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Libya vs. Egypt

Introduction

LibyaEgypt
BackgroundThe Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks in the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when they were defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar al-QADHAFI assumed leadership and began to espouse his political system at home, which was a combination of socialism and Islam. During the 1970s, QADHAFI used oil revenues to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversive and terrorist activities that included the downing of two airliners - one over Scotland, another in Northern Africa - and a discotheque bombing in Berlin. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically and economically following the attacks; sanctions were lifted in 2003 following Libyan acceptance of responsibility for the bombings and agreement to claimant compensation. QADHAFI also agreed to end Libya's program to develop weapons of mass destruction, and he made significant strides in normalizing relations with Western nations.
Unrest that began in several Middle Eastern and North African countries in late 2010 erupted in Libyan cities in early 2011. QADHAFI's brutal crackdown on protesters spawned a civil war that triggered UN authorization of air and naval intervention by the international community. After months of seesaw fighting between government and opposition forces, the QADHAFI regime was toppled in mid-2011 and replaced by a transitional government known as the National Transitional Council (NTC). In 2012, the NTC handed power to an elected parliament, the General National Congress (GNC). Voters chose a new parliament to replace the GNC in June 2014 - the House of Representatives (HoR), which relocated to the eastern city of Tobruk after fighting broke out in Tripoli.
In October 2015, the UN Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG) to Libya, Bernardino LEON, brokered an agreement among a broad array of Libyan political parties and social groups - known as the Libyan Political Agreement (LPA). Members of the Libyan Political Dialogue, including representatives of the HoR and ex-GNC, signed the LPA in December 2015. The LPA called for the formation of an interim Government of National Accord or GNA, with a nine-member Presidency Council, the HoR, and an advisory High Council of State that most ex-GNC members joined. The LPA’s roadmap for a two-year transition to a new constitution and elected government was subsequently endorsed by UN Security Council Resolution 2259, which also called upon member states to cease official contact with parallel institutions. In January 2016, the HoR voted to approve the LPA, including the Presidency Council, while voting against a controversial provision on security leadership positions. In March 2016, the GNA Presidency Council seated itself in Tripoli. In 2016, the GNA twice announced a slate of ministers who operate de facto, but the HoR did not endorse the ministerial list. HoR and ex-GNC-affiliated hardliners continued to oppose the GNA and hampered the LPA’s implementation.
The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Completion of the Suez Canal in 1869 elevated Egypt as an important world transportation hub. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty from Britain in 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt's population through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.
Inspired by the 2010 Tunisian revolution, Egyptian opposition groups led demonstrations and labor strikes countrywide, culminating in President Hosni MUBARAK's ouster in 2011. Egypt's military assumed national leadership until a new parliament was in place in early 2012; later that same year, Mohammed MORSI won the presidential election. Following often violent protests throughout the spring of 2013 against MORSI's government and the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian Armed Forces intervened and removed MORSI from power in July 2013 and replaced him with interim president Adly MANSOUR. In January 2014, voters approved a new constitution by referendum and in May 2014 elected Abdelfattah ELSISI president. Egypt elected a new legislature in December 2015, the first parliament since 2012.

Geography

LibyaEgypt
LocationNorthern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula
Geographic coordinates25 00 N, 17 00 E
27 00 N, 30 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 1,759,540 sq km
land: 1,759,540 sq km
water: 0 sq km
total: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km
Area - comparativeabout 2.5 times the size of Texas; slightly larger than Alaska
more than eight times the size of Ohio; slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundariestotal: 4,339 km
border countries (6): Algeria 989 km, Chad 1,050 km, Egypt 1,115 km, Niger 342 km, Sudan 382 km, Tunisia 461 km
total: 2,612 km
border countries (4): Gaza Strip 13 km, Israel 208 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,276 km
Coastline1,770 km
2,450 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
note: Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees, 30 minutes north
exclusive fishing zone: 62 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or the equidistant median line with Cyprus
continental shelf: 200 nm
ClimateMediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
Terrainmostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 423 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m
highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m
mean elevation: 321 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, gypsum
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc
Land useagricultural land: 8.8%
arable land 1%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 7.6%
forest: 0.1%
other: 91.1% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 3.6%
arable land 2.8%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 0%
forest: 0.1%
other: 96.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land4,700 sq km (2012)
36,500 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardshot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms
periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving windstorms called khamsin occur in spring; dust storms; sandstorms
Environment - current issuesdesertification; limited natural freshwater resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, brings water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities
agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; limited natural freshwater resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notemore than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert
controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees from Sudan and the Palestinian territories
Population distributionwell over 90% of the population lives along the Mediterranean coast in and between the western city of Az Zawiyah (just west of Tripoli) and the eastern city of Darnah; the interior remains vastly underpopulated due to the Sahara and lack of surface water
approximately 95% of the population lives within 20 km of the Nile River and its delta; vast areas of the country remain sparsely populated or uninhabited

Demographics

LibyaEgypt
Population6,541,948 (July 2015 est.)
note: immigrants make up just over 12% of the total population, according to UN data (2015) (July 2016 est.)
94,666,993 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 26.17% (male 875,430/female 836,272)
15-24 years: 17.41% (male 586,713/female 552,531)
25-54 years: 46.99% (male 1,613,168/female 1,460,987)
55-64 years: 5.21% (male 174,023/female 167,072)
65 years and over: 4.22% (male 137,409/female 138,343) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 33.21% (male 16,268,862/female 15,169,039)
15-24 years: 19.24% (male 9,371,819/female 8,839,999)
25-54 years: 37.47% (male 18,020,332/female 17,448,871)
55-64 years: 5.91% (male 2,771,399/female 2,826,094)
65 years and over: 4.17% (male 1,937,119/female 2,013,459) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 28.5 years
male: 28.6 years
female: 28.3 years (2016 est.)
total: 23.8 years
male: 23.5 years
female: 24.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.8% (2016 est.)
2.51% (2016 est.)
Birth rate17.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
30.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate3.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
4.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate3.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 11.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 12 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 19.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 76.5 years
male: 74.7 years
female: 78.3 years (2016 est.)
total population: 72.7 years
male: 71.4 years
female: 74.2 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.04 children born/woman (2016 est.)
3.53 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Libyan(s)
adjective: Libyan
noun: Egyptian(s)
adjective: Egyptian
Ethnic groupsBerber and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians)
Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4% (2006 census)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
11,500 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim (official; virtually all Sunni) 96.6%, Christian 2.7%, Buddhist 0.3%, Hindu <0.1, Jewish <0.1, folk religion <0.1, unafilliated 0.2%, other <0.1
note: non-Sunni Muslims include native Ibadhi Muslims (<1% of the population) and foreign Muslims (2010 est.)
Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 90%, Christian (majority Coptic Orthodox, other Christians include Armenian Apostolic, Catholic, Maronite, Orthodox, and Anglican) 10% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
300 (2015 est.)
LanguagesArabic (official), Italian, English (all widely understood in the major cities); Berber (Nafusi, Ghadamis, Suknah, Awjilah, Tamasheq)
Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91%
male: 96.7%
female: 85.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73.8%
male: 82.2%
female: 65.4% (2015 est.)
Education expendituresNA
3.8% of GDP (2008)
Urbanizationurban population: 78.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.13% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 43.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.68% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 54.2% of population
rural: 54.9% of population
total: 54.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 45.8% of population
rural: 45.1% of population
total: 45.6% of population (2001 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 96.8% of population
rural: 95.7% of population
total: 96.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 4.3% of population
total: 3.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 96.8% of population
rural: 93.1% of population
total: 94.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 6.9% of population
total: 5.3% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationTRIPOLI (capital) 1.126 million (2015)
CAIRO (capital) 18.772 million; Alexandria 4.778 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate9 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
33 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight5.6% (2007)
7% (2014)
Health expenditures5% of GDP (2014)
5.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.09 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
0.81 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density3.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate31.9% (2014)
27.7% (2014)
Demographic profileDespite continuing unrest, Libya remains a destination country for economic migrants. It is also a hub for transit migration to Europe because of its proximity to southern Europe and its lax border controls. Labor migrants have been drawn to Libya since the development of its oil sector in the 1960s. Until the latter part of the 1990s, most migrants to Libya were Arab (primarily Egyptians and Sudanese). However, international isolation stemming from Libya’s involvement in international terrorism and a perceived lack of support from Arab countries led QADHAFI in 1998 to adopt a decade-long pan-African policy that enabled large numbers of sub-Saharan migrants to enter Libya without visas to work in the construction and agricultural industries. Although sub-Saharan Africans provided a cheap labor source, they were poorly treated and were subjected to periodic mass expulsions.
By the mid-2000s, domestic animosity toward African migrants and a desire to reintegrate into the international community motivated QADHAFI to impose entry visas on Arab and African immigrants and to agree to joint maritime patrols and migrant repatriations with Italy, the main recipient of illegal migrants departing Libya. As his regime neared collapse in 2011, QADHAFI reversed his policy of cooperating with Italy to curb illegal migration and sent boats loaded with migrants and asylum seekers to strain European resources. Libya’s 2011 revolution decreased inmigration drastically and prompted nearly 800,000 migrants to flee to third countries, mainly Tunisia and Egypt, or to their countries of origin. The inflow of migrants declined in 2012 but returned to normal levels by 2013, despite continued hostility toward sub-Saharan Africans and a less-inviting job market.
While Libya is not an appealing destination for migrants, since 2014, transiting migrants – primarily from East and West Africa – continue to exploit its political instability and weak border controls and use it as a primary departure area to migrate across the central Mediterranean to Europe in growing numbers. In addition, almost 350,000 people were displaced internally as of August 2016 by fighting between armed groups in eastern and western Libya and, to a lesser extent, by inter-tribal clashes in the country’s south.
Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world and the third most populous country in Africa, behind Nigeria and Ethiopia. Most of the country is desert, so about 95% of the population is concentrated in a narrow strip of fertile land along the Nile River, which represents only about 5% of Egypt’s land area. Egypt’s rapid population growth – 46% between 1994 and 2014 – stresses limited natural resources, jobs, housing, sanitation, education, and health care.
Although the country’s total fertility rate (TFR) fell from roughly 5.5 children per woman in 1980 to just over 3 in the late 1990s, largely as a result of state-sponsored family planning programs, the population growth rate dropped more modestly because of decreased mortality rates and longer life expectancies. During the last decade, Egypt’s TFR decline stalled for several years and then reversed, reaching 3.6 in 2011, and has plateaued the last few years. Contraceptive use has held steady at about 60%, while preferences for larger families and early marriage may have strengthened in the wake of the recent 2011 revolution. The large cohort of women of or nearing childbearing age will sustain high population growth for the foreseeable future (an effect called population momentum).
Nevertheless, post-MUBARAK governments have not made curbing population growth a priority. To increase contraceptive use and to prevent further overpopulation will require greater government commitment and substantial social change, including encouraging smaller families and better educating and empowering women. Currently, literacy, educational attainment, and labor force participation rates are much lower for women than men. In addition, the prevalence of violence against women, the lack of female political representation, and the perpetuation of the nearly universal practice of female genital cutting continue to keep women from playing a more significant role in Egypt’s public sphere.
Population pressure, poverty, high unemployment, and the fragmentation of inherited land holdings have historically motivated Egyptians, primarily young men, to migrate internally from rural and smaller urban areas in the Nile Delta region and the poorer rural south to Cairo, Alexandria, and other urban centers in the north, while a much smaller number migrated to the Red Sea and Sinai areas. Waves of forced internal migration also resulted from the 1967 Arab-Israeli War and the floods caused by the completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1970. Limited numbers of students and professionals emigrated temporarily prior to the early 1970s, when economic problems and high unemployment pushed the Egyptian Government to lift restrictions on labor migration. At the same time, high oil revenues enabled Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and other Gulf states, as well as Libya and Jordan, to fund development projects, creating a demand for unskilled labor (mainly in construction), which attracted tens of thousands of young Egyptian men.
Between 1970 and 1974 alone, Egyptian migrants in the Gulf countries increased from approximately 70,000 to 370,000. Egyptian officials encouraged legal labor migration both to alleviate unemployment and to generate remittance income (remittances continue to be one of Egypt’s largest sources of foreign currency and GDP). During the mid-1980s, however, depressed oil prices resulting from the Iran-Iraq War, decreased demand for low-skilled labor, competition from less costly South Asian workers, and efforts to replace foreign workers with locals significantly reduced Egyptian migration to the Gulf States. The number of Egyptian migrants dropped from a peak of almost 3.3 million in 1983 to about 2.2 million at the start of the 1990s, but numbers gradually recovered.
In the 2000s, Egypt began facilitating more labor migration through bilateral agreements, notably with Arab countries and Italy, but illegal migration to Europe through overstayed visas or maritime human smuggling via Libya also rose. The Egyptian Government estimated there were 6.5 million Egyptian migrants in 2009, with roughly 75% being temporary migrants in other Arab countries (Libya, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates) and 25% being predominantly permanent migrants in the West (US, UK, Italy, France, and Canada).
During the 2000s, Egypt became an increasingly important transit and destination country for economic migrants and asylum seekers, including Palestinians, East Africans, and South Asians and, more recently, Iraqis and Syrians. Egypt draws many refugees because of its resettlement programs with the West; Cairo has one of the largest urban refugee populations in the world. Many East African migrants are interned or live in temporary encampments along the Egypt-Israel border, and some have been shot and killed by Egyptian border guards.
Contraceptive prevalence rate41.9% (2007)
58.5% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 52.4
youth dependency ratio: 45.5
elderly dependency ratio: 6.9
potential support ratio: 14.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 62.3
youth dependency ratio: 53.8
elderly dependency ratio: 8.5
potential support ratio: 11.8 (2015 est.)

Government

LibyaEgypt
Country nameconventional long form: none
conventional short form: Libya
local long form: none
local short form: Libiya
etymology: name derives from the Libu, an ancient Libyan tribe first mentioned in texts from the 13th century B.C.
"conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: Misr
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)
etymology: the English name ""Egypt"" derives from the ancient Greek name for the country ""Aigyptos""; the Arabic name ""Misr"" can be traced to the ancient Akkadian ""misru"" meaning border or frontier
"
Government typein transition
presidential republic
Capitalname: Tripoli (Tarabulus)
geographic coordinates: 32 53 N, 13 10 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Cairo
geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions22 districts (shabiyat, singular - shabiyat); Al Butnan, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jabal al Gharbi, Al Jafarah, Al Jufrah, Al Kufrah, Al Marj, Al Marqab, Al Wahat, An Nuqat al Khams, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghat, Misratah, Murzuq, Nalut, Sabha, Surt, Tarabulus, Wadi al Hayat, Wadi ash Shati
27 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazat); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur (Luxor), Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina' (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina' (North Sinai), Suhaj
Independence24 December 1951 (from UN trusteeship)
28 February 1922 (from UK protectorate status; the revolution that began on 23 July 1952 led to a republic being declared on 18 June 1953 and all British troops withdrawn on 18 June 1956); note - it was ca. 3200 B.C. that the Two Lands of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt were first united politically
National holidayLiberation Day, 23 October (2011)
Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1951,1977; drafting of a new constitution by the Constitution Drafting Assembly continued into 2017 (2017)
history: several previous; latest approved by a constitutional committee in December 2013, approved by referendum held on 14-15 January 2014, ratified by interim president on 19 January 2014
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by one-fifth of the House of Representatives members; a decision to accept the proposal requires majority vote by House members; passage of amendment requires a two-thirds majority vote by House members and passage by majority vote in a referendum; articles of reelection of the president and principles of freedom normally not amendable (2016)
Legal systemLibya's post-revolution legal system is in flux and driven by state and non-state entities
mixed legal system based on Napoleonic civil and penal law, Islamic religious law, and vestiges of colonial-era laws; judicial review of the constitutionality of laws by the Supreme Constitutional Court
Suffrage18 years of age, universal
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branchchief of state: Chairman, Presidential Council, Fayiz al-SARAJ (since December 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Fayiz al-SARAJ (since December 2015)
cabinet: new cabinet awaiting approval by the House of Representatives
elections/appointments: NA
election results: NA
Chief of state: President Abdelfattah Said ELSISI (since 8 June 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Sherif ISMAIL (since 12 September 2015); note - Prime Minister Ibrahim MEHLAB resigned 12 September 2015
cabinet: Cabinet sworn in 19 September 2015
elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26-28 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2018); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the House of Representatives
election results: Abdelfattah Said ELSISI elected president; percent of vote in 1 round - Abdelfattah Said ELSISI (independent) 96.6%, Hamdeen SABAHI (Egyptian Current Party) 3.4%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Council of Deputies or Majlis Al Nuwab (200 seats including 32 reserved for women; members elected by direct popular vote; member term NA)
elections: election last held in June 2014; note - the Libyan Supreme Court in November 2014 declared the House election unconstitutional, but the Council rejected the ruling
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - independent 200; note - not all 200 seats were filled in the June election because of boycotts and lack of security at some polling stations; some elected members of the Council also boycotted the election
description: unicameral House of Representatives (Majlis Al-Nowaab); 596 seats; 448 members directly elected by individual candidacy system, 120 members - with quotas for women, youth, Christians and workers - elected in party-list constituencies by simple majority popular vote, and 28 members selected by the president; member term 5 years; note - inaugural session held on 10 January 2016
elections: multi-phase election completed on 16 December 2015 (next election 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -– Free Egyptians Party 65, Nation’s Future Party 53, New Wafd Party 36, Homeland’s Protector Party 18, Republican People’s Party 13, Congress Party 12, al-Nour Party 11, Conservative Party 6, Democratic Peace Party 5, Egyptian Social Democratic Party 4, Egyptian National Movement 4, Modern Egypt Party 4, Reform and Development Party 3, Freedom Party 3, My Homeland Egypt Party 3, National Progressive Unionist Party 2, Arab Democratic Nasserist Party 1, Revolutionary Guards Party 1, Free Egyptian Building Party 1, independent 351
Judicial branchhighest court(s): NA; note - government is in transition
"highest court(s): Supreme Constitutional Court or SCC (consists of the court president and 10 justices); the SCC serves as the final court of arbitrator on the constitutionality of laws and conflicts between lower courts regarding jurisdiction and rulings; Court of Cassation (CC) (consists of the court president and 550 judges organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the CC is the highest appeals body for civil and criminal cases, also known as “ordinary justices""; Supreme Administrative Court (SAC) - consists of the court president and organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the SAC is the highest court of the State Council
judge selection and term of office: under the 2014 constitution, all judges and justices selected by the Supreme Judiciary Council and appointed by the president of the Republic; judges appointed for life
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; courts of limited jurisdiction; Family Court (established in 2004)
"
Political parties and leadersNA

officially recognized: Al-Nour [Yunis MAKHYUN]
Arab Democratic Nasserist Party [Sameh ASHOUR]
Congress Party [Omar Mokhtar SEMEIDA]
Conservative Party [Akmal KOURTAM]
Democratic Peace Party [Ahmed FADALY]
Egyptian National Movement Party [Ibrahim DARWISH]
Egyptian Social Democratic Party [Mervat TALAWAY]
El Tagamu'u Party (National Progressibve Unionist [Sayed Abdel AAL]
Freedom Party [Mamdouh HASSAN]
Free Egyptian Building Party
Free Egyptians Party [Essam KHALIL]
Homeland’s Protector Party [Lt. Gen. (retired) Galal AL-HARIDI]
Modern Egypt Party [Nabil DEIBIS]
Mostaqbal Watan (Nation’s Future) Party [Mohamed Ashraf RASHAD]
My Homeland Egypt Party [Qadry ABU HUSSEIN]
National Progressive Unionist (Tagammu) Party [Sayed Abdel AAL]
Nation's Future Party [Ashraf RASHAD, secretary general]
New Wafd Party [Sayed al-BADAWI]
Reform and Development Party [Mohamad Anwar al-SADAT]
Republican People’s Party [Hazim AMR]
Revolutionary Guards Party [Magdy EL-SHARIF]
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
NA
International organization participationABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BDEAC, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CD, CICA, COMESA, D-8, EBRD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Wafa M.T. BUGHAIGHIS (since 5 December 2014)
chancery: 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 944-9601
FAX: [1] (202) 944-9606
chief of mission: Ambassador Yasser REDA (since 19 September 2015)
chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 244-5131
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Peter William BODDE (since 21 December 2015)
note: the embassy was closed in July 2014 due to major fighting near the embassy related to the Libyan civil war; embassy staff and operations were temporarily moved to Tunis, Tunisia
embassy: Sidi Slim Area/Walie Al-Ahed Road, Tripoli
mailing address: US Embassy, 8850 Tripoli Place, Washington, DC 20521-8850
telephone: [218] (0) 91-220-3239
chief of mission: Ambassador R. Stephen BEECROFT (since 18 December 2014)
embassy: 5 Tawfik Diab St., Garden City, Cairo
mailing address: Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900; 5 Tawfik Diab Street, Garden City, Cairo
telephone: [20] (2) 2797-3300
FAX: [20] (2) 2797-3200
Flag descriptionthree horizontal bands of red (top), black (double width), and green with a white crescent and star centered on the black stripe; the National Transitional Council reintroduced this flag design of the former Kingdom of Libya (1951-1969) on 27 February 2011; it replaced the former all-green banner promulgated by the QADHAFI regime in 1977; the colors represent the three major regions of the country: red stands for Fezzan, black symbolizes Cyrenaica, and green denotes Tripolitania; the crescent and star represent Islam, the main religion of the country
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white)
note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band, and Yemen, which has a plain white band
National anthem"name: ""Libya, Libya, Libya""
lyrics/music: Al Bashir AL AREBI/Mohamad Abdel WAHAB
note: also known as ""Ya Beladi"" or ""Oh, My Country!""; adopted 1951; readopted 2011 with some modification to the lyrics; during the QADHAFI years between 1969 and 2011, the anthem was ""Allahu Akbar,"" (God is Great) a marching song of the Egyptian Army in the 1956 Suez War
"
"name: ""Bilady, Bilady, Bilady"" (My Homeland, My Homeland, My Homeland)
lyrics/music: Younis-al QADI/Sayed DARWISH
note: adopted 1979; the current anthem, less militaristic than the previous one, was created after the signing of the 1979 peace treaty with Israel; Sayed DARWISH, commonly considered the father of modern Egyptian music, composed the anthem
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)star and crescent, hawk; national colors: red, black, green
golden eagle, white lotus; national colors: red, white, black
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Libya
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: varies from 3 to 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: if the father was born in Egypt
dual citizenship recognized: only with prior permission from the government
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

LibyaEgypt
Economy - overviewLibya's economy, almost entirely dependent on oil and gas exports, has struggled since 2014 as the country plunged into civil war and world oil prices dropped to seven-year lows. In early 2015, armed conflict between rival forces for control of the country’s largest oil terminals caused a decline in Libyan crude oil production, which never recovered to more than one-third of the average pre-Revolution highs of 1.6 million barrels per day. The Central Bank of Libya continued to pay government salaries to a majority of the Libyan workforce and to fund subsidies for fuel and food, resulting in an estimated budget deficit of about 20% of GDP in 2016.

Libya’s economic transition away from QADHAFI’s notionally socialist model has completely stalled as political chaos persists and security continues to deteriorate. Libya’s leaders have hindered economic development by failing to use its financial resources to invest in national infrastructure. The country suffers from widespread power outages in its largest cities, caused by shortages of fuel for power generation. Living conditions, including access to clean drinking water, medical services, and safe housing, have all declined as the civil war has caused more people to become internally displaced, further straining local resources.

Extremists affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) attacked Libyan oilfields in the first half of 2015; ISIL has a presence in many cities across Libya including near oil infrastructure, threatening future government revenues from oil and gas.
Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. Egypt's economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel NASSER but opened up considerably under former Presidents Anwar EL-SADAT and Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK.

Cairo from 2004 to 2008 pursued business climate reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate growth. Poor living conditions and limited job opportunities for the average Egyptian contribute to public discontent, a major factor leading to the January 2011 revolution that ousted MUBARAK. The uncertain political, security, and policy environment since 2011 caused economic growth to slow significantly, hurting tourism, manufacturing, and other sectors and pushing up unemployment, which remains above 10%.

Weak growth and limited foreign exchange earnings have made public finances unsustainable, leaving authorities dependent on expensive borrowing for deficit finance and on Gulf allies to help cover the import bill. In 2015-16, higher levels of foreign investment contributed to a slight rebound in GDP growth after a particularly depressed post-revolution period. In 2016, Cairo enacted a value-added tax, implemented fuel and electricity subsidy cuts, and floated its currency, which led to a sharp depreciation of the pound and corresponding inflation. In November 2016, the IMF approved a $12 billion, three-year loan for Egypt and disbursed the first $2.75 billion tranche.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$90.89 billion (2016 est.)
$94.01 billion (2015 est.)
$100.4 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1.105 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.064 trillion (2015 est.)
$1.021 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate-3.3% (2016 est.)
-6.4% (2015 est.)
-24% (2014 est.)
3.8% (2016 est.)
4.2% (2015 est.)
2.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$14,200 (2016 est.)
$14,900 (2015 est.)
$16,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$12,100 (2016 est.)
$12,000 (2015 est.)
$11,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 1.9%
industry: 43.2%
services: 54.9% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 11.3%
industry: 35.8%
services: 52.9% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty lineNA%
note: about one-third of Libyans live at or below the national poverty line
25.2% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.6% (2008)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)13% (2016 est.)
12.1% (2015 est.)
12.1% (2016 est.)
10.4% (2015 est.)
Labor force1.153 million (2016 est.)
31.96 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 17%
industry: 23%
services: 59% (2004 est.)
agriculture: 29.2%
industry: 23.5%
services: 47.3% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate30% (2004 est.)
13.1% (2016 est.)
12.8% (2015 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $5.792 billion
expenditures: $13.71 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $60.09 billion
expenditures: $92.37 billion (2016 est.)
Industriespetroleum, petrochemicals, aluminum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures
Industrial production growth rate-6.7% (2016 est.)
0.6% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle
cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats
Exports$10.65 billion (2016 est.)
$10.22 billion (2015 est.)
$14.73 billion (2016 est.)
$19.03 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiescrude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals
crude oil and petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food
Exports - partnersItaly 33.3%, Germany 11.7%, China 8.3%, France 8.3%, Spain 5.8%, Netherlands 5.7%, Syria 5.5% (2015)
Saudi Arabia 9.1%, Italy 7.5%, Turkey 5.8%, UAE 5.1%, US 5.1%, UK 4.4%, India 4.1% (2015)
Imports$9.551 billion (2016 est.)
$11.52 billion (2015 est.)
$50.07 billion (2016 est.)
$57.17 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, semi-finished goods, food, transport equipment, consumer products
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels
Imports - partnersChina 15.4%, Italy 13.4%, Turkey 11.5%, France 6.4%, Spain 4.8%, Syria 4.7%, Egypt 4.5%, South Korea 4.4%, Tunisia 4.4% (2015)
China 13%, Germany 7.7%, US 5.9%, Turkey 4.5%, Russia 4.4%, Italy 4.4%, Saudi Arabia 4.1% (2015)
Debt - external$3.531 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.985 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$50.67 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$44.61 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesLibyan dinars (LYD) per US dollar -
1.69 (2016 est.)
1.379 (2015 est.)
1.379 (2014 est.)
1.2724 (2013 est.)
1.26 (2012 est.)
Egyptian pounds (EGP) per US dollar -
9.71 (2016 est.)
7.7133 (2015 est.)
7.7133 (2014 est.)
7.08 (2013 est.)
6.06 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
1 July - 30 June
Public debt10% of GDP (2016 est.)
8% of GDP (2015 est.)
92.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
90.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover central government debt and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$56.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$73.83 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$15.06 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.49 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$13.49 billion (2016 est.)
-$18.37 billion (2015 est.)
-$18.66 billion (2016 est.)
-$12.18 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$39.39 billion (2016 est.)
$342.8 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$18.96 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$18.83 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$94.51 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$89.65 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$22.19 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$21.59 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$8.042 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.362 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$55.19 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$70.08 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$61.63 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate9.52% (31 December 2010)
3% (31 December 2009)
9.75% (30 October 2014)
8.75% (5 December 2013)
Commercial bank prime lending rate6% (31 December 2016 est.)
6% (31 December 2015 est.)
12.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.63% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$554.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$767.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$260.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$297.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$46.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$51.23 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$55.96 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$66.49 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$54.66 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$53.34 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$210.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$243.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues14.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-20.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-9.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 48.7%
male: 40.8%
female: 67.8% (2012 est.)
total: 34.3%
male: 28.7%
female: 52.2% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 84.3%
government consumption: 21.7%
investment in fixed capital: 3.4%
investment in inventories: 1.4%
exports of goods and services: 32.3%
imports of goods and services: -43.1% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 84.4%
government consumption: 12%
investment in fixed capital: 12.1%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 12.7%
imports of goods and services: -21.6% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving-17.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
-34% of GDP (2015 est.)
5.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
8.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
10.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
13% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

LibyaEgypt
Electricity - production35 billion kWh
note: persistent electricity shortages have contributed to the ongoing instability throughout the country (2014 est.)
162 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption9.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
143 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports1 million kWh (2013 est.)
500 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports88 million kWh (2014 est.)
81 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production404,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
511,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
59,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports834,100 bbl/day
note: Libyan crude oil export values are highly volatile because of continuing protests and other disruptions across the country (2013 est.)
193,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves48.36 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
4.4 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves1.505 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
2.186 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production11.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
48.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption5.804 billion cu m (2014 est.)
48.08 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports6 billion cu m (2014 est.)
720 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
2.832 billion cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity8.9 million kW (2014 est.)
38 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels99.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
87.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
9.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
2.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production158,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
547,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption255,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
797,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports50,890 bbl/day (2013 est.)
45,500 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports144,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
215,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy57 million Mt (2013 est.)
207 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 13,083
electrification - total population: 99.8%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 99.1% (2013)
population without electricity: 300,000
electrification - total population: 99.6%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 99.3% (2013)

Telecommunications

LibyaEgypt
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 632,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 6,235,133
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 9.918 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 155 (July 2015 est.)
total: 94.016 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: Libya's civil war has disrupted its telecommunications sector, but much of its infrastructure remains superior to that in most other African countries
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular service generally adequate, but pressure to rebuild damaged infrastructure growing
international: country code - 218; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cable to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (2015)
general assessment: Telecom Egypt remains largely state owned; principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
domestic: largest fixed-line system in Africa and the Arab region; multiple mobile-cellular networks with a near 100-percent penetration of the market
international: country code - 20; landing point for Aletar, the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks, Link Around the Globe (FLAG) Falcon and FLAG FEA; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat); tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel (2015)
Internet country code.ly
.eg
Internet userstotal: 1.219 million
percent of population: 19% (July 2015 est.)
total: 31.767 million
percent of population: 35.9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-funded and private TV stations; some provinces operate local TV stations; pan-Arab satellite TV stations are available; state-funded radio (2012)
mix of state-run and private broadcast media; state-run TV operates 2 national and 6 regional terrestrial networks, as well as a few satellite channels; about 20 private satellite channels and a large number of Arabic satellite channels are available via subscription; state-run radio operates about 70 stations belonging to 8 networks; 2 privately owned radio stations operational (2008)

Transportation

LibyaEgypt
Roadwaystotal: 100,024 km
paved: 57,214 km
unpaved: 42,810 km (2003)
total: 137,430 km
paved: 126,742 km (includes 838 km of expressways)
unpaved: 10,688 km (2010)
Pipelinescondensate 882 km; gas 3,743 km; oil 7,005 km (2013)
condensate 486 km; condensate/gas 74 km; gas 7,986 km; liquid petroleum gas 957 km; oil 5,225 km; oil/gas/water 37 km; refined products 895 km; water 65 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Marsa al Burayqah (Marsa el Brega), Tripoli
oil terminal(s): Az Zawiyah, Ra's Lanuf
LNG terminal(s) (export): Marsa el Brega
major seaport(s): Mediterranean Sea - Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said; Gulf of Suez - Suez
oil terminal(s): Ain Sukhna terminal, Sidi Kerir terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Alexandria (1,108,826), Port Said (East) (2,617,043), Port Said (West) (1,138,753)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Damietta, Idku (Abu Qir Bay)
Merchant marinetotal: 23
by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 4, liquefied gas 3, petroleum tanker 13, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 2 (Kuwait 1, Norway 1)
registered in other countries: 6 (Hong Kong 1, Malta 5) (2010)
total: 67
by type: bulk carrier 16, cargo 20, container 3, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 9
foreign-owned: 13 (Denmark 1, France 1, Greece 8, Jordan 2, Lebanon 1)
registered in other countries: 42 (Cambodia 4, Georgia 7, Honduras 2, Liberia 3, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 5, Panama 11, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Saudi Arabia 1, Sierra Leone 3, unknown 1) (2010)
Airports146 (2013)
83 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 68
over 3,047 m: 23
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 72
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 78
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 37
under 914 m: 20 (2013)
total: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Heliports2 (2013)
7 (2013)

Military

LibyaEgypt
Military branchesnote - in transition; government has affiliated Army, Air Force, Navy, and Coast Guard forces (2016)
Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Forces (2015)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for mandatory or voluntary service (2012)
18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation - 18-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation; voluntary enlistment possible from age 15 (2017)

Transnational Issues

LibyaEgypt
Disputes - internationaldormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the FLN's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco; various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Libya
Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; Egypt no longer shows its administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Sudan on its maps; Gazan breaches in the security wall with Egypt in January 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai border; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 5,379 (West Bank and Gaza Strip) (2016)
IDPs: 240,188 (conflict between pro-Qadhafi and anti-Qadhafi forces in 2011; post-Qadhafi tribal clashes 2014) (2017)
refugees (country of origin): 70,027 (West Bank and Gaza Strip); 6,835 (Somalia) (2016); 15,053 (Sudan); 122,228 (Syria) (2017)
IDPs: 78,000 (2016)
stateless persons: 19 (2016)
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Libya is a destination and transit country for men and women from sub-Saharan Africa and Asia subjected to forced labor and forced prostitution; migrants who seek employment in Libya as laborers and domestic workers or who transit Libya en route to Europe are vulnerable to forced labor; private employers also exploit migrants from detention centers as forced laborers on farms and construction sites, returning them to detention when they are no longer needed; some sub-Saharan women are reportedly forced to work in Libyan brothels, particularly in the country’s south; since 2013, militia groups and other informal armed groups, including some affiliated with the government, are reported to conscript Libyan children under the age of 18; large-scale violence driven by militias, civil unrest, and increased lawlessness increased in 2014, making it more difficult to obtain information on human trafficking
tier rating: Tier 3 - the Libyan Government does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, the government’s capacity to address human trafficking was hampered by the ongoing power struggle and violence; the judicial system was not functioning, preventing any efforts to investigate, prosecute, or convict traffickers, complicit detention camp guards or government officials, or militias or armed groups that used child soldiers; the government failed to identify or provide protection to trafficking victims, including child conscripts, and continued to punish victims for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked; no public anti-trafficking awareness campaigns were conducted (2015)
current situation: Egypt is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; Egyptian children, including the large population of street children are vulnerable to forced labor in domestic service, begging and agriculture or may be victims of sex trafficking or child sex tourism, which occurs in Cairo, Alexandria, and Luxor; some Egyptian women and girls are sold into “temporary” or “summer” marriages with Gulf men, through the complicity of their parents or marriage brokers, and are exploited for prostitution or forced labor; Egyptian men are subject to forced labor in neighboring countries, while adults from South and Southeast Asia and East Africa – and increasingly Syrian refugees – are forced to work in domestic service, construction, cleaning, and begging in Egypt; women and girls, including migrants and refugees, from Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and the Middle East are sex trafficked in Egypt; the Egyptian military cracked down on criminal group’s smuggling, abducting, trafficking, and extorting African migrants in the Sinai Peninsula, but the practice has reemerged in along Egypt’s western border with Libya
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Egypt does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government gathered data nationwide on trafficking cases to better allocated and prioritize anti-trafficking efforts, but overall it did not demonstrate increased progress; prosecutions increased in 2014, but no offenders were convicted for the second consecutive year; fewer trafficking victims were identified in 2014, which represents a significant and ongoing decrease from the previous two reporting periods; the government relied on NGOs and international organizations to identify and refer victims to protective services, and focused on Egyptian victims and refused to provide some services to foreign victims, at times including shelter (2015)

Source: CIA Factbook