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Libya vs. Sudan

Introduction

LibyaSudan
BackgroundThe Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks in the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when they were defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar al-QADHAFI assumed leadership and began to espouse his political system at home, which was a combination of socialism and Islam. During the 1970s, QADHAFI used oil revenues to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversive and terrorist activities that included the downing of two airliners - one over Scotland, another in Northern Africa - and a discotheque bombing in Berlin. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically and economically following the attacks; sanctions were lifted in 2003 following Libyan acceptance of responsibility for the bombings and agreement to claimant compensation. QADHAFI also agreed to end Libya's program to develop weapons of mass destruction, and he made significant strides in normalizing relations with Western nations.
Unrest that began in several Middle Eastern and North African countries in late 2010 erupted in Libyan cities in early 2011. QADHAFI's brutal crackdown on protesters spawned a civil war that triggered UN authorization of air and naval intervention by the international community. After months of seesaw fighting between government and opposition forces, the QADHAFI regime was toppled in mid-2011 and replaced by a transitional government known as the National Transitional Council (NTC). In 2012, the NTC handed power to an elected parliament, the General National Congress (GNC). Voters chose a new parliament to replace the GNC in June 2014 - the House of Representatives (HoR), which relocated to the eastern city of Tobruk after fighting broke out in Tripoli.
In October 2015, the UN Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG) to Libya, Bernardino LEON, brokered an agreement among a broad array of Libyan political parties and social groups - known as the Libyan Political Agreement (LPA). Members of the Libyan Political Dialogue, including representatives of the HoR and ex-GNC, signed the LPA in December 2015. The LPA called for the formation of an interim Government of National Accord or GNA, with a nine-member Presidency Council, the HoR, and an advisory High Council of State that most ex-GNC members joined. The LPA’s roadmap for a two-year transition to a new constitution and elected government was subsequently endorsed by UN Security Council Resolution 2259, which also called upon member states to cease official contact with parallel institutions. In January 2016, the HoR voted to approve the LPA, including the Presidency Council, while voting against a controversial provision on security leadership positions. In March 2016, the GNA Presidency Council seated itself in Tripoli. In 2016, the GNA twice announced a slate of ministers who operate de facto, but the HoR did not endorse the ministerial list. HoR and ex-GNC-affiliated hardliners continued to oppose the GNA and hampered the LPA’s implementation.
Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from Anglo-Egyptian co-rule in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but another broke out in 1983. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Sudan and South Sudan have yet to fully implement security and economic agreements signed in September 2012 relating to the normalization of relations between the two countries. The final disposition of the contested Abyei region has also to be decided.
Following South Sudan's independence, conflict broke out between the government and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states (together known as the Two Areas), and has resulted in 1.1 million internally displaced persons or severely affected persons needing humanitarian assistance. A separate conflict broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, displacing nearly 2 million people and causing thousands of deaths. Fighting in both the Two Areas and Darfur between government forces and opposition has largely subsided, however the civilian populations are affected by low-level violence including inter-tribal conflict and banditry, largely a result of weak rule of law. The UN and the African Union have jointly commanded a Darfur peacekeeping operation (UNAMID) since 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to address insecurity in Darfur and have increasingly become targets for attacks by armed groups. Sudan also has faced refugee influxes from neighboring countries, primarily Ethiopia, Eritrea, Chad, Central African Republic, and South Sudan. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and denial of access by both the government and armed opposition have impeded the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.

Geography

LibyaSudan
LocationNorthern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria
north-eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
Geographic coordinates25 00 N, 17 00 E
15 00 N, 30 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 1,759,540 sq km
land: 1,759,540 sq km
water: 0 sq km
total: 1,861,484 sq km
land: NA
water: NA
Area - comparativeabout 2.5 times the size of Texas; slightly larger than Alaska
slightly less than one-fifth the size of the US
Land boundariestotal: 4,339 km
border countries (6): Algeria 989 km, Chad 1,050 km, Egypt 1,115 km, Niger 342 km, Sudan 382 km, Tunisia 461 km
total: 6,819 km
border countries (7): Central African Republic 174 km, Chad 1,403 km, Egypt 1,276 km, Eritrea 682 km, Ethiopia 744 km, Libya 382 km, South Sudan 2,158 km
note: Sudan-South Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei region pending negotiations between Sudan and South Sudan
Coastline1,770 km
853 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
note: Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees, 30 minutes north
exclusive fishing zone: 62 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
ClimateMediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
hot and dry; arid desert; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
Terrainmostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
generally flat, featureless plain; desert dominates the north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 423 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m
highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m
mean elevation: 568 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Red Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal Marrah 3,071 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, gypsum
petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold; hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 8.8%
arable land 1%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 7.6%
forest: 0.1%
other: 91.1% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 100%
arable land 15.7%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 84.2%
forest: 0%
other: 0% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land4,700 sq km (2012)
18,900 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardshot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms
dust storms and periodic persistent droughts
Environment - current issuesdesertification; limited natural freshwater resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, brings water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities
inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notemore than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert
dominated by the Nile and its tributaries
Population distributionwell over 90% of the population lives along the Mediterranean coast in and between the western city of Az Zawiyah (just west of Tripoli) and the eastern city of Darnah; the interior remains vastly underpopulated due to the Sahara and lack of surface water
with the exception of a ribbon of settlement that corresponds to the banks of the Nile, northern Sudan, which extends into the dry Sahara, is sparsely populated; more abundant vegetation and broader access to water increases population distribution in the south extending habitable range along nearly the entire border with South Sudan; sizeable areas of population are found around Khartoum, southeast between the Blue and White Nile Rivers, and througout South Darfur

Demographics

LibyaSudan
Population6,541,948 (July 2015 est.)
note: immigrants make up just over 12% of the total population, according to UN data (2015) (July 2016 est.)
36,729,501 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 26.17% (male 875,430/female 836,272)
15-24 years: 17.41% (male 586,713/female 552,531)
25-54 years: 46.99% (male 1,613,168/female 1,460,987)
55-64 years: 5.21% (male 174,023/female 167,072)
65 years and over: 4.22% (male 137,409/female 138,343) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 39.43% (male 7,351,759/female 7,130,224)
15-24 years: 20.77% (male 3,926,374/female 3,703,826)
25-54 years: 32.42% (male 5,779,482/female 6,129,213)
55-64 years: 4.12% (male 793,848/female 721,075)
65 years and over: 3.25% (male 645,876/female 547,824) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 28.5 years
male: 28.6 years
female: 28.3 years (2016 est.)
total: 19.6 years
male: 19.4 years
female: 19.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.8% (2016 est.)
1.69% (2016 est.)
Birth rate17.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
28.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate3.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate3.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-4.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.19 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 11.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 12 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 50.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 55.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 44.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 76.5 years
male: 74.7 years
female: 78.3 years (2016 est.)
total population: 64.1 years
male: 62 years
female: 66.3 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.04 children born/woman (2016 est.)
3.68 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Libyan(s)
adjective: Libyan
noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sudanese
Ethnic groupsBerber and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians)
Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
55,900 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim (official; virtually all Sunni) 96.6%, Christian 2.7%, Buddhist 0.3%, Hindu <0.1, Jewish <0.1, folk religion <0.1, unafilliated 0.2%, other <0.1
note: non-Sunni Muslims include native Ibadhi Muslims (<1% of the population) and foreign Muslims (2010 est.)
Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
3,000 (2015 est.)
LanguagesArabic (official), Italian, English (all widely understood in the major cities); Berber (Nafusi, Ghadamis, Suknah, Awjilah, Tamasheq)
Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91%
male: 96.7%
female: 85.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 75.9%
male: 83.3%
female: 68.6% (2015 est.)
Education expendituresNA
2.2% of GDP (2009)
Urbanizationurban population: 78.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.13% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 33.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.54% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 54.2% of population
rural: 54.9% of population
total: 54.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 45.8% of population
rural: 45.1% of population
total: 45.6% of population (2001 est.)
improved:
urban: 66% of population
rural: 50.2% of population
total: 55.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 34% of population
rural: 49.8% of population
total: 44.5% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 96.8% of population
rural: 95.7% of population
total: 96.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 4.3% of population
total: 3.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 43.9% of population
rural: 13.4% of population
total: 23.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 56.1% of population
rural: 86.6% of population
total: 76.4% of population (2012 est.)
Major cities - populationTRIPOLI (capital) 1.126 million (2015)
KHARTOUM (capital) 5.129 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate9 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
311 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight5.6% (2007)
33% (2014)
Health expenditures5% of GDP (2014)
8.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.09 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
3.06 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density3.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
0.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate31.9% (2014)
6.6% (2014)
Contraceptive prevalence rate41.9% (2007)
12.2% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 52.4
youth dependency ratio: 45.5
elderly dependency ratio: 6.9
potential support ratio: 14.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 78
youth dependency ratio: 72.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9
potential support ratio: 16.9 (2015 est.)

Government

LibyaSudan
Country nameconventional long form: none
conventional short form: Libya
local long form: none
local short form: Libiya
etymology: name derives from the Libu, an ancient Libyan tribe first mentioned in texts from the 13th century B.C.
"conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
conventional short form: Sudan
local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
local short form: As-Sudan
former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
etymology: the name ""Sudan"" derives from the Arabic ""bilad-as-sudan"" meaning ""Land of the Black [peoples]""
"
Government typein transition
presidential republic
Capitalname: Tripoli (Tarabulus)
geographic coordinates: 32 53 N, 13 10 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Khartoum
geographic coordinates: 15 36 N, 32 32 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions22 districts (shabiyat, singular - shabiyat); Al Butnan, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jabal al Gharbi, Al Jafarah, Al Jufrah, Al Kufrah, Al Marj, Al Marqab, Al Wahat, An Nuqat al Khams, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghat, Misratah, Murzuq, Nalut, Sabha, Surt, Tarabulus, Wadi al Hayat, Wadi ash Shati
18 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Blue Nile, Central Darfur, East Darfur, Gedaref, Gezira, Kassala, Khartoum, North Darfur, North Kordofan, Northern, Red Sea, River Nile, Sennar, South Darfur, South Kordofan, West Darfur, West Kordofan, White Nile
Independence24 December 1951 (from UN trusteeship)
1 January 1956 (from Egypt and the UK)
National holidayLiberation Day, 23 October (2011)
Independence Day, 1 January (1956)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1951,1977; drafting of a new constitution by the Constitution Drafting Assembly continued into 2017 (2017)
previous 1998; latest adopted 6 July 2005, effective 9 July 2005 (interim constitution); amended 2015; note - in 2011, the Government of Sudan initiated a national dialogue process with the intention of drafting a new constitution (2017)
Legal systemLibya's post-revolution legal system is in flux and driven by state and non-state entities
mixed legal system of Islamic law and English common law
Suffrage18 years of age, universal
17 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: Chairman, Presidential Council, Fayiz al-SARAJ (since December 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Fayiz al-SARAJ (since December 2015)
cabinet: new cabinet awaiting approval by the House of Representatives
elections/appointments: NA
election results: NA
note: the position of prime minister was reinstated in December 2016 as a result of the 2015-16 national dialogue process, and President al-BASHIR appointed BAKRI Hassan Salih to the position on 2 March 2017
chief of state: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President & Prime Minister BAKRI Hassan Salih (first VP since 3 December 2013 and PM since 2 March 2017), Second Vice President Hasabu Mohamed ABDEL RAHMIN (since 3 December 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President & Prime Minister BAKRI Hassan Salih (first VP since 3 December 2013 and PM since 2 March 2017), Second Vice President Hasabu Mohamed ABDEL RAHMIN (since 3 December 2013))
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the Natinal Congress Party or NCP, formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF, dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed; last held on 13-16 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (NCP) 94.1%, other (15 candidates) 5.9%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Council of Deputies or Majlis Al Nuwab (200 seats including 32 reserved for women; members elected by direct popular vote; member term NA)
elections: election last held in June 2014; note - the Libyan Supreme Court in November 2014 declared the House election unconstitutional, but the Council rejected the ruling
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - independent 200; note - not all 200 seats were filled in the June election because of boycotts and lack of security at some polling stations; some elected members of the Council also boycotted the election
description: bicameral National Legislature consists of the Council of States or Majlis al-Wilayat (50 seats; members indirectly elected - 2 each by the 25 state legislatures to serve 6-year terms) and the National Assembly or Majlis Watani (426 seats; 213 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 128 for women only directly elected by proportional representation vote, and 85 directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms)
elections: last held on 13-15 April 2015 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NCP 323, DUP 25, Democratic Unionist Party 15, other 44, independent 19
note: the mandate of the members from the south was terminated upon independence by the Republic of South Sudan effective 9 July 2011 and membership in Sudan's National Assembly was reduced to 354; it is unclear whether this total will be retained for the next election or whether the previous total of 450 will be reconstituted
Judicial branchhighest court(s): NA; note - government is in transition
highest court(s): National Supreme Court (consists of 70 judges organized into panels of 3 judges and includes 4 circuits that operate outside the capital); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 justices including the court president); note - the Constitutional Court resides outside the national judiciary
judge selection and term of office: National Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Service Commission, an independent body chaired by the chief justice of the republic and members including other judges and judicial and legal officials; Supreme Court judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 7 years
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; other national courts; public courts; district, town, and rural courts
Political parties and leadersNA

Democratic Unionist Party or DUP
Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI]
Muslim Brotherhood or MB
National Congress Party or NCP [Umar Hassan al-BASHIR]
National Umma Party or UP [Saddiq al-MAHDI]
Popular Congress Party or PCP [Kamal UMARI]
Reform Now Party or RNP [Dr. Ghazi Salah al-DEEN]
Sudan National Front [Ali Mahmud HASANAYN]
Sudanese Communist Party or SCP [Mohammed Moktar Al-KHATEEB]
Sudanese Congress Party [Ibrahim Al-SHEIKH]
Unionist Movement Party or UMP
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
Darfur rebel groups including the Justice and Equality Movement or JEM [Gibril Fidail IBRAHIM], Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM-AW [Abdel Wahid NUR, various factional leaders], Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM-MM [Minni Arkou MINAWI]
National Consensus Front or NCF [Farouq ABU ISSA]
Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North or SPLM-N [Yasir ARMAN]
International organization participationABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BDEAC, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Wafa M.T. BUGHAIGHIS (since 5 December 2014)
chancery: 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 944-9601
FAX: [1] (202) 944-9606
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Maowia Osman KHALID (since 31 January 2014)
chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Peter William BODDE (since 21 December 2015)
note: the embassy was closed in July 2014 due to major fighting near the embassy related to the Libyan civil war; embassy staff and operations were temporarily moved to Tunis, Tunisia
embassy: Sidi Slim Area/Walie Al-Ahed Road, Tripoli
mailing address: US Embassy, 8850 Tripoli Place, Washington, DC 20521-8850
telephone: [218] (0) 91-220-3239
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Steven KOUTSIS (since 2016)
embassy: Sharia Ali Abdul Latif Street, Khartoum
mailing address: P.O. Box 699, Kilo 10, Soba, Khartoum; APO AE 09829
telephone: [249] (187)-0-(22000)
FAX: [249] (183) 774-137
Flag descriptionthree horizontal bands of red (top), black (double width), and green with a white crescent and star centered on the black stripe; the National Transitional Council reintroduced this flag design of the former Kingdom of Libya (1951-1969) on 27 February 2011; it replaced the former all-green banner promulgated by the QADHAFI regime in 1977; the colors represent the three major regions of the country: red stands for Fezzan, black symbolizes Cyrenaica, and green denotes Tripolitania; the crescent and star represent Islam, the main religion of the country
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; colors and design based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I, but the meanings of the colors are expressed as follows: red signifies the struggle for freedom, white is the color of peace, light, and love, black represents the people of Sudan (in Arabic 'Sudan' means black), green is the color of Islam, agriculture, and prosperity
National anthem"name: ""Libya, Libya, Libya""
lyrics/music: Al Bashir AL AREBI/Mohamad Abdel WAHAB
note: also known as ""Ya Beladi"" or ""Oh, My Country!""; adopted 1951; readopted 2011 with some modification to the lyrics; during the QADHAFI years between 1969 and 2011, the anthem was ""Allahu Akbar,"" (God is Great) a marching song of the Egyptian Army in the 1956 Suez War
"
"name: ""Nahnu Djundulla Djundulwatan"" (We Are the Army of God and of Our Land)
lyrics/music: Sayed Ahmad Muhammad SALIH/Ahmad MURJAN
note: adopted 1956; originally served as the anthem of the Sudanese military
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2008
National symbol(s)star and crescent, hawk; national colors: red, black, green
secretary bird; national colors: red, white, black, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Libya
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: varies from 3 to 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sudan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

LibyaSudan
Economy - overviewLibya's economy, almost entirely dependent on oil and gas exports, has struggled since 2014 as the country plunged into civil war and world oil prices dropped to seven-year lows. In early 2015, armed conflict between rival forces for control of the country’s largest oil terminals caused a decline in Libyan crude oil production, which never recovered to more than one-third of the average pre-Revolution highs of 1.6 million barrels per day. The Central Bank of Libya continued to pay government salaries to a majority of the Libyan workforce and to fund subsidies for fuel and food, resulting in an estimated budget deficit of about 20% of GDP in 2016.

Libya’s economic transition away from QADHAFI’s notionally socialist model has completely stalled as political chaos persists and security continues to deteriorate. Libya’s leaders have hindered economic development by failing to use its financial resources to invest in national infrastructure. The country suffers from widespread power outages in its largest cities, caused by shortages of fuel for power generation. Living conditions, including access to clean drinking water, medical services, and safe housing, have all declined as the civil war has caused more people to become internally displaced, further straining local resources.

Extremists affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) attacked Libyan oilfields in the first half of 2015; ISIL has a presence in many cities across Libya including near oil infrastructure, threatening future government revenues from oil and gas.
Sudan has experienced protracted social conflict, civil war, and, in July 2011, the loss of three-quarters of its oil production due to the secession of South Sudan. The oil sector had driven much of Sudan's GDP growth since 1999. For nearly a decade, the economy boomed on the back of rising oil production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Since the economic shock of South Sudan's secession, Sudan has struggled to stabilize its economy and make up for the loss of foreign exchange earnings. The interruption of oil production in South Sudan in 2012 for over a year and the consequent loss of oil transit fees further exacerbated the fragile state of Sudan’s economy. Ongoing conflicts in Southern Kordofan, Darfur, and the Blue Nile states, lack of basic infrastructure in large areas, and reliance by much of the population on subsistence agriculture, keep close to half of the population at or below the poverty line.

Sudan is also subject to comprehensive US sanctions. Sudan is attempting to develop non-oil sources of revenues, such as gold mining, while carrying out an austerity program to reduce expenditures. The world’s largest exporter of gum Arabic, Sudan produces 75-80% of the world’s total output. Agriculture continues to employ 80% of the work force.

Sudan introduced a new currency, still called the Sudanese pound, following South Sudan's secession, but the value of the currency has fallen since its introduction. Khartoum formally devalued the currency in June 2012, when it passed austerity measures that included gradually repealing fuel subsidies. Sudan also faces high inflation, which reached 47% on an annual basis in November 2012 but subsided to about 20% in 2016-17.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$90.89 billion (2016 est.)
$94.01 billion (2015 est.)
$100.4 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$176.3 billion (2016 est.)
$171.1 billion (2015 est.)
$163.1 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate-3.3% (2016 est.)
-6.4% (2015 est.)
-24% (2014 est.)
3.1% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
1.6% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$14,200 (2016 est.)
$14,900 (2015 est.)
$16,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$4,500 (2016 est.)
$4,500 (2015 est.)
$4,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 1.9%
industry: 43.2%
services: 54.9% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 27.5%
industry: 20.7%
services: 51.8% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty lineNA%
note: about one-third of Libyans live at or below the national poverty line
46.5% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 26.7% (2009 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)13% (2016 est.)
12.1% (2015 est.)
20% (2016 est.)
17.3% (2015 est.)
Labor force1.153 million (2016 est.)
11.92 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 17%
industry: 23%
services: 59% (2004 est.)
agriculture: 80%
industry: 7%
services: 13% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate30% (2004 est.)
13.6% (2014 est.)
14.8% (2013 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $5.792 billion
expenditures: $13.71 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $7.301 billion
expenditures: $11.28 billion (2016 est.)
Industriespetroleum, petrochemicals, aluminum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly, milling
Industrial production growth rate-6.7% (2016 est.)
2.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle
cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum Arabic, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), mangoes, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame seeds; animal feed, sheep and other livestock
Exports$10.65 billion (2016 est.)
$10.22 billion (2015 est.)
$3.703 billion (2016 est.)
$3.169 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiescrude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals
gold; oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, peanuts, gum Arabic, sugar
Exports - partnersItaly 33.3%, Germany 11.7%, China 8.3%, France 8.3%, Spain 5.8%, Netherlands 5.7%, Syria 5.5% (2015)
UAE 23.4%, Macau 23.3%, Saudi Arabia 20.8%, Egypt 9.6% (2015)
Imports$9.551 billion (2016 est.)
$11.52 billion (2015 est.)
$9.345 billion (2016 est.)
$8.368 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, semi-finished goods, food, transport equipment, consumer products
foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines, chemicals, textiles, wheat
Imports - partnersChina 15.4%, Italy 13.4%, Turkey 11.5%, France 6.4%, Spain 4.8%, Syria 4.7%, Egypt 4.5%, South Korea 4.4%, Tunisia 4.4% (2015)
Macau 22.7%, UAE 8.8%, India 8.4%, Egypt 6%, Saudi Arabia 4.6%, Turkey 4.3% (2015)
Debt - external$3.531 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.985 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$51.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$49.42 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesLibyan dinars (LYD) per US dollar -
1.69 (2016 est.)
1.379 (2015 est.)
1.379 (2014 est.)
1.2724 (2013 est.)
1.26 (2012 est.)
Sudanese pounds (SDG) per US dollar -
6.32 (2016 est.)
6.03 (2015 est.)
6.03 (2014 est.)
5.74 (2013 est.)
3.57 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt10% of GDP (2016 est.)
8% of GDP (2015 est.)
68.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
68.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$56.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$73.83 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$167.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$173.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$13.49 billion (2016 est.)
-$18.37 billion (2015 est.)
-$5.468 billion (2016 est.)
-$6.386 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$39.39 billion (2016 est.)
$94.3 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$18.96 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$18.83 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$24.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$24.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$NA
Stock of domestic credit$554.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$767.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$17.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.34 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$46.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$51.23 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$9.711 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.511 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$54.66 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$53.34 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$15.64 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.42 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues14.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
7.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-20.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-4.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 48.7%
male: 40.8%
female: 67.8% (2012 est.)
total: 20%
male: 16%
female: 32% (2009 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 84.3%
government consumption: 21.7%
investment in fixed capital: 3.4%
investment in inventories: 1.4%
exports of goods and services: 32.3%
imports of goods and services: -43.1% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 82.6%
government consumption: 7.4%
investment in fixed capital: 14.1%
investment in inventories: 1.3%
exports of goods and services: 7.1%
imports of goods and services: -12.5% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving-17.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
-34% of GDP (2015 est.)
5.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
10.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
9.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
10% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

LibyaSudan
Electricity - production35 billion kWh
note: persistent electricity shortages have contributed to the ongoing instability throughout the country (2014 est.)
12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption9.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
9.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports1 million kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports88 million kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production404,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
64,770 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports834,100 bbl/day
note: Libyan crude oil export values are highly volatile because of continuing protests and other disruptions across the country (2013 est.)
2,060 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves48.36 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
5 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves1.505 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
21.24 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production11.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption5.804 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports6 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity8.9 million kW (2014 est.)
3.7 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels99.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
30.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
66.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production158,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
88,180 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption255,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
108,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports50,890 bbl/day (2013 est.)
5,984 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports144,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
24,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy57 million Mt (2013 est.)
14 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 13,083
electrification - total population: 99.8%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 99.1% (2013)
population without electricity: 24,700,000
electrification - total population: 35%
electrification - urban areas: 63%
electrification - rural areas: 21% (2013)

Telecommunications

LibyaSudan
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 632,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 118,954
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 9.918 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 155 (July 2015 est.)
total: 27.939 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: Libya's civil war has disrupted its telecommunications sector, but much of its infrastructure remains superior to that in most other African countries
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular service generally adequate, but pressure to rebuild damaged infrastructure growing
international: country code - 218; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cable to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (2015)
general assessment: well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially with wide coverage of most major cities
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, fiber optic, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations
international: country code - 249; linked to the EASSy and FLAG fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Arabsat (2010)
Internet country code.ly
.sd
Internet userstotal: 1.219 million
percent of population: 19% (July 2015 est.)
total: 9.61 million
percent of population: 26.6% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-funded and private TV stations; some provinces operate local TV stations; pan-Arab satellite TV stations are available; state-funded radio (2012)
the Sudanese Government directly controls TV and radio, requiring that both media reflect government policies; TV has a permanent military censor; a private radio station is in operation (2007)

Transportation

LibyaSudan
Roadwaystotal: 100,024 km
paved: 57,214 km
unpaved: 42,810 km (2003)
total: 11,900 km
paved: 4,320 km
unpaved: 7,580 km (2000)
Pipelinescondensate 882 km; gas 3,743 km; oil 7,005 km (2013)
gas 156 km; oil 4,070 km; refined products 1,613 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Marsa al Burayqah (Marsa el Brega), Tripoli
oil terminal(s): Az Zawiyah, Ra's Lanuf
LNG terminal(s) (export): Marsa el Brega
major seaport(s): Port Sudan
Merchant marinetotal: 23
by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 4, liquefied gas 3, petroleum tanker 13, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 2 (Kuwait 1, Norway 1)
registered in other countries: 6 (Hong Kong 1, Malta 5) (2010)
total: 2
by type: cargo 2 (2010)
Airports146 (2013)
74 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 68
over 3,047 m: 23
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 78
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 37
under 914 m: 20 (2013)
total: 58
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 28
under 914 m: 12 (2013)
Heliports2 (2013)
6 (2013)

Military

LibyaSudan
Military branchesnote - in transition; government has affiliated Army, Air Force, Navy, and Coast Guard forces (2016)
Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF): Land Forces, Navy (includes Marines), Sudanese Air Force (Sikakh al-Jawwiya as-Sudaniya), Rapid Support Forces, Popular Defense Forces (2016)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for mandatory or voluntary service (2012)
18-33 years of age for male and female compulsory or voluntary military service; 1-2 year service obligation; a requirement that completion of national service was mandatory before entering public or private sector employment has been cancelled (2012)

Transnational Issues

LibyaSudan
Disputes - internationaldormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the FLN's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco; various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Libya
the effects of Sudan's ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; as of April 2017, more than 610,000 Sudanese refugees are being hosted in the Central African Republic, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, and South Sudan; Sudan, in turn, is hosting about 507,000 refugees, including more than 375,000 from South Sudan; Sudan accuses South Sudan of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of the Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 5,379 (West Bank and Gaza Strip) (2016)
IDPs: 240,188 (conflict between pro-Qadhafi and anti-Qadhafi forces in 2011; post-Qadhafi tribal clashes 2014) (2017)
refugees (country of origin): 103,176 (Eritrea); 8,502 (Chad); 6,997 (Syria) (2016); 417,495 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2017)
IDPs: 3.3 million (civil war 1983-2005; ongoing conflict in Darfur region; government and rebel fighting along South Sudan border; inter-tribal clashes) (2016)
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Libya is a destination and transit country for men and women from sub-Saharan Africa and Asia subjected to forced labor and forced prostitution; migrants who seek employment in Libya as laborers and domestic workers or who transit Libya en route to Europe are vulnerable to forced labor; private employers also exploit migrants from detention centers as forced laborers on farms and construction sites, returning them to detention when they are no longer needed; some sub-Saharan women are reportedly forced to work in Libyan brothels, particularly in the country’s south; since 2013, militia groups and other informal armed groups, including some affiliated with the government, are reported to conscript Libyan children under the age of 18; large-scale violence driven by militias, civil unrest, and increased lawlessness increased in 2014, making it more difficult to obtain information on human trafficking
tier rating: Tier 3 - the Libyan Government does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, the government’s capacity to address human trafficking was hampered by the ongoing power struggle and violence; the judicial system was not functioning, preventing any efforts to investigate, prosecute, or convict traffickers, complicit detention camp guards or government officials, or militias or armed groups that used child soldiers; the government failed to identify or provide protection to trafficking victims, including child conscripts, and continued to punish victims for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked; no public anti-trafficking awareness campaigns were conducted (2015)
current situation: Sudan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Sudanese women and girls, particularly those from rural areas or who are internally displaced, or refugees are vulnerable to domestic servitude in country, as well as domestic servitude and sex trafficking abroad; migrants from East and West Africa, South Sudan, Syria, and Nigeria smuggled into or through Sudan are vulnerable to exploitation; Ethiopian, Eritrean, and Filipina women are subjected to domestic servitude in Sudanese homes, and East African and possibly Thai women are forced into prostitution in Sudan; Sudanese children continue to be recruited and used as combatants by government forces and armed groups
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Sudan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government increased its efforts to publically address and prevent trafficking, established a national anti-trafficking council, and began drafting a national action plan against trafficking; the government acknowledges cross-border trafficking but still denies the existence of forced labor, sex trafficking, and the recruitment of child soldiers domestically; law enforcement and judicial officials struggled to apply the national anti-trafficking law, often relying on other statutes with lesser penalties; authorities did not use systematic procedure to identify victims or refer them to care and relied on international organizations and domestic groups to provide protective services; some foreign victims were penalized for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked, such as immigration or prostitution violations (2015)

Source: CIA Factbook