on national sovereignty and constitutional amendment procedure also require three-fourths voter approval in a referendum; amended 1996, 2003, 2006 (2016)
history: several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1997, approved by referendum 25 May 1997, effective 17 October 1997
amendments: proposed by at least one-fifth of Sejm deputies, by the Senate, or by the president of the republic; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote in the Sejm and absolute majority vote in the Senate; amendments to articles relating to sovereignty, personal freedoms, and constitutional amendment procedures also require passage by majority vote in a referendum; amended 2006, 2009, 2015 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court
civil law system; judicial review of legislative, administrative, and other governmental acts; constitutional law rulings of the Constitutional Tribunal are final
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE (since 12 July 2009)
head of government: Prime Minister Saulius SKVERNELIS (since 13 December 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president, and approved by Parliament
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 and 25 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by Parliament
election results: Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE reelected president; percent of vote - Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE (independent) 59%, Zigmantas BALCYTIS (LSDP) 41%; Saulius SKVERNELIS (LVZS) approved as prime minister by Parliament vote - 90 to 4
chief of state: President Andrzej DUDA (since 6 August 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Beata SZYDLO (since 16 November 2015); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Culture and National Heritage Piotr GLINSKI (since 16 November 2015), Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Science and Higher Education Jaroslaw GOWIN (since 16 November 2015), and Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Development Mateusz MORAWIECKI (since 16 November 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president, and approved by the Sejm
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 and 24 May 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister, deputy prime ministers, and Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm
election results: Andrzej DUDA elected president; percent of vote in runoff - Andrzej DUDA 51.5%, Bronislaw KOMOROWSKI (independent) 48.5%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote and 70 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 9 and 23 October 2016 (next to be held in October 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - LVLS 22.5%, TS-LKD 22.6%, LSDP 15%, LS 9.5%, LCP-LPP 6.3%, LLRA 5.7%, TT 5.6%, DP 4.9%, LZP 2%, Lithuanian List 1.8%, other 4.1%; seats by party - LVLS 54, TS-LKD 31, LSDP 17, LS 14, LLRA 8, TT 8, DP 2, LCP-LPP 1, LZP 1, Lithuanian List 1, independent 4
description: bicameral legislature consists of the Senate or Senat (100 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms) and the Sejm (460 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); note - the designation National Assembly or Zgromadzenie Narodowe is only used on those rare occasions when the two houses meet jointly
note: the German minority is exempt from the 5% threshold requirement for seats to the Sejm
elections: Senate - last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2019); Sejm - last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PiS 62, PO 33, PSL 1, independents 4; Sejm - percent of vote by party - PiS 37.6%, PO 24.1%, K15 8.8%, N 7.6%, PSL 5.1% other 16.8%; seats by party - PiS 234, PO 138, K15 40, N 29, PSL 16, independent 2, German minority 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 37 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Seimas; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges selected by the Seimas from among nominations by the president, by the Seimas chairperson, and Supreme Court chairperson; judges serve 9-year, nonrenewable terms; one-third of membership reconstituted every 3 years
subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; district and local courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Sad Najwyzszy (consists of the president of the Supreme Court and 116 judges organized in criminal, civil, labor and social insurance, and military chambers)
judge selection and term of office: president of the Supreme Court nominated by the General Assembly of the Supreme Court and selected by the president of Poland; other judges nominated by the 25-member National Judiciary Council, and appointed by the president of Poland; judges appointed until retirement, usually at age 65, but tenure can be extended
subordinate courts: Constitutional Tribunal; State Tribunal, administrative courts; regional and appellate courts subdivided into military, civil, criminal, labor, and family courts
Political parties and leadersAnti-Corruption Coalition or LCP-LPP [Naglis PUTEIKIS]
Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles or LLRA [Valdemar TOMASEVSKI]
Homeland Union-Lithuanian Christian Democrats or TS-LKD [Gabrielius LANDSBERGIS]
Labor Party or DP [Valentinas MAZURONIS]
Liberal Movement or LS or LRLS [Eligijus MASIULIS]
Lithuanian Green Party or LZP [Linas BALSYS]
Lithuanian List [Darius KUOLYS]
Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Algirdas BUTKEVICIUS]
Order and Justice Party or TT [Remigijus ZEMAITAITIS]
Peasant and Greens Union or LVZS [Ramunas KARBAUSKIS]
Way of Courage or DK [Jonas VARKALA]
"Civic Platform or PO [Grzegorz SCHETYNA, chairperson; Slawomir NEUMANN, parliamentary caucus leader]
Coalition for the Renewal of the Republic-Liberty and Hope or KORWiN [Janusz KORWIN-MIKKE, chairman]
Democratic Left Alliance or SLD [Wlodzimierz CZARZASTY, chairman]
German Minority of Lower Silesia or MNSO [Ryszard GALLA, representative]
Kukiz 15 [Pawel KUKIZ; chairman, parliamentary caucus leader]
Law and Justice or PiS [Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI, chairman; Ryszard TERLECKI, parliamentary caucus leader]
Nowoczesna (""Modern"") or N [Ryszard PETRU; chairman, parliamentary caucus leader]
Polish People's Party or PSL [Wladyslaw KOSINIAK-KAMYSZ; chairman, parliamentary caucus leader]
Razem (Together) [no party chair, led by nine-member management board]
"
International organization participationAustralia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UN Security Council (non-permanent), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Rolandas KRISCIUNAS (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Piotr WILCZEK (since October 2016)
chancery: 2640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 499-1700
FAX: [1] (202) 328-6271
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Anne HALL (since 16 September 2016)
embassy: Akmenu gatve 6, Vilnius, LT-03106
mailing address: American Embassy, Akmenu Gatve 6, Vilnius LT-03106
telephone: [370] (5) 266-5500
FAX: [370] (5) 266-5510
chief of mission: Ambassador Paul JONES (since 7 October 2015)
embassy: Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31 00-540 Warsaw
mailing address: American Embassy Warsaw, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5010 (pouch)
telephone: [48] (22) 504-2000
FAX: [48] (22) 504-2688
consulate(s) general: Krakow
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red; yellow symbolizes golden fields, as well as the sun, light, and goodness; green represents the forests of the countryside, in addition to nature, freedom, and hope; red stands for courage and the blood spilled in defense of the homeland
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; colors derive from the Polish emblem - a white eagle on a red field
note: similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white
National anthem"name: ""Tautiska giesme"" (The National Song)
lyrics/music: Vincas KUDIRKA
note: adopted 1918, restored 1990; written in 1898 while Lithuania was a part of Russia; banned during the Soviet occupation from 1940 to 1990
"
"name: ""Mazurek Dabrowskiego"" (Dabrowski's Mazurka)
lyrics/music: Jozef WYBICKI/traditional
note: adopted 1927; the anthem, commonly known as ""Jeszcze Polska nie zginela"" (Poland Has Not Yet Perished), was written in 1797; the lyrics resonate strongly with Poles because they reflect the numerous occasions in which the nation's lands have been occupied
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)mounted knight known as Vytis (the Chaser), white stork; national colors: yellow, green, red
white eagle; national colors: white, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Lithuania
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Poland
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

LithuaniaPoland
Economy - overviewAfter the country declared independence from the Soviet Union in 1990, Lithuania faced an initial dislocation that is typical during transitions from a planned economy to a free-market economy. Macroeconomic stabilization policies, including privatization of most state-owned enterprises, and a strong commitment to a currency board arrangement led to an open and rapidly growing economy and rising consumer demand. Foreign investment and EU funding aided in the transition. Lithuania joined the WTO in May 2001, the EU in May 2004, and the Eurozone in January 2015, and is now working to complete the OECD accession roadmap it received in July 2015.

The Lithuanian economy was severely hit by the 2008-09 global financial crisis, but it has rebounded and become one of the fastest growing in the EU. In 2015, Russia was Lithuania’s largest trading partner, followed by Poland, Germany, and Latvia; goods and services trade between the United States and Lithuania totaled $2.2 billion.

Lithuania’s ongoing recovery hinges on improving the business environment, especially by liberalizing labor laws, and improving competitiveness and export growth, the latter of which has been hampered by economic slowdowns in the EU and Russia. In addition, a steady outflow of young and highly educated people is causing a shortage of skilled labor. Lithuania opened a self-financed liquefied natural gas terminal in January 2015, providing the first non-Russian supply of natural gas to the Baltic States and reducing Lithuania’s dependence on Russian gas from 100% to approximately 30% in 2016.
Poland has the sixth-largest economy in the EU and has long had a reputation as a business-friendly country with largely sound macroeconomic policies. Since 1990, Poland has pursued a policy of economic liberalization. During the 2008-09 economic slowdown Poland was the only EU country to avoid a recession, in part because of the government’s loose fiscal policy combined with a commitment to rein in spending in the medium-term. However, since 2015 Warsaw’s prioritization of spending on social welfare programs has prompted investors to decrease Poland’s economic growth projections for the next few years.

The Polish economy performed well during 2014-16, with the real GDP growth rate exceeding 3%, in part because of the government’s fiscal prudence. Poland’s economic growth in 2017 is projected by some credit rating agencies to slow, however, because of Poland’s government’s increase in social spending since 2015, including the provision of cash transfers for low income families, families with more than one child, and the reduction of the retirement age which will take effect in October 2017. The government has tried to introduce new taxes and boost tax compliance to offset the costs of the social spending programs and relieve upward pressure on the budget deficit. Some credit ratings agencies estimate that Poland will exceed the EU’s 3%-of-GDP limit on budget deficits, possibly impacting its access to future EU funds.

Poland faces several systemic challenges, which include addressing some of the remaining deficiencies in its road and rail infrastructure, business environment, rigid labor code, commercial court system, government red tape, and burdensome tax system, especially for entrepreneurs. Additional long-term challenges include diversifying Poland’s energy mix, strengthening investments in innovation, research, and development, as well as stemming the outflow of educated young Poles to other EU member states, especially in light of a coming demographic contraction due to emigration, persistently low fertility rates, and the aging of the Solidarity-era baby boom generation.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$85.62 billion (2016 est.)
$83.78 billion (2015 est.)
$82.29 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1.052 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.02 trillion (2015 est.)
$984.4 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.2% (2016 est.)
1.8% (2015 est.)
2.9% (2014 est.)
3.1% (2016 est.)
3.7% (2015 est.)
3.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$29,900 (2016 est.)
$28,800 (2015 est.)
$28,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$27,700 (2016 est.)
$26,800 (2015 est.)
$25,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 3.3%
industry: 30.4%
services: 66.4% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 2.7%
industry: 38.5%
services: 58.9% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line22.2% (2015 est.)
17.6% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 28.8% (2015)
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 23.9% (2015 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.8% (2017 est.)
0.7% (2016 est.)
-0.8% (2016 est.)
-1% (2015 est.)
Labor force1.459 million (2016 est.)
17.78 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 9.1%
industry: 25.2%
services: 65.8% (2015 est.)
agriculture: 11.5%
industry: 30.4%
services: 57.6% (2015)
Unemployment rate7.9% (2016 est.)
9.1% (2015 est.)
9.6% (2016 est.)
10.5% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index37.9 (2015)
35 (2014)
30.8 (2015)
33.7 (2008)
Budgetrevenues: $14.68 billion
expenditures: $15.12 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $73.4 billion
expenditures: $86.56 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesmetal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, lasers, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry, information technology, video game development, app/software development, biotechnology
machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles
Industrial production growth rate3.3% (2016 est.)
4.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsgrain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs, pork, cheese; fish
potatoes, fruits, vegetables, wheat; poultry, eggs, pork, dairy
Exports$23.52 billion (2016 est.)
$24.81 billion (2015 est.)
$188.3 billion (2016 est.)
$190.8 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesrefined fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles, foodstuffs, plastics
machinery and transport equipment 37.8%, intermediate manufactured goods 23.7%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 17.1%, food and live animals 7.6% (2012 est.)
Exports - partnersRussia 13.7%, Latvia 9.8%, Poland 9.7%, Germany 7.8%, Estonia 5.3%, Belarus 4.6%, UK 4.5%, US 4.4%, Netherlands 4% (2015)
Germany 27.1%, UK 6.8%, Czech Republic 6.6%, France 5.5%, Italy 4.8%, Netherlands 4.4% (2015)
Imports$25.92 billion (2016 est.)
$26.93 billion (2015 est.)
$189.5 billion (2016 est.)
$188.4 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesoil, natural gas, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, metals
machinery and transport equipment 38%, intermediate manufactured goods 21%, chemicals 15%, minerals, fuels, lubricants, and related materials 9% (2011 est.)
Imports - partnersRussia 16.9%, Germany 11.5%, Poland 10.3%, Latvia 7.6%, Netherlands 5.1%, Italy 4.5% (2015)
Germany 27.6%, China 7.5%, Russia 7.2%, Netherlands 5.9%, Italy 5.2%, France 4.1% (2015)
Debt - external$34.48 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$31.6 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
$344.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$332.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rateslitai (LTL) per US dollar -
0.9129 (2016 est.)
0.9012 (2015 est.)
0.9012 (2014 est.)
0.7525 (2013 est.)
2.69 (2012 est.)
zlotych (PLN) per US dollar -
4.056 (2016 est.)
3.7721 (2015 est.)
3.7721 (2014 est.)
3.1538 (2013 est.)
3.26 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt41.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
45.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: official data; data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
44.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
45% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, the data include subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$1.697 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$8.728 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$90.21 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$94.91 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$379 million (2016 est.)
-$967 million (2015 est.)
-$1.395 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.932 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$42.78 billion (2016 est.)
$467.4 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$16.33 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.63 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$228.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$221.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$3.727 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.427 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$64.62 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$62.12 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$6.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.799 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.127 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$261.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$277.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$351.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate0% (31 December 2016 est.)
0.05% (31 December 2015 est.)
1.5% (31 December 2016)
2% (31 December 2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate3.1% (31 December 2016 est.)
3.1% (31 December 2015 est.)
5.1% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.92% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$27.58 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$24.43 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$344.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$337.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$21.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$19.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$186.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$177.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$25.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$23.94 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$306.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$318.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues34.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 19.3%
male: 19.6%
female: 18.7% (2014 est.)
total: 23.9%
male: 22.7%
female: 25.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 65.7%
government consumption: 17.3%
investment in fixed capital: 19.3%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 72.9%
imports of goods and services: -75.2% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 57.4%
government consumption: 17.8%
investment in fixed capital: 19.8%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 50.5%
imports of goods and services: -46.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
20.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
18.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

LithuaniaPoland
Electricity - production3.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
150 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption9.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
142 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports900 million kWh (2014 est.)
11 billion kWh (2014)
Electricity - imports8.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
14 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production2,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
17,140 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports191,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
532,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports1,316 bbl/day (2013 est.)
4,761 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves12 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
100 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2016)
81.66 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2014 est.)
3.954 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption2.775 billion cu m (2014 est.)
14.79 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2014 est.)
76 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports2.775 billion cu m (2014 est.)
11.82 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity3.9 million kW (2014 est.)
40.34 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels66.7% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
87.1% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants23% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
1.7% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources10.3% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
11.1% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production202,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
568,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption54,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
536,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports173,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
160,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports23,960 bbl/day (2013 est.)
128,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy11.2 million Mt (2015 est.)
296 million Mt (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

LithuaniaPoland
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 561,919
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 19 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 4.245 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 11 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 4.184 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 145 (July 2015 est.)
total: 56.838 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 147 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: adequate; being modernized to provide improved international capability and better residential access
domestic: rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services has resulted in a steady decline in the number of fixed-line connections; mobile-cellular teledensity stands at about 145 per 100 persons
international: country code - 370; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland (2015)
general assessment: modernization of the telecommunications network has accelerated with market-based competition; fixed-line service, dominated by the former state-owned company, is dwarfed by the growth in mobile-cellular services
domestic: several nation-wide networks provide mobile-cellular service; coverage is generally good; fixed-line service lags in rural areas
international: country code - 48; international direct dialing with automated exchanges; satellite earth station - 1 with access to Intelsat, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik (2015)
Internet country code.lt
.pl
Internet userstotal: 2.059 million
percent of population: 71.4% (July 2015 est.)
total: 26.221 million
percent of population: 68% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediapublic broadcaster operates 3 channels with the third channel - a satellite channel - introduced in 2007; various privately owned commercial TV broadcasters operate national and multiple regional channels; many privately owned local TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV services available; publicly owned broadcaster operates 3 radio networks; many privately owned commercial broadcasters, with repeater stations in various regions throughout the country (2007)
state-run public TV operates 2 national channels supplemented by 16 regional channels and several niche channels; privately owned entities operate several national TV networks and a number of special interest channels; many privately owned channels broadcasting locally; roughly half of all households are linked to either satellite or cable TV systems providing access to foreign television networks; state-run public radio operates 5 national networks and 17 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks, several commercial stations broadcasting to multiple cities, and many privately owned local radio stations (2007)

Transportation

LithuaniaPoland
Railwaystotal: 1,768 km
broad gauge: 1,746 km 1.520-m gauge (122 km electrified)
standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
total: 19,231 km
broad gauge: 395 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 18,836 km 1.435-m gauge (11,865 km electrified) (2015)
Roadwaystotal: 84,166 km
paved: 72,297 km (includes 312 km of expressways)
unpaved: 11,869 km (2012)
total: 417,026 km
paved: 287,650 km (includes 1,492 km of expressways)
unpaved: 129,376 km (2014)
Waterways441 km (navigable year round) (2007)
3,997 km (navigable rivers and canals) (2009)
Pipelinesgas 1,921 km; refined products 121 km (2013)
gas 14,198 km; oil 1,374 km; refined products 777 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Klaipeda
oil terminal(s): Butinge oil terminal
LNG terminal(s) (import): Klaipeda
major seaport(s): Gdansk, Gdynia, Swinoujscie
river port(s): Szczecin (River Oder)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Swinoujscie
Merchant marinetotal: 38
by type: cargo 20, container 1, passenger/cargo 6, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 8 (Denmark 8)
registered in other countries: 22 (Antigua and Barbuda 3, Belize 1, Comoros 1, Cook Islands 1, Norway 1, Panama 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9, unknown 3) (2010)
total: 9
by type: cargo 7, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 1
registered in other countries: 106 (Antigua and Barbuda 2, Bahamas 34, Cyprus 24, Liberia 13, Malta 21, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Vanuatu 9) (2010)
Airports61 (2013)
126 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 22
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 9 (2013)
total: 87
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 36
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 39
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 36 (2013)
total: 39
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 21 (2013)

Military

LithuaniaPoland
Military branchesLithuanian Armed Forces (Lietuvos Ginkluotosios Pajegos): Land Forces (Sausumos Pajegos), Naval Forces (Karines Juru Pajegos), Air Forces (Karines Oro Pajegos), Special Forces (Specialiuju Operaciju Pajegos); Volunteer Forces (Savanoriu Pajegos) (2016)
Polish Armed Forces: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Special Forces, Territorial Defense Force (2017)
note: Territorial Defense Force only began recruitment in winter 2016
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for military service; 9-month service obligation; in 2015, Lithuania reinstated conscription after having converted to a professional military in the fall of 2008 (2016)
18-28 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription phased out in 2009-12; service obligation shortened from 12 to 9 months in 2005; women only allowed to serve as officers and noncommissioned officers (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.8% of GDP (2017)
1.49% of GDP (2016)
1.14% of GDP (2015)
0.88% of GDP (2014)
0.76% of GDP (2013)
2% of GDP (2016 est.)
2.23% of GDP (2015)
1.85% of GDP (2014)
1.72% of GDP (2013)
1.74% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

LithuaniaPoland
Disputes - internationalLithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; boundary demarcated with Latvia and Lithuania; as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation
as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Poland has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its eastern borders with Belarus and Ukraine
Illicit drugstransshipment and destination point for cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, and opiates from Southwest Asia, Latin America, Western Europe, and neighboring Baltic countries; growing production of high-quality amphetamines, but limited production of cannabis, methamphetamines; susceptible to money laundering despite changes to banking legislation
despite diligent counternarcotics measures and international information sharing on cross-border crimes, a major illicit producer of synthetic drugs for the international market; minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine to Western Europe
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 3,466 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 71,302 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015); 9,864 (Russia) (2016)
stateless persons: 10,825 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook