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Liechtenstein vs. Austria

Introduction

LiechtensteinAustria
BackgroundThe Principality of Liechtenstein was established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1719. Occupied by both French and Russian troops during the Napoleonic Wars, it became a sovereign state in 1806 and joined the Germanic Confederation in 1815. Liechtenstein became fully independent in 1866 when the Confederation dissolved. Until the end of World War I, it was closely tied to Austria, but the economic devastation caused by that conflict forced Liechtenstein to enter into a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. Since World War II (in which Liechtenstein remained neutral), the country's low taxes have spurred outstanding economic growth. In 2000, shortcomings in banking regulatory oversight resulted in concerns about the use of financial institutions for money laundering. However, Liechtenstein implemented anti-money laundering legislation and a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty with the US that went into effect in 2003.
"Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's ""perpetual neutrality"" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. The Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the EU in 1995 have altered the meaning of this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the EU Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.
"

Geography

LiechtensteinAustria
LocationCentral Europe, between Austria and Switzerland
Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia
Geographic coordinates47 16 N, 9 32 E
47 20 N, 13 20 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 160 sq km
land: 160 sq km
water: 0 sq km
total: 83,871 sq km
land: 82,445 sq km
water: 1,426 sq km
Area - comparativeabout 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC
about the size of South Carolina; slightly more than two-thirds the size of Pennsylvania
Land boundariestotal: 75 km
border countries (2): Austria 34 km, Switzerland 41 km
total: 2,524 km
border countries (8): Czech Republic 402 km, Germany 801 km, Hungary 321 km, Italy 404 km, Liechtenstein 34 km, Slovakia 105 km, Slovenia 299 km, Switzerland 158 km
Coastline0 km (doubly landlocked)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatecontinental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers
temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers
Terrainmostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third
mostly mountains (Alps) in the west and south; mostly flat or gently sloping along the eastern and northern margins
Elevation extremesmean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Ruggeller Riet 430 m
highest point: Vorder-Grauspitz 2,599 m
mean elevation: 910 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m
Natural resourceshydroelectric potential, arable land
oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 37.6%
arable land 18.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 18.8%
forest: 43.1%
other: 19.3% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 38.4%
arable land 16.5%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 21.1%
forest: 47.2%
other: 14.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land0 sq km (2012)
1,170 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsNA
landslides; avalanches; earthquakes
Environment - current issuesNA
some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notealong with Uzbekistan, one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation
landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
Population distributionmost of the population is found in the western half of the country along the Rhine River
the northern and eastern portions of the country are more densely populated; nearly two-thirds of the populace lives in urban areas

Demographics

LiechtensteinAustria
Population37,937 (July 2016 est.)
8,711,770 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 15.38% (male 3,141/female 2,694)
15-24 years: 11.71% (male 2,214/female 2,229)
25-54 years: 42.13% (male 7,983/female 8,001)
55-64 years: 13.82% (male 2,553/female 2,690)
65 years and over: 16.95% (male 2,954/female 3,478) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 14.02% (male 625,391/female 596,310)
15-24 years: 11.33% (male 503,333/female 483,748)
25-54 years: 42.71% (male 1,859,985/female 1,860,641)
55-64 years: 12.85% (male 554,191/female 565,189)
65 years and over: 19.09% (male 719,012/female 943,970) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 42.9 years
male: 41.7 years
female: 44.1 years (2016 est.)
total: 43.8 years
male: 42.7 years
female: 44.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.82% (2016 est.)
0.51% (2016 est.)
Birth rate10.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
5.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.26 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 81.9 years
male: 79.7 years
female: 84.6 years (2016 est.)
total population: 81.5 years
male: 78.9 years
female: 84.3 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.69 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.47 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
NA
Nationalitynoun: Liechtensteiner(s)
adjective: Liechtenstein
noun: Austrian(s)
adjective: Austrian
Ethnic groupsLiechtensteiner 66%, other 34% (2013 est.)
Austrians 91.1%, former Yugoslavs 4% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Serbs, and Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, Germans 0.9%, other or unspecified 2.4% (2001 census)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
NA
ReligionsRoman Catholic (official) 75.9%, Protestant Reformed 6.5%, Muslim 5.4%, Lutheran 1.3%, other 2.9%, none 5.4%, unspecified 2.6% (2010 est.)
Catholic 73.8% (includes Roman Catholic 73.6%, other Catholic 0.2%), Protestant 4.9%, Muslim 4.2%, Orthodox 2.2%, other 0.8% (includes other Christian), none 12%, unspecified 2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
NA
LanguagesGerman 94.5% (official) (Alemannic is the main dialect), Italian 1.1%, other 4.3% (2010 est.)
German (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene, official in South Carinthia, and Hungarian, official in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 16 years
female: 13 years (2015)
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 16 years (2015)
Education expenditures2.6% of GDP (2011)
5.6% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 14.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.48% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 66% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major cities - populationVADUZ (capital) 5,000 (2014)
VIENNA (capital) 1.753 million (2015)

Government

LiechtensteinAustria
Country name"conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein
conventional short form: Liechtenstein
local long form: Fuerstentum Liechtenstein
local short form: Liechtenstein
etymology: named after the Liechtenstein dynasty that purchased and united the counties of Schellenburg and Vaduz and that was allowed by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1719 to rename the new property after their family; the name in German means ""light (bright) stone""
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Austria
conventional short form: Austria
local long form: Republik Oesterreich
local short form: Oesterreich
etymology: the name Oesterreich means ""eastern realm"" or ""eastern march"" and dates to the 10th century; the designation refers to the fact that Austria was the easternmost extension of Bavaria, and in fact of all the Germans; the word Austria is a Latinization of the German name
"
Government typeconstitutional monarchy
federal parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Vaduz
geographic coordinates: 47 08 N, 9 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Vienna
geographic coordinates: 48 12 N, 16 22 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions11 communes (Gemeinden, singular - Gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz
9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich (Lower Austria), Oberoesterreich (Upper Austria), Salzburg, Steiermark (Styria), Tirol (Tyrol), Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)
Independence23 January 1719 (Principality of Liechtenstein established); 12 July 1806 (independence from the Holy Roman Empire); 24 August 1866 (independence from the German Confederation)
12 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 976 (Margravate of Austria established); 17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed)
National holidayNational Day, 15 August (1940); note - a National Day was originally established in 1940 to combine celebrations for the Feast of the Assumption (15 August) with those honoring the birthday of former Prince Franz Josef II (1906-1989) whose birth fell on 16 August; after the prince's death, National Day became the official national holiday by law in 1990
National Day (commemorates passage of the law on permanent neutrality), 26 October (1955)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1862; latest adopted 5 October 1921
amendments: proposed by Parliament, by the reigning prince (in the form of “Government” proposals), by petition of at least 1,500 qualified voters, or by at least four communes; passage requires unanimous approval of Parliament members in one sitting or three-quarters majority vote in two successive sittings; referendum required only if petitioned by at least 1,500 voters or by at least four communes; passage by referendum requires absolute majority of votes cast; amended several times, last in 2011 (2016)
history: several previous; latest adopted 1 October 1920, revised 1929, replaced May 1934 (authoritarian corporate state), replaced by German Weimar constitution in 1938 following German annexation, reinstated 1 May 1945
amendments: proposed through laws designated “constitutional laws” or through the constitutional process if the amendment is part of another law; approval required by at least a two-thirds majority vote by the National Assembly if one-half of the members are present; a referendum is required only if requested by one-third of the National Council or Federal Council membership; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote; amended many times, last in 2014 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system influenced by Swiss, Austrian, and German law
civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
16 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: Prince HANS-ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed executive powers on 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS, son of the monarch (born 11 June 1968); note - on 15 August 2004, HANS-ADAM II transferred the official duties of the ruling prince to ALOIS, but HANS-ADAM II retains status of chief of state
head of government: Prime Minister Adrian HASLER (since 27 March 2013)
cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Parliament, confirmed by the monarch
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the Parliament usually appointed the head of government by the monarch, and the leader of the largest minority party in the Landtag usually appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch if there is a coalition government
chief of state: Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (since 26 January 2017)
head of government: Chancellor Christian KERN (since 17 May 2016); Vice Chancellor Wolfgang BRANDSTETTER (since 17 May 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 24 April 2016 (first round), 22 May 2016 (second round, which was annulled), and 4 December 2016 (second round re-vote); next presidential elections to be held in April 2022; chancellor appointed by the president but determined by the majority coalition parties in the Federal Assembly; vice chancellor appointed by the president on the advice of the chancellor
election results: percent of vote: first-round results - Norbet HOFER (FPOe) 35.1%, Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (independent, allied with the Greens) 21.3%, Irmgard GRISS (independent) 18.9%, Rudolf HUNDSTORFER (SPOe) 11.3%, Andreas KHOL (OeVP) 11.1%, Richard LUGNER (independent) 2.3%; second round results - Alexander VAN DER BELLEN 53.8%, Norbet HOFER 46.2%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Parliament or Landtag (25 seats; members directly elected in two multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 5 February 2017 (next to be held on February 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - FBP 35.2%, VU 33.7%, DU 18.4% FL 12.6%; seats by party - FBP 9, VU 8, DU 5, FL 3
description: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of the Federal Council or Bundesrat (62 seats; members appointed by state parliaments with each state receiving 3 to 12 seats in proportion to its population; members serve 5- or 6-year terms) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: National Council - last held on 29 September 2013 (next to be held on 15 October 2017)
election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - SPOe 26.8%, OeVP 24.0%, FPOe 20.5%, Greens 12.4%, Team Stronach 5.7%, NEOS 5.0%, other 5.6%; seats by party - SPOe 52, OeVP 47, FPOe 40, Greens 24, Team Stronach 11, NEOS 9; note - currently: SPOe 52, OeVP 50, FPOe 38, Greens 24, NEOS 9, Team Stronach 6, without faction 4
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Oberster Gerichtshof (consists of 5 judges); Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgericht (consists of 5 judges and 5 alternates)
judge selection and term of office: judges of both courts elected by the Landtag and appointed by the monarch; Supreme Court judges serve 4-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed for renewable 5-year terms
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal or Obergericht (second instance), Court of Justice (first instance), Administrative Court, county courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Oberster Gerichtshof (consists of 85 judges organized into 17 senates or panels of 5 judges each); Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof (consists of 20 judges including 6 substitutes; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof - 2 judges plus other members depending on the importance of the case)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; judges serve for life; Constitutional Court judges nominated by several executive branch departments and approved by the president; judges serve for life; Administrative Court judges recommended by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; terms of judges and members determined by the president
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (4); Regional Courts (20); district courts (120); county courts
Political parties and leadersFatherland Union (Vaterlaendische Union) or VU [Guenther FRITZ]
Progressive Citizens' Party (Fortschrittliche Buergerpartei) or FBP [Thomas BANZER]
The Free List (Die Freie Liste) or FL [Pepo FRICK]
The Independents (Die Unabhaengigen) or DU [Harry QUADERER]
"Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Sebastian KURZ]
Communist Party of Austria or KPOe [Mirko MESSNER]
Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz-Christian STRACHE]
The Greens [Eva GLAWISCHNIG]
NEOS - The New Austria [Matthias STROLZ]
Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Christian KERN]
""Team Stronach"" [Frank STRONACH]
"
International organization participationCD, CE, EBRD, EFTA, IAEA, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WIPO, WTO
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Kurt JAEGER (since 16 December 2016)
chancery: 2900 K Street, NW, Suite 602B, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 331-0590
FAX: [1] (202) 331-3221
chief of mission: Ambassador Wolfgang WALDNER (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
consulate(s): Chicago
Diplomatic representation from the USthe US does not have an embassy in Liechtenstein; the US Ambassador to Switzerland is accredited to Liechtenstein
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Eugene YOUNG (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0
FAX: [43] (1) 3100682
Flag descriptiontwo equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band; the colors may derive from the blue and red livery design used in the principality's household in the 18th century; the prince's crown was introduced in 1937 to distinguish the flag from that of Haiti
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red; the flag design is certainly one of the oldest - if not the oldest - national banners in the world; according to tradition, in 1191, following a fierce battle in the Third Crusade, Duke Leopold V of Austria's white tunic became completely blood-spattered; upon removal of his wide belt or sash, a white band was revealed; the red-white-red color combination was subsequently adopted as his banner
National anthem"name: ""Oben am jungen Rhein"" (High Above the Young Rhine)
lyrics/music: Jakob Joseph JAUCH/Josef FROMMELT
note: adopted 1850, revised 1963; uses the tune of ""God Save the Queen""
"
"name: ""Bundeshymne"" (Federal Hymn)
lyrics/music: Paula von PRERADOVIC/Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART or Johann HOLZER (disputed)
note: adopted 1947; the anthem is also known as ""Land der Berge, Land am Strome"" (Land of the Mountains, Land by the River); Austria adopted a new national anthem after World War II to replace the former imperial anthem composed by Franz Josef HAYDN, which had been appropriated by Germany in 1922 and was thereafter associated with the Nazi regime; a gendered version of the lyrics was adopted by the Austrian Federal Assembly in fall 2011 and became effective 1 January 2012
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)princely hat (crown); national colors: blue, red
golden eagle, edelweiss, Alpine gentian; national colors: red, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Liechtenstein; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Austria
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

LiechtensteinAustria
Economy - overview"Despite its small size and lack of natural resources, Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a vital financial service sector and the third highest per capita income in the world, after Qatar and Luxembourg. The Liechtenstein economy is widely diversified with a large number of small businesses. Low business taxes - a flat tax of 12.5% on the income is applied - and easy incorporation rules have induced many holding companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein, providing 30% of state revenues.

The country participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss franc as its national currency. It imports more than 90% of its energy requirements. Liechtenstein has been a member of the European Economic Area (an organization serving as a bridge between the European Free Trade Association and the EU) since May 1995. The government is working to harmonize its economic policies with those of an integrated Europe.

Since 2008, Liechtenstein has faced renewed international pressure - particularly from Germany and the US - to improve transparency in its banking and tax systems. In December 2008, Liechtenstein signed a Tax Information Exchange Agreement with the US. Upon Liechtenstein's conclusion of 12 bilateral information-sharing agreements, the OECD in October 2009 removed the principality from its ""grey list"" of countries that had yet to implement the organization's Model Tax Convention. By the end of 2010, Liechtenstein had signed 25 Tax Information Exchange Agreements or Double Tax Agreements. In 2011, Liechtenstein joined the Schengen area, which allows passport-free travel across 26 European countries.
"
Austria, with its well-developed market economy, skilled labor force, and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. Its economy features a large service sector, a relatively sound industrial sector, and a small, but highly developed agricultural sector.

Economic growth has been relatively weak in recent years, approaching 0.9% in 2015, but rising to 1.4% in 2016. Austria's 5.8% unemployment rate, while low by European standards, is at its highest rate since the end of World War II, driven by an increased number of refugees and EU migrants entering the labor market. Without extensive vocational training programs and generous early retirement, the unemployment rate would be even higher.

Although Austria's fiscal position compares favorably with other euro-zone countries, it faces several external risks, such as unexpectedly weak world economic growth threatening the export market, Austrian banks' continued exposure to Central and Eastern Europe, repercussions from the Hypo Alpe Adria bank collapse, political and economic uncertainties caused by the European sovereign debt crisis, the current refugee crisis, and continued unrest in Russia/Ukraine. The budget deficit stood at 1.4% of GDP in 2016 and public debt reached a post-war high of 86.2% of the GDP in 2015.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$4.978 billion (2014 est.)
$3.2 billion (2009 est.)
$3.216 billion (2008 est.)
$416.6 billion (2016 est.)
$410.4 billion (2015 est.)
$406.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1.8% (2012 est.)
-0.5% (2011 est.)
3.1% (2007 est.)
1.5% (2016 est.)
0.9% (2015 est.)
0.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$139,100 (2009 est.)
$90,100 (2008 est.)
$91,300 (2007 est.)
$47,900 (2016 est.)
$47,600 (2015 est.)
$47,600 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 7%
industry: 41%
services: 52% (2014)
agriculture: 1.3%
industry: 28.1%
services: 70.6% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty lineNA%
4% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 23.5% (2012 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)-0.4% (2016 est.)
-0.2% (2013)
0.9% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2015 est.)
Labor force38,520 (2012)
note: 51% of the labor force in Liechtenstein commute daily from Austria, Switzerland, and Germany (2015 est.)
3.944 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 0.8%
industry: 36.9%
services: 62.3% (2015)
agriculture: 0.7%
industry: 25.3%
services: 74% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate2.4% (2015)
2.4% (2014)
6.1% (2016 est.)
5.7% (2015 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $995.3 million
expenditures: $890.4 million (2011 est.)
revenues: $187.3 billion
expenditures: $192.6 billion (2016 est.)
Industrieselectronics, metal manufacturing, dental products, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism, optical instruments
construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism
Industrial production growth rateNA%
1.4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, barley, corn, potatoes; livestock, dairy products
grains, potatoes, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber and other forestry products
Exports$3.217 billion (2015 est.)
$3.774 billion (2014 est.)
note: trade data exclude trade with Switzerland
$144.3 billion (2016 est.)
$144.7 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiessmall specialty machinery, connectors for audio and video, parts for motor vehicles, dental products, hardware, prepared foodstuffs, electronic equipment, optical products
machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs
Imports$1.989 billion (2015 est.)
$2.23 billion (2014 est.)
note: trade data exclude trade with Switzerland
$149.1 billion (2016 est.)
$146.9 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesagricultural products, raw materials, energy products, machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles
machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products, natural gas; foodstuffs
Debt - external$0 (2015 est.)
note: public external debt only; private external debt unavailable
$689.1 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$679.3 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesSwiss francs (CHF) per US dollar -
0.9992 (2016 est.)
0.9627 (2015 est.)
0.9627 (2014 est.)
0.9152 (2013 est.)
0.9377 (2012 est.)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
GDP (official exchange rate)$6.672 billion (2010 est.)
$387.3 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$96.08 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$96.79 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$117.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues14.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
48.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)1.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
-1.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

Energy

LiechtensteinAustria
Electricity - production68.43 million kWh (2015)
64.95 billion kWh (2015)
Electricity - consumption393.6 million kWh (2015)
69.95 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2015 est.) (2015 est.)
19.31 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports325.2 million kWh (2015)
29.37 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

LiechtensteinAustria
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 17,184
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 46 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 3,609,900
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 41,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 108 (July 2015 est.)
total: 13.471 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 155 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: automatic telephone system
domestic: fixed-line and mobile-cellular services widely available; combined telephone service subscribership exceeds 150 per 100 persons
international: country code - 423; linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio relay (2015)
general assessment: highly developed and efficient
domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership is over 90% of the population; cable networks are very extensive, the fiber-optic net is being developed; all telephone applications and Internet services are available; broadband is available in all large municipalities
international: country code - 43; earth stations available in the Astra, Intelsat, Eutelsat satellite systems (2016)
Internet country code.li
.at
Internet userstotal: 36,000
percent of population: 96.6% (July 2015 est.)
total: 7.273 million
percent of population: 83.9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediarelies on foreign terrestrial and satellite broadcasters for most broadcast media services; first Liechtenstein-based TV station established August 2008; Radio Liechtenstein operates multiple radio stations; a Swiss-based broadcaster operates several radio stations in Liechtenstein (2008)
worldwide cable and satellite TV are available; the public incumbent ORF competes with three other major, several regional domestic, and up to 400 international TV stations; TV coverage is in principle 100%, but only 90% use broadcast media; Internet streaming not only complements, but increasingly replaces regular TV stations (2016)

Transportation

LiechtensteinAustria
Railwaystotal: 9 km
standard gauge: 9 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified)
note: belongs to the Austrian Railway System connecting Austria and Switzerland (2008)
total: 5,800 km (2016)
standard gauge: 5,267.7 km 1.435-m gauge (3,556.4 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 380 km
paved: 380 km (2012)
total: 138,696 km
paved: 138,696 km (includes 2,208 km of expressways) (2016)
Waterways28 km (2010)
358 km (2011)
Pipelinesgas 20 km (2013)
gas 1,888 km; oil 594 km; refined products 157 km (2017)

Military

LiechtensteinAustria
Military branchesno regular military forces; National Police maintain close relations with neighboring forces (2016)
Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK) (2014)

Transnational Issues

LiechtensteinAustria
Disputes - internationalnone
none
Illicit drugshas strengthened money laundering controls, but money laundering remains a concern due to Liechtenstein's sophisticated offshore financial services sector
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; increasing consumption of European-produced synthetic drugs

Source: CIA Factbook