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Libya vs. Chad

Introduction

LibyaChad
BackgroundThe Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks in the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when they were defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar al-QADHAFI assumed leadership and began to espouse his political system at home, which was a combination of socialism and Islam. During the 1970s, QADHAFI used oil revenues to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversive and terrorist activities that included the downing of two airliners - one over Scotland, another in Northern Africa - and a discotheque bombing in Berlin. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically and economically following the attacks; sanctions were lifted in 2003 following Libyan acceptance of responsibility for the bombings and agreement to claimant compensation. QADHAFI also agreed to end Libya's program to develop weapons of mass destruction, and he made significant strides in normalizing relations with Western nations.
Unrest that began in several Middle Eastern and North African countries in late 2010 erupted in Libyan cities in early 2011. QADHAFI's brutal crackdown on protesters spawned a civil war that triggered UN authorization of air and naval intervention by the international community. After months of seesaw fighting between government and opposition forces, the QADHAFI regime was toppled in mid-2011 and replaced by a transitional government known as the National Transitional Council (NTC). In 2012, the NTC handed power to an elected parliament, the General National Congress (GNC). Voters chose a new parliament to replace the GNC in June 2014 - the House of Representatives (HoR), which relocated to the eastern city of Tobruk after fighting broke out in Tripoli.
In October 2015, the UN Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG) to Libya, Bernardino LEON, brokered an agreement among a broad array of Libyan political parties and social groups - known as the Libyan Political Agreement (LPA). Members of the Libyan Political Dialogue, including representatives of the HoR and ex-GNC, signed the LPA in December 2015. The LPA called for the formation of an interim Government of National Accord or GNA, with a nine-member Presidency Council, the HoR, and an advisory High Council of State that most ex-GNC members joined. The LPA’s roadmap for a two-year transition to a new constitution and elected government was subsequently endorsed by UN Security Council Resolution 2259, which also called upon member states to cease official contact with parallel institutions. In January 2016, the HoR voted to approve the LPA, including the Presidency Council, while voting against a controversial provision on security leadership positions. In March 2016, the GNA Presidency Council seated itself in Tripoli. In 2016, the GNA twice announced a slate of ministers who operate de facto, but the HoR did not endorse the ministerial list. HoR and ex-GNC-affiliated hardliners continued to oppose the GNA and hampered the LPA’s implementation.
Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare, as well as invasions by Libya, before peace was restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and insurgents. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant insurrection in early 2008, but has had no significant rebel threats since then, in part due to Chad's 2010 rapprochement with Sudan, which previously used Chadian rebels as proxies. In late 2015, the government imposed a state of emergency in the Lake Chad region following multiple attacks by the terrorist group Boko Haram throughout the year; Boko Haram also launched several bombings in N'Djamena in mid-2015. DEBY in 2016 was reelected to his fifth term in an election that was peaceful but flawed. In December 2015, Chad completed a two-year rotation on the UN Security Council. In January 2017, DEBY completed a one-year term as President of the African Union.

Geography

LibyaChad
LocationNorthern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria
Central Africa, south of Libya
Geographic coordinates25 00 N, 17 00 E
15 00 N, 19 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 1,759,540 sq km
land: 1,759,540 sq km
water: 0 sq km
total: 1.284 million sq km
land: 1,259,200 sq km
water: 24,800 sq km
Area - comparativeabout 2.5 times the size of Texas; slightly larger than Alaska
almost nine times the size of New York state; slightly more than three times the size of California
Land boundariestotal: 4,339 km
border countries (6): Algeria 989 km, Chad 1,050 km, Egypt 1,115 km, Niger 342 km, Sudan 382 km, Tunisia 461 km
total: 6,406 km
border countries (6): Cameroon 1,116 km, Central African Republic 1,556 km, Libya 1,050 km, Niger 1,196 km, Nigeria 85 km, Sudan 1,403 km
Coastline1,770 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
note: Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees, 30 minutes north
exclusive fishing zone: 62 nm
none (landlocked)
ClimateMediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
tropical in south, desert in north
Terrainmostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 423 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m
highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m
mean elevation: 543 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Djourab 160 m
highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, gypsum
petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt
Land useagricultural land: 8.8%
arable land 1%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 7.6%
forest: 0.1%
other: 91.1% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 39.6%
arable land 3.9%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 35.7%
forest: 9.1%
other: 51.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land4,700 sq km (2012)
300 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardshot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms
hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
Environment - current issuesdesertification; limited natural freshwater resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, brings water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities
inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Geography - notemore than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert
"note 1: Chad is the largest of Africa's 16 landlocked countries
note 2: not long ago - geologically speaking - what is today the Sahara was green savannah teeming with wildlife; during the African Humid Period, roughly 11,000 to 5,000 years ago, a vibrant animal community, including elephants, giraffes, hippos, and antelope lived there; the last remnant of the ""Green Sahara"" exists in the Lakes of Ounianga (oo-nee-ahn-ga) in northern Chad, a series of 18 interconnected freshwater, saline, and hypersaline lakes now protected as a World Heritage site
note 3: Lake Chad, the most significant water body in the Sahel, is a remnant of a former inland sea, paleolake Mega-Chad; at its greatest extent, sometime before 5000 B.C., Lake Mega-Chad was the largest of four Saharan paleolakes that existed during the African Humid Period; it covered an area of about 400,000 sq km (150,000 sq mi), roughly the size of today's Caspian Sea
"
Population distributionwell over 90% of the population lives along the Mediterranean coast in and between the western city of Az Zawiyah (just west of Tripoli) and the eastern city of Darnah; the interior remains vastly underpopulated due to the Sahara and lack of surface water
the population is unevenly distributed due to contrasts in climate and physical geography; the highest density is found in the southwest, particularly around Lake Chad and points south; the dry Saharan zone to the north is the least densely populated

Demographics

LibyaChad
Population6,541,948 (July 2015 est.)
note: immigrants make up just over 12% of the total population, according to UN data (2015) (July 2016 est.)
11,852,462 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 26.17% (male 875,430/female 836,272)
15-24 years: 17.41% (male 586,713/female 552,531)
25-54 years: 46.99% (male 1,613,168/female 1,460,987)
55-64 years: 5.21% (male 174,023/female 167,072)
65 years and over: 4.22% (male 137,409/female 138,343) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 43.63% (male 2,622,700/female 2,549,035)
15-24 years: 21.18% (male 1,225,731/female 1,285,150)
25-54 years: 28.31% (male 1,525,208/female 1,830,530)
55-64 years: 3.87% (male 202,044/female 256,936)
65 years and over: 3% (male 146,957/female 208,171) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 28.5 years
male: 28.6 years
female: 28.3 years (2016 est.)
total: 17.6 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 18.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.8% (2016 est.)
1.88% (2016 est.)
Birth rate17.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
36.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate3.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
14 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate3.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-3.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.79 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 11.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 12 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 87 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 92.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 81.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 76.5 years
male: 74.7 years
female: 78.3 years (2016 est.)
total population: 50.2 years
male: 49 years
female: 51.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.04 children born/woman (2016 est.)
4.45 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Libyan(s)
adjective: Libyan
noun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian
Ethnic groupsBerber and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians)
Sara (Ngambaye/Sara/Madjingaye/Mbaye) 29.9%, Kanembu/Bornu/Buduma 9.7%, Arab 9.6%, Wadai/Maba/Masalit/Mimi 7.5%, Gorane 5.8%, Masa/Musseye/Musgum 4.9%, Marba/Lele/Mesme 3.7%, Bulala/Medogo/Kuka 3.6%, Bidiyo/Migaama/Kenga/Dangleat 2.6%, Dadjo/Kibet/Muro 2.5%, Mundang 2.5%, Tupuri/Kera 2.1%, Gabri/Kabalaye/Nanchere/Somrai 2%, Fulani/Fulbe/Bodore 1.9%, Karo/Zime/Peve 1.3%, Zaghawa/Bideyat/Kobe 1.1%, Tama/Assongori/Mararit 1.1%, Baguirmi/Barma 1.1%, Mesmedje/Massalat/Kadjakse 0.8%, other Chadian ethnicities 3.2%, Chadians of foreign ethnicities 0.9%, foreign nationals 0.4%, unspecified 1.7% (2014-15 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
165,600 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim (official; virtually all Sunni) 96.6%, Christian 2.7%, Buddhist 0.3%, Hindu <0.1, Jewish <0.1, folk religion <0.1, unafilliated 0.2%, other <0.1
note: non-Sunni Muslims include native Ibadhi Muslims (<1% of the population) and foreign Muslims (2010 est.)
Muslim 52.1%, Protestant 23.9%, Catholic 20%, animist 0.3%, other Christian 0.2%, none 2.8%, unspecified 0.7% (2014-15 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
8,500 (2015 est.)
LanguagesArabic (official), Italian, English (all widely understood in the major cities); Berber (Nafusi, Ghadamis, Suknah, Awjilah, Tamasheq)
French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91%
male: 96.7%
female: 85.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 40.2%
male: 48.5%
female: 31.9% (2015 est.)
Education expendituresNA
2.9% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 78.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.13% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 22.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.42% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 54.2% of population
rural: 54.9% of population
total: 54.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 45.8% of population
rural: 45.1% of population
total: 45.6% of population (2001 est.)
improved:
urban: 71.8% of population
rural: 44.8% of population
total: 50.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 28.2% of population
rural: 55.2% of population
total: 49.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 96.8% of population
rural: 95.7% of population
total: 96.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 4.3% of population
total: 3.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 31.4% of population
rural: 6.5% of population
total: 12.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 68.6% of population
rural: 93.5% of population
total: 87.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationTRIPOLI (capital) 1.126 million (2015)
N'DJAMENA (capital) 1.26 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate9 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
856 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight5.6% (2007)
28.8% (2015)
Health expenditures5% of GDP (2014)
3.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density2.09 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate31.9% (2014)
6.6% (2014)
Demographic profileDespite continuing unrest, Libya remains a destination country for economic migrants. It is also a hub for transit migration to Europe because of its proximity to southern Europe and its lax border controls. Labor migrants have been drawn to Libya since the development of its oil sector in the 1960s. Until the latter part of the 1990s, most migrants to Libya were Arab (primarily Egyptians and Sudanese). However, international isolation stemming from Libya’s involvement in international terrorism and a perceived lack of support from Arab countries led QADHAFI in 1998 to adopt a decade-long pan-African policy that enabled large numbers of sub-Saharan migrants to enter Libya without visas to work in the construction and agricultural industries. Although sub-Saharan Africans provided a cheap labor source, they were poorly treated and were subjected to periodic mass expulsions.
By the mid-2000s, domestic animosity toward African migrants and a desire to reintegrate into the international community motivated QADHAFI to impose entry visas on Arab and African immigrants and to agree to joint maritime patrols and migrant repatriations with Italy, the main recipient of illegal migrants departing Libya. As his regime neared collapse in 2011, QADHAFI reversed his policy of cooperating with Italy to curb illegal migration and sent boats loaded with migrants and asylum seekers to strain European resources. Libya’s 2011 revolution decreased inmigration drastically and prompted nearly 800,000 migrants to flee to third countries, mainly Tunisia and Egypt, or to their countries of origin. The inflow of migrants declined in 2012 but returned to normal levels by 2013, despite continued hostility toward sub-Saharan Africans and a less-inviting job market.
While Libya is not an appealing destination for migrants, since 2014, transiting migrants – primarily from East and West Africa – continue to exploit its political instability and weak border controls and use it as a primary departure area to migrate across the central Mediterranean to Europe in growing numbers. In addition, almost 350,000 people were displaced internally as of August 2016 by fighting between armed groups in eastern and western Libya and, to a lesser extent, by inter-tribal clashes in the country’s south.
Despite the start of oil production in 2003, 40% of Chad’s population lives below the poverty line. The population will continue to grow rapidly because of the country’s very high fertility rate and large youth cohort – more than 65% of the populace is under the age of 25 – although the mortality rate is high and life expectancy is low. Chad has the world’s third highest maternal mortality rate. Among the primary risk factors are poverty, anemia, rural habitation, high fertility, poor education, and a lack of access to family planning and obstetric care. Impoverished, uneducated adolescents living in rural areas are most affected. To improve women’s reproductive health and reduce fertility, Chad will need to increase women’s educational attainment, job participation, and knowledge of and access to family planning. Only about a quarter of women are literate, less than 5% use contraceptives, and more than 40% undergo genital cutting.
More than 300,000 refugees from Sudan and almost 70,000 from the Central African Republic strain Chad’s limited resources and create tensions in host communities. Thousands of new refugees fled to Chad in 2013 to escape worsening violence in the Darfur region of Sudan. The large refugee populations are hesitant to return to their home countries because of continued instability. Chad was relatively stable in 2012 in comparison to other states in the region, but past fighting between government forces and opposition groups and inter-communal violence have left nearly 60,000 of its citizens displaced in the eastern part of the country.
Contraceptive prevalence rate41.9% (2007)
5.7% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 52.4
youth dependency ratio: 45.5
elderly dependency ratio: 6.9
potential support ratio: 14.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 100.7
youth dependency ratio: 95.8
elderly dependency ratio: 4.9
potential support ratio: 20.3 (2015 est.)

Government

LibyaChad
Country nameconventional long form: none
conventional short form: Libya
local long form: none
local short form: Libiya
etymology: name derives from the Libu, an ancient Libyan tribe first mentioned in texts from the 13th century B.C.
"conventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
local short form: Tchad/Tshad
etymology: named for Lake Chad, which lies along the country's western border; the word ""tsade"" means ""large body of water"" or ""lake"" in several local native languages
"
Government typein transition
presidential republic
Capitalname: Tripoli (Tarabulus)
geographic coordinates: 32 53 N, 13 10 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: N'Djamena
geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions22 districts (shabiyat, singular - shabiyat); Al Butnan, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jabal al Gharbi, Al Jafarah, Al Jufrah, Al Kufrah, Al Marj, Al Marqab, Al Wahat, An Nuqat al Khams, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghat, Misratah, Murzuq, Nalut, Sabha, Surt, Tarabulus, Wadi al Hayat, Wadi ash Shati
23 regions (regions, singular - region); Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi-Est, Ennedi-Ouest, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira
Independence24 December 1951 (from UN trusteeship)
11 August 1960 (from France)
National holidayLiberation Day, 23 October (2011)
Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1951,1977; drafting of a new constitution by the Constitution Drafting Assembly continued into 2017 (2017)
several previous; latest passed by referendum 31 March 1996, entered into force 8 April 1996; amended 2005 (2016)
Legal systemLibya's post-revolution legal system is in flux and driven by state and non-state entities
mixed legal system of civil and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age, universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: Chairman, Presidential Council, Fayiz al-SARAJ (since December 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Fayiz al-SARAJ (since December 2015)
cabinet: new cabinet awaiting approval by the House of Representatives
elections/appointments: NA
election results: NA
chief of state: President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. (since 4 December 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Albert Pahimi PADACKE (since 15 February 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 10 April 2016 (next to be held in April 2021); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (MPS) 61.6%, Saleh KEBZABO (UNDR) 12.8%, Laokein Kourayo MEDAR 10.7%, Djimrangar DADNADJI (MPS) 5.1%, other 9.8%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Council of Deputies or Majlis Al Nuwab (200 seats including 32 reserved for women; members elected by direct popular vote; member term NA)
elections: election last held in June 2014; note - the Libyan Supreme Court in November 2014 declared the House election unconstitutional, but the Council rejected the ruling
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - independent 200; note - not all 200 seats were filled in the June election because of boycotts and lack of security at some polling stations; some elected members of the Council also boycotted the election
description: unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; 118 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 70 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 February and 6 May 2011 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPS 117, UNDR 10, RDP 9, URD 8, RNDT/Le Reveil 8, Viva-RNDP 5, FAR 4, PUR 2, UDR 2, PDSA 2, CTPD 2, other minor parties 19
Judicial branchhighest court(s): NA; note - government is in transition
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, 3 chamber presidents, and 12 judges or councilors and divided into 3 chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 3 judges and 6 jurists)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice selected by the president; councilors - 8 designated by the president and 7 by the speaker of the National Assembly; chief justice and councilors appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges - 2 appointed by the president and 1 by the speaker of the National Assembly; jurists - 3 each by the president and by the speaker of the National Assembly; judges appointed for 9-year terms
subordinate courts: High Court of Justice; Courts of Appeal; tribunals; justices of the peace
Political parties and leadersNA

Chadian Convention for Peace and Development or CTPD [Laoukein Kourayo MEDARD]
Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]
Framework of Popular Action for Solidarity and Unity of the Republic or CAP-SUR [Joseph Djimrangar DADNADJI]
National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Dr. Nouradine Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]
National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]
Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Mahamat Allahou TAHER]
Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Idriss DEBY]
Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Mahamat Allahou TAHER]
Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Sande NGARYIMBE]
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
NA
International organization participationABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BDEAC, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Wafa M.T. BUGHAIGHIS (since 5 December 2014)
chancery: 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 944-9601
FAX: [1] (202) 944-9606
chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Nasser HASSANE (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 652-1312
FAX: [1] (202) 758-0431
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Peter William BODDE (since 21 December 2015)
note: the embassy was closed in July 2014 due to major fighting near the embassy related to the Libyan civil war; embassy staff and operations were temporarily moved to Tunis, Tunisia
embassy: Sidi Slim Area/Walie Al-Ahed Road, Tripoli
mailing address: US Embassy, 8850 Tripoli Place, Washington, DC 20521-8850
telephone: [218] (0) 91-220-3239
chief of mission: Ambassador Geeta PASI (since September 2016)
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone: [235] 2251-70-09
FAX: [235] 2251-56-54
Flag descriptionthree horizontal bands of red (top), black (double width), and green with a white crescent and star centered on the black stripe; the National Transitional Council reintroduced this flag design of the former Kingdom of Libya (1951-1969) on 27 February 2011; it replaced the former all-green banner promulgated by the QADHAFI regime in 1977; the colors represent the three major regions of the country: red stands for Fezzan, black symbolizes Cyrenaica, and green denotes Tripolitania; the crescent and star represent Islam, the main religion of the country
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and red; the flag combines the blue and red French (former colonial) colors with the red and yellow (gold) of the Pan-African colors; blue symbolizes the sky, hope, and the south of the country, which is relatively well-watered; gold represents the sun, as well as the desert in the north of the country; red stands for progress, unity, and sacrifice
note: almost identical to the flag of Romania but with a darker shade of blue; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design based on the flag of France
National anthem"name: ""Libya, Libya, Libya""
lyrics/music: Al Bashir AL AREBI/Mohamad Abdel WAHAB
note: also known as ""Ya Beladi"" or ""Oh, My Country!""; adopted 1951; readopted 2011 with some modification to the lyrics; during the QADHAFI years between 1969 and 2011, the anthem was ""Allahu Akbar,"" (God is Great) a marching song of the Egyptian Army in the 1956 Suez War
"
"name: ""La Tchadienne"" (The Chadian)
lyrics/music: Louis GIDROL and his students/Paul VILLARD
note: adopted 1960
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)star and crescent, hawk; national colors: red, black, green
goat (north), lion (south); national colors: blue, yellow, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Libya
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: varies from 3 to 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Chad
dual citizenship recognized: Chadian law does not address dual citizenship
residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

Economy

LibyaChad
Economy - overviewLibya's economy, almost entirely dependent on oil and gas exports, has struggled since 2014 as the country plunged into civil war and world oil prices dropped to seven-year lows. In early 2015, armed conflict between rival forces for control of the country’s largest oil terminals caused a decline in Libyan crude oil production, which never recovered to more than one-third of the average pre-Revolution highs of 1.6 million barrels per day. The Central Bank of Libya continued to pay government salaries to a majority of the Libyan workforce and to fund subsidies for fuel and food, resulting in an estimated budget deficit of about 20% of GDP in 2016.

Libya’s economic transition away from QADHAFI’s notionally socialist model has completely stalled as political chaos persists and security continues to deteriorate. Libya’s leaders have hindered economic development by failing to use its financial resources to invest in national infrastructure. The country suffers from widespread power outages in its largest cities, caused by shortages of fuel for power generation. Living conditions, including access to clean drinking water, medical services, and safe housing, have all declined as the civil war has caused more people to become internally displaced, further straining local resources.

Extremists affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) attacked Libyan oilfields in the first half of 2015; ISIL has a presence in many cities across Libya including near oil infrastructure, threatening future government revenues from oil and gas.
Chad’s landlocked location results in high transportation costs for imported goods and dependence on neighboring countries. Oil and agriculture are mainstays of Chad’s economy. Oil provides about 60% of export revenues, while cotton, cattle, livestock, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings. The services sector contributes about one-third of GDP and has attracted foreign investment mostly through telecommunications and banking.

Nearly all of Chad’s fuel is provided by one domestic refinery, and unanticipated shutdowns occasionally result in shortages. The country regulates the price of domestic fuel, providing an incentive for black market sales.

Athough high oil prices and strong local harvests supported the economy in the past, low oil prices now stress Chad’s fiscal position. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most of its public and private sector investment. Investment in Chad is difficult due to its limited infrastructure, lack of trained workers, extensive government bureaucracy, and corruption. Chad obtained a three-year extended credit facility from the IMF in 2014 and was granted debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative in April 2015.

In 2017, economic policy will be driven by efforts that started in 2016 to reverse the recession and to repair damage to public finances and exports. The government is implementing an emergency action plan to counterbalance the drop in oil revenue and to diversify the economy. Multinational partners, such as the African Development Bank, the EU, and the World Bank are likely to continue budget support in 2017, but Chad will remain at high debt risk, given its dependence on oil revenue and pressure to spend on subsidies and security.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$90.89 billion (2016 est.)
$94.01 billion (2015 est.)
$100.4 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$30.59 billion (2016 est.)
$30.93 billion (2015 est.)
$30.39 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate-3.3% (2016 est.)
-6.4% (2015 est.)
-24% (2014 est.)
-1.1% (2016 est.)
1.8% (2015 est.)
6.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$14,200 (2016 est.)
$14,900 (2015 est.)
$16,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$2,600 (2016 est.)
$2,700 (2015 est.)
$2,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 1.9%
industry: 43.2%
services: 54.9% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 53%
industry: 12.8%
services: 34.2% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty lineNA%
note: about one-third of Libyans live at or below the national poverty line
46.7% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 30.8% (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)13% (2016 est.)
12.1% (2015 est.)
3.8% (2016 est.)
4.6% (2015 est.)
Labor force1.153 million (2016 est.)
5.457 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 17%
industry: 23%
services: 59% (2004 est.)
agriculture: 80%
industry and services: 20% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate30% (2004 est.)
NA%
Budgetrevenues: $5.792 billion
expenditures: $13.71 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $1.626 billion
expenditures: $2.163 billion (2016 est.)
Industriespetroleum, petrochemicals, aluminum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
oil, cotton textiles, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
Industrial production growth rate-6.7% (2016 est.)
-5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle
cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, sesame, corn, rice, potatoes, onions, cassava (manioc, tapioca), cattle, sheep, goats, camels
Exports$10.65 billion (2016 est.)
$10.22 billion (2015 est.)
$4.053 billion (2016 est.)
$3.965 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiescrude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals
oil, livestock, cotton, sesame, gum arabic, shea butter
Exports - partnersItaly 33.3%, Germany 11.7%, China 8.3%, France 8.3%, Spain 5.8%, Netherlands 5.7%, Syria 5.5% (2015)
US 56.7%, India 16%, Japan 11% (2015)
Imports$9.551 billion (2016 est.)
$11.52 billion (2015 est.)
$3.075 billion (2016 est.)
$3.071 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, semi-finished goods, food, transport equipment, consumer products
machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partnersChina 15.4%, Italy 13.4%, Turkey 11.5%, France 6.4%, Spain 4.8%, Syria 4.7%, Egypt 4.5%, South Korea 4.4%, Tunisia 4.4% (2015)
France 16.5%, China 14.2%, Cameroon 11%, US 6.4%, India 6%, Belgium 5.7%, Italy 4.8% (2015)
Debt - external$3.531 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.985 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.875 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.802 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesLibyan dinars (LYD) per US dollar -
1.69 (2016 est.)
1.379 (2015 est.)
1.379 (2014 est.)
1.2724 (2013 est.)
1.26 (2012 est.)
Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
605.7 (2016 est.)
591.45 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt10% of GDP (2016 est.)
8% of GDP (2015 est.)
35.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
33.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$56.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$73.83 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$627.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$382.9 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$13.49 billion (2016 est.)
-$18.37 billion (2015 est.)
-$885 million (2016 est.)
-$1.347 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$39.39 billion (2016 est.)
$10.44 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$18.96 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$18.83 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$NA (31 December 2010)
$4.5 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$22.19 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$21.59 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$NA
Central bank discount rate9.52% (31 December 2010)
3% (31 December 2009)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
4.75% (31 December 2008)
Commercial bank prime lending rate6% (31 December 2016 est.)
6% (31 December 2015 est.)
15.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
15.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$554.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$767.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.324 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.034 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$46.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$51.23 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.741 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.604 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$54.66 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$53.34 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.976 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.751 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues14.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-20.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-5.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 84.3%
government consumption: 21.7%
investment in fixed capital: 3.4%
investment in inventories: 1.4%
exports of goods and services: 32.3%
imports of goods and services: -43.1% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 71.4%
government consumption: 4.4%
investment in fixed capital: 30.8%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 25.3%
imports of goods and services: -32.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving-17.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
-34% of GDP (2015 est.)
5.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
18.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

LibyaChad
Electricity - production35 billion kWh
note: persistent electricity shortages have contributed to the ongoing instability throughout the country (2014 est.)
200 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption9.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
200 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports1 million kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports88 million kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production404,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
120,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports834,100 bbl/day
note: Libyan crude oil export values are highly volatile because of continuing protests and other disruptions across the country (2013 est.)
105,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves48.36 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
1.5 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves1.505 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production11.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption5.804 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports6 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity8.9 million kW (2014 est.)
41,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels99.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production158,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption255,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
2,200 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports50,890 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports144,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
2,215 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy57 million Mt (2013 est.)
300,000 Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 13,083
electrification - total population: 99.8%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 99.1% (2013)
population without electricity: 10,477,071
electrification - total population: 4%
electrification - urban areas: 14%
electrification - rural areas: 1% (2013)

Telecommunications

LibyaChad
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 632,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 17,029
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 9.918 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 155 (July 2015 est.)
total: 5.466 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: Libya's civil war has disrupted its telecommunications sector, but much of its infrastructure remains superior to that in most other African countries
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular service generally adequate, but pressure to rebuild damaged infrastructure growing
international: country code - 218; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cable to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (2015)
general assessment: inadequate system of radiotelephone communication stations with high maintenance costs and low telephone density
domestic: fixed-line connections for less than 1 per 100 persons coupled with mobile-cellular subscribership base of about 45 per 100 persons
international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.ly
.td
Internet userstotal: 1.219 million
percent of population: 19% (July 2015 est.)
total: 314,000
percent of population: 2.7% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-funded and private TV stations; some provinces operate local TV stations; pan-Arab satellite TV stations are available; state-funded radio (2012)
1 state-owned TV station; 2 privately-owned TV stations; state-owned radio network, Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne (RNT), operates national and regional stations; over 10 private radio stations; some stations rebroadcast programs from international broadcasters (2017)

Transportation

LibyaChad
Roadwaystotal: 100,024 km
paved: 57,214 km
unpaved: 42,810 km (2003)
total: 40,000 km
note: consists of 25,000 km of national and regional roads and 15,000 km of local roads; 206 km of urban roads are paved (2011)
Pipelinescondensate 882 km; gas 3,743 km; oil 7,005 km (2013)
oil 582 km (2013)
Airports146 (2013)
59 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 68
over 3,047 m: 23
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 9
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 78
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 37
under 914 m: 20 (2013)
total: 50
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 11 (2013)

Military

LibyaChad
Military branchesnote - in transition; government has affiliated Army, Air Force, Navy, and Coast Guard forces (2016)
Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale du Tchad, ANT): Ground Forces (l'Armee de Terre, AdT), Chadian Air Force (l'Armee de l'Air Tchadienne, AAT), National Gendarmerie, National and Nomadic Guard of Chad (GNNT) (2013)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for mandatory or voluntary service (2012)
20 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service, with a 3-year service obligation; 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary service; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a parent or guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age 21; while provisions for military service have not been repealed, they have never been fully implemented (2015)

Transnational Issues

LibyaChad
Disputes - internationaldormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the FLN's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco; various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Libya
since 2003, ad hoc armed militia groups and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 5,379 (West Bank and Gaza Strip) (2016)
IDPs: 240,188 (conflict between pro-Qadhafi and anti-Qadhafi forces in 2011; post-Qadhafi tribal clashes 2014) (2017)
refugees (country of origin): 317,219 (Sudan); 72,955 (Central African Republic); 7,850 (Nigeria) (2017)
IDPs: 127,000 (majority are in the east) (2017)

Source: CIA Factbook