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Kyrgyzstan vs. Kazakhstan

Introduction

KyrgyzstanKazakhstan
BackgroundA Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of the territory of present-day Kyrgyzstan was formally annexed to the Russian Empire in 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire in 1916 in which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. Kyrgyzstan became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations in the spring of 2005 resulted in the ouster of President Askar AKAEV, who had run the country since 1990. Former Prime Minister Kurmanbek BAKIEV overwhelmingly won the presidential election in the summer of 2005. Over the next few years, he manipulated the parliament to accrue new powers for the presidency. In July 2009, after months of harassment against his opponents and media critics, BAKIEV won reelection in a presidential campaign that the international community deemed flawed. In April 2010, violent protests in Bishkek led to the collapse of the BAKIEV regime and his eventual flight to Minsk, Belarus. His successor, Roza OTUNBAEVA, served as transitional president until Almazbek ATAMBAEV was inaugurated in December 2011, marking the first peaceful transfer of presidential power in independent Kyrgyzstan's history. Continuing concerns include: the trajectory of democratization, endemic corruption, poor interethnic relations, border security vulnerabilities, and potential terrorist threats.
Under the 2010 Constitution, ATAMBAEV is limited to one term, which will end in 2017. Constitutional amendments passed in a referendum in December 2016 include language that transfers some presidential powers to the prime minister. Disagreement over the constitutional amendments compelled ATAMBAEV’s Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan to dissolve the ruling coalition and create a new majority coalition in the Jogorku Kenesh that excluded opposition parties critical of the amendments.
"Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated to the region by the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. Soviet policies reduced the number of ethnic Kazakhs in the 1930s and enabled non-ethnic Kazakhs to outnumber natives. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural ""Virgin Lands"" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) further skewed the ethnic mixture. Non-Muslim ethnic minorities departed Kazakhstan in large numbers from the mid-1990s through the mid-2000s and a national program has repatriated about a million ethnic Kazakhs back to Kazakhstan. These trends have allowed Kazakhs to become the titular majority again. This dramatic demographic shift has also undermined the previous religious diversity and made the country more than 70% Muslim. Kazakhstan's economy is larger than those of all the other Central Asian states largely due to the country's vast natural resources. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity, expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets, diversifying the economy, enhancing Kazakhstan's economic competitiveness, and strengthening relations with neighboring states and foreign powers.
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Geography

KyrgyzstanKazakhstan
LocationCentral Asia, west of China, south of Kazakhstan
Central Asia, northwest of China; a small portion west of the Ural (Zhayyq) River in easternmost Europe
Geographic coordinates41 00 N, 75 00 E
48 00 N, 68 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Asia
Areatotal: 199,951 sq km
land: 191,801 sq km
water: 8,150 sq km
total: 2,724,900 sq km
land: 2,699,700 sq km
water: 25,200 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than South Dakota
slightly less than four times the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 4,573 km
border countries (4): China 1,063 km, Kazakhstan 1,212 km, Tajikistan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1,314 km
total: 13,364 km
border countries (5): China 1,765 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,212 km, Russia 7,644 km, Turkmenistan 413 km, Uzbekistan 2,330 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
0 km (landlocked); note - Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea, now split into two bodies of water (1,070 km), and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatedry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid
Terrainpeaks of the Tien Shan mountain range and associated valleys and basins encompass the entire country
vast flat steppe extending from the Volga in the west to the Altai Mountains in the east and from the plains of western Siberia in the north to oases and deserts of Central Asia in the south
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 2,988 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) 132 m
highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m
mean elevation: 387 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Vpadina Kaundy -132 m
highest point: Khan Tangiri Shyngy (Pik Khan-Tengri) 6,995 m
Natural resourcesabundant hydropower; gold, rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc
major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium
Land useagricultural land: 55.4%
arable land 6.7%; permanent crops 0.4%; permanent pasture 48.3%
forest: 5.1%
other: 39.5% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 77.4%
arable land 8.9%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 68.5%
forest: 1.2%
other: 21.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land10,233 sq km (2012)
20,660 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsNA
earthquakes in the south; mudslides around Almaty
Environment - current issueswater pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices
radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with former defense industries and test ranges scattered throughout the country pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers that flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - notelandlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; 94% of the country is 1,000 m above sea level with an average elevation of 2,750 m; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes
world's largest landlocked country; Russia leases approximately 6,000 sq km of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome; in January 2004, Kazakhstan and Russia extended the lease to 2050
Population distributionthe vast majority of Kyrgyzstanis live in rural areas; densest population settlement is to the north in and around Bishkek, followed by Osh in the west; the least densely populated area is the east, southeast in the Tien Shan mountains
most of the country displays a low population density, particularly the interior; population clusters appear in urban agglomerations in the far northern and southern portions of the country

Demographics

KyrgyzstanKazakhstan
Population5,727,553 (July 2016 est.)
18,360,353 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 30.12% (male 883,875/female 841,362)
15-24 years: 17.47% (male 508,656/female 492,046)
25-54 years: 39.68% (male 1,112,777/female 1,159,967)
55-64 years: 7.59% (male 189,684/female 245,202)
65 years and over: 5.13% (male 112,494/female 181,490) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 25.68% (male 2,336,444/female 2,378,769)
15-24 years: 14.66% (male 1,371,133/female 1,319,938)
25-54 years: 42.5% (male 3,808,164/female 3,994,781)
55-64 years: 9.77% (male 784,035/female 1,008,935)
65 years and over: 7.4% (male 470,485/female 887,669) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 26.2 years
male: 25.2 years
female: 27.3 years (2016 est.)
total: 30.3 years
male: 29 years
female: 31.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.09% (2016 est.)
1.09% (2016 est.)
Birth rate22.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
18.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate6.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-5.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.77 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 0.94 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.53 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 26.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 30.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 22.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 20.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 22.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 70.7 years
male: 66.5 years
female: 75.1 years (2016 est.)
total population: 70.8 years
male: 65.6 years
female: 75.7 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.64 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.28 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.22% (2015 est.)
0.21% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Kyrgyzstani(s)
adjective: Kyrgyzstani
noun: Kazakhstani(s)
adjective: Kazakhstani
Ethnic groupsKyrgyz 70.9%, Uzbek 14.3%, Russian 7.7%, Dungan 1.1%, other 5.9% (includes Uyghur, Tajik, Turk, Kazakh, Tatar, Ukrainian, Korean, German) (2009 est.)
Kazakh (Qazaq) 63.1%, Russian 23.7%, Uzbek 2.9%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Uighur 1.4%, Tatar 1.3%, German 1.1%, other 4.4% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS8,100 (2015 est.)
23,100 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%
Muslim 70.2%, Christian 26.2% (mainly Russian Orthodox), other 0.2%, atheist 2.8%, unspecified 0.5% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths200 (2015 est.)
500 (2015 est.)
LanguagesKyrgyz (official) 71.4%, Uzbek 14.4%, Russian (official) 9%, other 5.2% (2009 est.)
"Kazakh (official, Qazaq) 74% (understand spoken language), Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the ""language of interethnic communication"") 94.4% (understand spoken language) (2009 est.)
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Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.5%
male: 99.6%
female: 99.4% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2016)
Education expenditures5.5% of GDP (2014)
3.1% of GDP (2009)
Urbanizationurban population: 35.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.58% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 53.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.86% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 96.7% of population
rural: 86.2% of population
total: 90% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.3% of population
rural: 13.8% of population
total: 10% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 85.6% of population
total: 92.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 14.4% of population
total: 7.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 89.1% of population
rural: 95.6% of population
total: 93.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 10.9% of population
rural: 4.4% of population
total: 6.7% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97% of population
rural: 98.1% of population
total: 97.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3% of population
rural: 1.9% of population
total: 2.5% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationBISHKEK (capital) 865,000 (2015)
Almaty 1.523 million; ASTANA (capital) 759,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate76 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
12 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight2.8% (2014)
3.7% (2011)
Health expenditures6.5% of GDP (2014)
4.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.85 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
3.27 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density4.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
7.2 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate13.3% (2014)
23.5% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 563,920
percentage: 40.3%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2007 est.)
total number: 59,254
percentage: 2% (2006 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth23.3 years (2013 est.)
25 years (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate42% (2014)
51% (2010/11)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 55.3
youth dependency ratio: 48.8
elderly dependency ratio: 6.6
potential support ratio: 15.2 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 50.3
youth dependency ratio: 40.1
elderly dependency ratio: 10.1
potential support ratio: 9.9 (2015 est.)

Government

KyrgyzstanKazakhstan
Country name"conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
local short form: Kyrgyzstan
former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: a combination of the Turkic words ""kyrg"" (forty) and ""-yz"" (tribes) with the Persian suffix ""-stan"" (country) creating the meaning ""Land of the Forty Tribes""; the name refers to the forty clans united by the legendary Kyrgyz hero, MANAS
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Kazakhstan
conventional short form: Kazakhstan
local long form: Qazaqstan Respublikasy
local short form: Qazaqstan
former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the name ""Kazakh"" derives from the Turkic word ""kaz"" meaning ""to wander,"" recalling the Kazakh's nomadic lifestyle; the Persian suffix ""-stan"" means ""place of"" or ""country,"" so the word Kazakhstan literally means ""Land of the Wanderers""
"
Government typeparliamentary republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Bishkek
geographic coordinates: 42 52 N, 74 36 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Astana
geographic coordinates: 51 10 N, 71 25 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note: Kazakhstan has two time zones
Administrative divisions7 provinces (oblustar, singular - oblus) and 2 cities* (shaarlar, singular - shaar); Batken Oblusu, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblusu (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblusu, Naryn Oblusu, Osh Oblusu, Osh Shaary*, Talas Oblusu, Ysyk-Kol Oblusu (Karakol)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
14 provinces (oblyslar, singular - oblys) and 2 cities* (qalalar, singular - qala); Almaty (Taldyqorghan), Almaty*, Aqmola (Kokshetau), Aqtobe, Astana*, Atyrau, Batys Qazaqstan [West Kazakhstan] (Oral), Mangghystau (Aqtau), Ongtustik Qazaqstan [South Kazakhstan] (Shymkent), Pavlodar, Qaraghandy, Qostanay, Qyzylorda, Shyghys Qazaqstan [East Kazakhstan] (Oskemen), Soltustik Qazaqstan [North Kazakhstan] (Petropavl), Zhambyl (Taraz)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses); in 1995, the Governments of Kazakhstan and Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a period of 20 years an area of 6,000 sq km enclosing the Baykonur space launch facilities and the city of Bayqongyr (Baykonur, formerly Leninsk); in 2004, a new agreement extended the lease to 2050
Independence31 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holidayIndependence Day, 31 August (1991)
Independence Day, 16 December (1991)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1993; latest adopted by referendum 27 June 2010, effective 2 July 2010; note - the current constitution prohibits any change until 2020
amendments: proposed as a draft law by the majority of the Supreme Council membership or by petition of 300,000 voters; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Council membership in each of at least three readings of the draft two months apart; the draft may be submitted to a referendum if approved by two-thirds of the Council membership; adoption requires the signature of the president; amended 2017 (2017)
history: previous 1937, 1978 (preindependence), 1993; latest approved by referendum 30 August 1995, effective 5 September 1995
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic on the recommendation of Parliament or the government; the president has the option of submitting draft amendments to Parliament or directly to a referendum; passage of amendments to Parliament requires three-fourths majority vote of both houses and the signature of the president; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote by more than one-half of the voters in at least two-thirds of the oblasts, major cities, and the capital, followed by the signature of the president; amended several times, last in 2017 (2017)
Legal systemcivil law system which includes features of French civil law and Russian Federation laws
civil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and by the theory and practice of the Russian Federation
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Almazbek ATAMBAEV (since 1 December 2011)
head of government: Prime Minister Sooronbay JEENBEKOV (since 13 April 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president; defense and security committee chairs appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 6-year term; election last held on 30 October 2011 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister nominated by the majority party or majority coalition in the Supreme Council, appointed by the president
election results: Almazbek ATAMBAEV elected president; percent of vote - Almazbek ATAMBAEV (SDPK) 63.2%, Adakhan MADUMAROV (All Kyrgyzstan) 14.7%, Kamchybek TASHIEV (Homeland) 14.3%, other 7.8%; Sooronbay JEENBEKOV elected prime minister; Supreme Council vote - 115 to 0
"chief of state: President Nursultan Abishuly NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 22 February 1990, elected president 1 December 1991)
head of government: Prime Minister Bakytzhan SAGINTAYEV (since 9 September 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Askar MAMIN (since 13 September 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the Mazhilis; note - constitutional amendments in May 2007 shortened the presidential term from 7 to 5 years and established a 2-consecutive-term limit; NAZARBAYEV has official status as the ""First President of Kazakhstan"" and is allowed unlimited terms
election results: Nursultan Abishuly NAZARBAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Nursultan Abishuly NAZARBAYEV (Nur Otan) 97.8%, other 2.2%
"
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Supreme Council or Jogorku Kenesh (120 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 4 October 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: Supreme Council - percent of vote by party - SDPK 27.4%, Respublika-Ata-Jurt 20.1%, Kyrgyzstan Party 12.9%, Onuguu-Progress 9.3%, Bir Bol 8.5%, Ata-Meken 7.8%, other 14%; seats by party - SDPK 38, Respublika-Ata-Jurt 28, Kyrgyzstan Party 18, Onuguu-Progress 13, Bir Bol 12, Ata-Meken 11
description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (47 seats; 32 members indirectly elected by majority two-round vote by the oblast-level assemblies and 15 members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms, with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the Mazhilis (107 seats; 98 members directly elected in a single national constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 9 indirectly elected by the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan, a 350-member, presidentially appointed advisory body designed to represent the country's ethnic minorities)
elections: Senate - last held on 1 October 2014 (next to be held in 2017); Mazhilis - last held on 20 March 2016 (next to be held by 2021)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Nur Otan 16; Mazhilis - percent of vote by party - Nur Otan 82.2%, Ak Zhol 7.2%, Communist People's Party 7.1%, other 3.5%; seats by party - Nur Otan 84, Ak Zhol 7, Communist People's Party 7
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 25 judges); Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court (consists of the chairperson, deputy chairperson, and 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president; Supreme Court judges serve for 10 years, Constitutional Court judges serve for 15 years; mandatory retirement at age 70 for judges of both courts
subordinate courts: Higher Court of Arbitration; oblast (provincial) and city courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Republic (consists of 44 members); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the president of the republic on recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council and confirmed by the Senate; judges normally serve until age 65 but can be extended to age 70; Constitutional Council - the president of the republic, the Senate chairperson, and the Majilis chairperson each appoints 1 member for a 3-year term and each appoints 1 member for a 6-year term; chairperson of the Constitutional Council appointed by the president of the republic for a 6-year term
subordinate courts: regional and local courts
Political parties and leadersRespublika-Ata-Jurt (Republic-Homeland) [Omurbek BABANOV]
Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Omurbek TEKEBAEV]
Bir Bol (Stay United) [Altynbek SULAIMANOV]
Kyrgyzstan Party [Almazbek BATYRBEKOV]
Onuguu-Progress [Bakyt TOROBAEV]
Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan or SDPK [Isa OMURKULOV]
Ak Zhol (Bright Path) Party or Democratic Party of Kazakhstan Ak Zhol [Azat PERUASHEV]
Auyl National Patriotic Party [Ali BEKTAYEV] (Auyl is a September 2015 merger of the Patriots’ Party and the Auyl Social Democratic Party)
Birlik (Unity) [Serik SULTANGALI] (Birlik is an April 2013 merger of Adilet (Justice; formerly Democratic Party of Kazakhstan) and Rukhaniyat (Spirituality))
Communist People's Party of Kazakhstan [Vladislav KOSAREV]
National Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]
Nur Otan (Radiant Fatherland) Democratic People's Party [Nursultan NAZARBAYEV] (the Agrarian, Asar, and Civic parties merged with Otan)
Political pressure groups and leadersAdilet (Justice) Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA]
Bir Duino [Tolekan ISMAILOVA]
Citizens Against Corruption [Tolekan ISMAILOVA]
Coalition for Democracy and Civil Society [Dinara OSHURAKHUNOVA]
Kylym Shamy (Torch of the Century) [Aziza ABDIRASULOVA]
Precedent Partnership Group [Nurbek TOKTAKUNOV]
Societal Analysis Public Association [Rita KARASARTOVA]
Adil-Soz [Tamara KALEYEVA]
Chairman of Bureau's Council [Roza AKYLBEKOVA]
Confederation of Free Trade Unions [Larissa KHARKOVA]
Foundation for Support of Civil Initiatives [Nurul RAKHIMBEK]
International Legal Initiative [Aina SHORMANBAYEVA]
Kazakhstan International Bureau on Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS]
Legal Media Centre (sometimes known as the North Kazakhstan Legal Media Centre) [Diana OKREMOVA]
Public Foundation for Parliamentary Development [Zauresh BATTALOVA]
Republican Network of International Monitors [Daniyar LIVAZOV]
Transparency International [Natalya KOVALEVA]
International organization participationADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer), ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Kadyr TOKTOGULOV (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2360 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 449-9822-23
FAX: [1] (202) 386-7550
consulate(s): New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Yerzhan KAZYKHANOV (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 1401 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 232-5488
FAX: [1] (202) 232-5845
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Sheila GWALTNEY (14 October 2015)
embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, Bishkek 720016
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [996] (312) 597-000
FAX: [996] (312) 597-744
chief of mission: Ambassador George KROL (since 18 March 2015)
embassy: Rakhymzhan Koshkarbayev Ave. No 3, Astana 010010
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [7] (7172) 70-21-00
FAX: [7] (7172) 54-09-14
Consulate(s) General: Almaty
Flag description"red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of a ""tunduk"" - the crown of a traditional Kyrgyz yurt; red symbolizes bravery and valor, the sun evinces peace and wealth
"
"a gold sun with 32 rays above a soaring golden steppe eagle, both centered on a sky blue background; the hoist side displays a national ornamental pattern ""koshkar-muiz"" (the horns of the ram) in gold; the blue color is of religious significance to the Turkic peoples of the country, and so symbolizes cultural and ethnic unity; it also represents the endless sky as well as water; the sun, a source of life and energy, exemplifies wealth and plenitude; the sun's rays are shaped like grain, which is the basis of abundance and prosperity; the eagle has appeared on the flags of Kazakh tribes for centuries and represents freedom, power, and the flight to the future
"
National anthem"name: ""Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Mamlekettik Gimni"" (National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic)
lyrics/music: Djamil SADYKOV and Eshmambet KULUEV/Nasyr DAVLESOV and Kalyi MOLDOBASANOV
note: adopted 1992
"
"name: ""Menin Qazaqstanim"" (My Kazakhstan)
lyrics/music: Zhumeken NAZHIMEDENOV and Nursultan NAZARBAYEV/Shamshi KALDAYAKOV
note: adopted 2006; President Nursultan NAZARBAYEV played a role in revising the lyrics
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)gyrfalcon; national colors: red, yellow
golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kyrgyzstan
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but only if a mutual treaty on dual citizenship is in force
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kazakhstan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

KyrgyzstanKazakhstan
Economy - overviewKyrgyzstan is a landlocked, mountainous, lower middle income country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. Cotton, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only cotton is exported in any quantity. Other exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and - in some years - electricity. The country has sought to attract foreign investment to expand its export base, including construction of hydroelectric dams, but a difficult investment climate and an ongoing legal battle with a Canadian firm over the joint ownership structure of the nation’s largest gold mine deter potential investors. Remittances from Kyrgyz migrant workers, predominantly in Russia and Kazakhstan, are equivalent to over one-quarter of Kyrgyzstan’s GDP.

Following independence, Kyrgyzstan rapidly implemented market reforms, such as improving the regulatory system and instituting land reform. In 1998, Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. The government has privatized much of its ownership shares in public enterprises. Despite these reforms, the country suffered a severe drop in production in the early 1990s and has again faced slow growth in recent years as the global financial crisis, declining oil prices, and regional economic headwinds have damaged economies across Central Asia. The Kyrgyz government remains dependent on foreign donor support to finance its annual budget deficit of approximately 4-5% of GDP.

Kyrgyz leaders hope the country’s August 2015 accession to the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) will bolster trade and investment, but slowing economies in Russia and China and low commodity prices continue to hamper economic growth. While joining the EAEU has increased Kyrgyz labor mobility within member states, large scale trade and investment pledged by Kyrgyz leaders has been slow in developing since accession. Kyrgyz entrepreneurs and politicians alike often contend that non-tariff measures imposed by other EAEU member states, particularly Kazakhstan, are negatively impacting sectors of the Kyrgyz economy that enjoy a comparative advantage, such as meat and dairy production. Since acceding to the EAEU, the Kyrgyz Republic has continued harmonizing its laws and regulations to conform to Union standards, though many local entrepreneurs have criticized this process as disjointed and incomplete. The keys to future growth include progress in fighting corruption, improving administrative transparency, restructuring and diversifying domestic industries, and attracting foreign aid and investment.
Kazakhstan, geographically the largest of the former Soviet republics, excluding Russia, possesses substantial fossil fuel reserves and other minerals and metals, such as uranium, copper, and zinc. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. The government realizes that its economy suffers from an overreliance on oil and extractive industries and has made initial attempts to diversify its economy by targeting sectors like transport, pharmaceuticals, telecommunications, petrochemicals and food processing for greater development and investment.

Kazakhstan's vast hydrocarbon and mineral reserves form the backbone of its economy. Chevron-led Tengizchevroil announced a $36.8 billion expansion of Kazakhstan’s premiere Tengiz oil field in July 2016. Meanwhile, the super-giant Kashagan field finally launched production in October 2016 after years of delay and an estimated $55 billion in development costs.

Kazakhstan is landlocked and depends on Russia to export its oil to Europe. It also exports oil directly to China. In 2010, Kazakhstan joined Russia and Belarus to establish a Customs Union in an effort to boost foreign investment and improve trade. The Customs Union evolved into a Single Economic Space in 2012 and the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) in January 2015. In part due to weak commodity prices, Kazakhstan’s exports to EAEU countries declined 23.5% in 2016. Imports from EAEU countries to Kazakhstan declined 13.7%.

The economic downturn of its EAEU partner, Russia, and the decline in global commodity prices from 2014-2015 contributed to an economic slowdown in Kazakhstan, which continues to experience its slowest economic growth since the financial crises of 2008-09. In 2014, Kazakhstan devalued its currency, the tenge, and announced a stimulus package to cope with its economic challenges. In the face of further decline in the ruble, oil prices, and the regional economy, Kazakhstan announced in 2015 it would replace its currency band with a floating exchange rate, leading to a sharp fall in the value of the tenge. Since reaching a low of 391 to the dollar in January 2016, the tenge has modestly appreciated, helped by somewhat higher oil prices.

Despite some positive institutional and legislative changes in the last several years, investors remain concerned about corruption, bureaucracy, and arbitrary law enforcement, especially at the regional and municipal levels. An additional concern is the condition of the country’s banking sector, which suffers from low liquidity, poor asset quality, and a lack of transparency. Investors also question the potentially negative effects on the economy of a contested presidential succession as Kazakhstan’s first president, Nursultan NAZARBAYEV, who turns 77 in 2017, has not announced whether he will seek reelection in 2019.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$21.01 billion (2016 est.)
$20.55 billion (2015 est.)
$19.87 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$468.8 billion (2016 est.)
$464.2 billion (2015 est.)
$458.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.2% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2015 est.)
4% (2014 est.)
1% (2016 est.)
1.2% (2015 est.)
4.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,500 (2016 est.)
$3,400 (2015 est.)
$3,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$25,700 (2016 est.)
$26,300 (2015 est.)
$26,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 17.9%
industry: 25.9%
services: 56.2% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 4.6%
industry: 31.8%
services: 57.9% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line32.1% (2015 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 4.4%
highest 10%: 22.9% (2014 est.)
lowest 10%: 4.3%
highest 10%: 22% (2013 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.9% (2016 est.)
6.5% (2015 est.)
14.6% (2016 est.)
6.7% (2015 est.)
Labor force2.778 million (2016 est.)
8.964 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 48%
industry: 12.5%
services: 39.5% (2005 est.)
agriculture: 18.1%
industry: 20.4%
services: 61.6% (2017 est.)
Unemployment rate8% (2013 est.)
8.1% (2014 est.)
4.9% (2016 est.)
5% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index33.4 (2007)
29 (2001)
26.3 (2013)
31.5 (2003)
Budgetrevenues: $2.04 billion
expenditures: $2.354 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $23.35 billion
expenditures: $27.25 billion (2016 est.)
Industriessmall machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals
oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, uranium, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials
Industrial production growth rate0% (2016 est.)
-1.1% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool
grain (mostly spring wheat and barley), potatoes, vegetables, melons; livestock
Exports$1.453 billion (2016 est.)
$1.61 billion (2015 est.)
$35.28 billion (2016 est.)
$46.29 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesgold, cotton, wool, garments, meat; mercury, uranium, electricity; machinery; shoes
oil and oil products, natural gas, ferrous metals, chemicals, machinery, grain, wool, meat, coal
Exports - partnersSwitzerland 26.1%, Uzbekistan 22.6%, Kazakhstan 20.8%, UAE 4.9%, Turkey 4.5%, Afghanistan 4.5%, Russia 4.2% (2015)
China 15.1%, Russia 12.3%, France 9.3%, Germany 7.9%, Italy 6.7%, Greece 4.1% (2015)
Imports$3.146 billion (2016 est.)
$3.648 billion (2015 est.)
$24.5 billion (2016 est.)
$33.65 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesoil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
machinery and equipment, metal products, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersChina 56.6%, Russia 17.2%, Kazakhstan 10% (2015)
Russia 32.9%, China 25.9%, Germany 4.2% (2015)
Debt - external$7.728 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.37 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$147.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$153.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratessoms (KGS) per US dollar -
69.08 (2016 est.)
64.462 (2015 est.)
64.462 (2014 est.)
53.654 (2013 est.)
47.01 (2012 est.)
tenge (KZT) per US dollar -
348.5 (2016 est.)
221.73 (2015 est.)
221.73 (2014 est.)
179.19 (2013 est.)
149.11 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt69.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
68.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
25.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$1.838 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.778 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$30.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$28.07 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$615 million (2016 est.)
-$740 million (2015 est.)
-$8.156 billion (2016 est.)
-$5.464 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$5.794 billion (2016 est.)
$128.1 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$4.897 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.347 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$148.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$139.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$331.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$331.4 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$35.27 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$33.77 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$165 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$165 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$79 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$744 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.737 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$26.23 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate5% (31 December 2016)
8% (31 December 2015)
11% (10 April 2017)
12% (9 January 2017)
Commercial bank prime lending rate23.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
24.25% (31 December 2015 est.)
13.7% (31 March 2017 est.)
14.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$980.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$831.4 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$60.94 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$50.83 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.179 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$928.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$13.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.933 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$1.333 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.399 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$60.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$50.25 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues35.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-5.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 13.4%
male: 12%
female: 15.8% (2013 est.)
total: 3.9%
male: 3.6%
female: 4.3% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 77.9%
government consumption: 18.8%
investment in fixed capital: 25.2%
investment in inventories: 2.5%
exports of goods and services: 30.6%
imports of goods and services: -55% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 54.1%
government consumption: 11.9%
investment in fixed capital: 23.5%
investment in inventories: 6.4%
exports of goods and services: 29.3%
imports of goods and services: -25.2% (2015 est.)
Gross national saving18.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
19.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
9.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
25.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
27.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
27.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

KyrgyzstanKazakhstan
Electricity - production14 billion kWh (2014 est.)
94.49 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption11 billion kWh (2014 est.)
91.66 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports72 million kWh (2014 est.)
2.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports300 million kWh (2014 est.)
644.2 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production1,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.621 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
145,800 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports19.65 bbl/day (2013 est.)
1.292 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves40 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
30 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
2.407 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production34 million cu m (2014 est.)
21.38 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption429 million cu m (2014 est.)
13.1 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
13.7 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - imports395 million cu m (2014 est.)
2.2 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity3.9 million kW (2014 est.)
22.06 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels21.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
87% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants78.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
13% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0.3% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production1,571 bbl/day (2013 est.)
228,600 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption37,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
186,300 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports3,070 bbl/day (2013 est.)
846 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports35,710 bbl/day (2013 est.)
44,490 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy9.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
257.8 million Mt (2014 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

KyrgyzstanKazakhstan
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 408,037
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 4,143,100
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 23 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 7.579 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134 (July 2015 est.)
total: 31.39 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 173 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is being upgraded; loans from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) are being used to install a digital network, digital radio-relay stations, and fiber-optic links
domestic: fixed-line penetration remains low and concentrated in urban areas; multiple mobile-cellular service providers with growing coverage; mobile-cellular subscribership up to about 130 per 100 persons in 2015
international: country code - 996; connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat); connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line (2015)
general assessment: inherited an outdated telecommunications network from the Soviet era requiring modernization
domestic: intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; number of fixed-line connections is inadequate; mobile-cellular usage increased rapidly and the market is now highly mature - subscriber base exceeds 170 per 100 persons
international: country code - 7; international traffic with other former Soviet republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay and with other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (2017)
Internet country code.kg
.kz
Internet userstotal: 1.713 million
percent of population: 30.2% (July 2015 est.)
total: 13.23 million
percent of population: 72.9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-run TV broadcaster operates 2 nationwide networks and 6 regional stations; roughly 20 private TV stations operating with most rebroadcasting other channels; state-run radio broadcaster operates 2 networks; about 20 private radio stations (2007)
state owns nearly all radio and TV transmission facilities and operates national TV and radio networks; there are 3 TV channels: Kazakhstan, KAZsport, Balapan; and 4 radio stations: Kazakh Radiosy, Shalkar, Astana, and Classic; some former state-owned media outlets have been privatized; households with satellite dishes have access to foreign media; a small number of commercial radio stations operate along with state-run radio stations; recent legislation requires all media outlets to register with the government and all TV providers to broadcast in digital format by 2018; broadcasts reach 98.63% of the population as well as neighboring countries (2017)

Transportation

KyrgyzstanKazakhstan
Railwaystotal: 470 km
broad gauge: 470 km 1.520-m gauge (2014)
total: 14,184 km
broad gauge: 14,184 km 1.520-m gauge (4,056 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 34,000 km (2007)
total: 97,418 km
paved: 87,140 km
unpaved: 10,278 km (2012)
Waterways600 km (2010)
4,000 km (on the Ertis (Irtysh) River (80%) and Syr Darya (Syrdariya) River) (2010)
Pipelinesgas 480 km; oil 16 km (2013)
condensate 658 km; gas 12,432 km; oil 11,313 km; refined products 1,095 km; water 1,465 km (2013)
Ports and terminalslake port(s): Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye)(Lake Ysyk-Kol)
major seaport(s): Caspian Sea - Aqtau (Shevchenko), Atyrau (Gur'yev)
river port(s): Oskemen (Ust-Kamenogorsk), Pavlodar, Semey (Semipalatinsk) (Irtysh River)
Airports28 (2013)
96 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 18
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
total: 63
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 25
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
total: 33
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 13 (2013)

Military

KyrgyzstanKazakhstan
Military branchesState Committee on Defense Affairs (GKDO): Ground Forces, Air Force (includes Air Defense Forces) (2015)
Kazakhstan Armed Forces: Land Forces, Navy, Air Defense Forces (2017)
Military service age and obligation18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary male military service in the Armed Forces or Interior Ministry; 1-year service obligation, with optional fee-based 3-year service in the call-up mobilization reserve; women may volunteer at age 19; 16-17 years of age for military cadets, who cannot take part in military operations (2013)
18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 2 years, but Kazakhstan is transitioning to a largely contract force; military cadets in intermediate (ages 15-17) and higher (ages 17-21) education institutes are classified as military service personnel (2017)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP3.58% of GDP (2015)
3.38% of GDP (2014)
3.2% of GDP (2013)
3.21% of GDP (2012)
3.4% of GDP (2011)
1.03% of GDP (2015)
1.04% of GDP (2014)
1.08% of GDP (2013)
1.05% of GDP (2012)
0.94% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

KyrgyzstanKazakhstan
Disputes - internationalKyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Tajikistan; delimitation of 130 km of border with Uzbekistan is hampered by serious disputes over enclaves and other areas
Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; field demarcation of the boundaries commenced with Uzbekistan in 2004 and with Turkmenistan in 2005; ongoing demarcation with Russia began in 2007; demarcation with China was completed in 2002; creation of a seabed boundary with Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea remains under discussion; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea
Illicit drugslimited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy for CIS markets; limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; major consumer of opiates
significant illicit cultivation of cannabis for CIS markets, as well as limited cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug ephedrine); limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; significant consumer of opiates
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 2,334 (2016); note - most stateless people were born in Kyrgyzstan, have lived there many years, or married Kyrgyz citizens; in 2009, Kyrgyzstan adopted a national action plan to speed up the exchange of old Soviet passports for Kyrgyz ones; between 2014 and 2016, Kyrgyzstan has resolved nearly 9,000 stateless cases; stateless people are unable to register marriages and births, to travel within the country or abroad, to own property, or to receive social benefits
stateless persons: 8,451 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook