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Kenya vs. Somalia

Introduction

KenyaSomalia
BackgroundFounding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978, when Vice President Daniel MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but were viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. President MOI stepped down in December 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA, the son of founding president Jomo KENYATTA, and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform.
KIBAKI's reelection in December 2007 brought charges of vote rigging from Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) candidate Raila ODINGA and unleashed two months of violence in which as many as 1,500 people died. African Union-sponsored mediation led by former UN Secretary General Kofi ANNAN in late February 2008 resulted in a power-sharing accord bringing ODINGA into the government in the restored position of prime minister. The power sharing accord included a broad reform agenda, the centerpiece of which was constitutional reform. In August 2010, Kenyans overwhelmingly adopted a new constitution in a national referendum. The new constitution introduced additional checks and balances to executive power and significant devolution of power and resources to 47 newly created counties. It also eliminated the position of prime minister following the first presidential election under the new constitution, which occurred in March 2013. Uhuru KENYATTA won the election and was sworn into office in April 2013.
Britain withdrew from British Somaliland in 1960 to allow its protectorate to join with Italian Somaliland and form the new nation of Somalia. In 1969, a coup headed by Mohamed SIAD Barre ushered in an authoritarian socialist rule characterized by the persecution, jailing, and torture of political opponents and dissidents. After the regime's collapse early in 1991, Somalia descended into turmoil, factional fighting, and anarchy. In May 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence and continues efforts to establish a constitutional democracy, including holding municipal, parliamentary, and presidential elections. The regions of Bari, Nugaal, and northern Mudug comprise a neighboring semi-autonomous state of Puntland, which has been self-governing since 1998 but does not aim at independence; it has also made strides toward reconstructing a legitimate, representative government but has suffered some civil strife. Puntland disputes its border with Somaliland as it also claims the regions of Sool and Sanaag, and portions of Togdheer. Beginning in 1993, a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in south-central Somalia) was able to alleviate famine conditions, but when the UN withdrew in 1995, having suffered significant casualties, order still had not been restored. In 2000, the Somalia National Peace Conference (SNPC) held in Djibouti resulted in the formation of an interim government, known as the Transitional National Government (TNG). When the TNG failed to establish adequate security or governing institutions, the Government of Kenya, under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), led a subsequent peace process that concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed as President of a second interim government, known as the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of the Somali Republic. The TFG included a 275-member parliamentary body, known as the Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP). President YUSUF resigned late in 2008 while United Nations-sponsored talks between the TFG and the opposition Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (ARS) were underway in Djibouti. In January 2009, following the creation of a TFG-ARS unity government, Ethiopian military forces, which had entered Somalia in December 2006 to support the TFG in the face of advances by the opposition Islamic Courts Union (ICU), withdrew from the country. The TFP was doubled in size to 550 seats with the addition of 200 ARS and 75 civil society members of parliament. The expanded parliament elected Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed, the former ICU and ARS chairman as president in January 2009. The creation of the TFG was based on the Transitional Federal Charter (TFC), which outlined a five-year mandate leading to the establishment of a new Somali constitution and a transition to a representative government following national elections. In 2009, the TFP amended the TFC to extend TFG's mandate until 2011 and in 2011 Somali principals agreed to institute political transition by August 2012. The transition process ended in September 2012 when clan elders replaced the TFP by appointing 275 members to a new parliament who subsequently elected a new president.

Geography

KenyaSomalia
LocationEastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania
Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia
Geographic coordinates1 00 N, 38 00 E
10 00 N, 49 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 580,367 sq km
land: 569,140 sq km
water: 11,227 sq km
total: 637,657 sq km
land: 627,337 sq km
water: 10,320 sq km
Area - comparativefive times the size of Ohio; slightly more than twice the size of Nevada
almost five times the size of Alabama; slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundariestotal: 3,457 km
border countries (5): Ethiopia 867 km, Somalia 684 km, South Sudan 317 km, Tanzania 775 km, Uganda 814 km
total: 2,385 km
border countries (3): Djibouti 61 km, Ethiopia 1,640 km, Kenya 684 km
Coastline536 km
3,025 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 200 nm
Climatevaries from tropical along coast to arid in interior
principally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons
Terrainlow plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west
mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 762 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m
mean elevation: 410 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Shimbiris 2,416 m
Natural resourceslimestone, soda ash, salt, gemstones, fluorspar, zinc, diatomite, gypsum, wildlife, hydropower
uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves
Land useagricultural land: 48.1%
arable land 9.8%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 37.4%
forest: 6.1%
other: 45.8% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 70.3%
arable land 1.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 68.5%
forest: 10.6%
other: 19.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,030 sq km (2012)
2,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsrecurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons
volcanism: limited volcanic activity; the Barrier (elev. 1,032 m) last erupted in 1921; South Island is the only other historically active volcano
recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season
Environment - current issueswater pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
famine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notethe Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value
strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

Demographics

KenyaSomalia
Population46,790,758
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
10,817,354
note: this estimate was derived from an official census taken in 1975 by the Somali Government; population counting in Somalia is complicated by the large number of nomads and by refugee movements in response to famine and clan warfare (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 40.87% (male 9,592,017/female 9,532,032)
15-24 years: 18.83% (male 4,398,554/female 4,411,586)
25-54 years: 33.54% (male 7,938,111/female 7,755,128)
55-64 years: 3.84% (male 819,665/female 976,862)
65 years and over: 2.92% (male 590,961/female 775,842) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 43.42% (male 2,345,536/female 2,351,886)
15-24 years: 18.87% (male 1,031,804/female 1,009,831)
25-54 years: 31.47% (male 1,762,093/female 1,641,699)
55-64 years: 4.02% (male 213,259/female 221,520)
65 years and over: 2.22% (male 92,966/female 146,760) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 19.5 years
male: 19.4 years
female: 19.6 years (2016 est.)
total: 17.9 years
male: 18.1 years
female: 17.8 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.81% (2016 est.)
1.92% (2016 est.)
Birth rate25.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
40 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate6.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
13.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-7.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 38.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 42.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 33.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 96.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 105.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 87.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 64 years
male: 62.6 years
female: 65.5 years (2016 est.)
total population: 52.4 years
male: 50.3 years
female: 54.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate3.14 children born/woman (2016 est.)
5.89 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate5.91% (2015 est.)
0.5% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Kenyan(s)
adjective: Kenyan
noun: Somali(s)
adjective: Somali
Ethnic groupsKikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%
Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including 30,000 Arabs)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS1,517,700 (2015 est.)
30,200 (2015 est.)
ReligionsChristian 83% (Protestant 47.7%, Catholic 23.4%, other Christian 11.9%), Muslim 11.2%, Traditionalists 1.7%, other 1.6%, none 2.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2009 est.)
Sunni Muslim (Islam) (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter)
HIV/AIDS - deaths35,800 (2015 est.)
2,000 (2015 est.)
LanguagesEnglish (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
Somali (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter), Arabic (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter), Italian, English
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Rift Valley fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Education expenditures5.3% of GDP (2015)
NA
Urbanizationurban population: 25.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 39.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.06% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 81.6% of population
rural: 56.8% of population
total: 63.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 18.4% of population
rural: 43.2% of population
total: 36.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 69.6% of population
rural: 8.8% of population
total: 31.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 30.4% of population
rural: 91.2% of population
total: 68.3% of population (2011 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 31.2% of population
rural: 29.7% of population
total: 30.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 68.8% of population
rural: 70.3% of population
total: 69.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 52% of population
rural: 6.3% of population
total: 23.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 48% of population
rural: 93.7% of population
total: 76.4% of population (2011 est.)
Major cities - populationNAIROBI (capital) 3.915 million; Mombassa 1.104 million (2015)
MOGADISHU (capital) 2.138 million; Hargeysa 760,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate510 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
732 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight11% (2014)
23% (2009)
Physicians density0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate5.9% (2014)
3.9% (2014)
Demographic profileKenya has experienced dramatic population growth since the mid-20th century as a result of its high birth rate and its declining mortality rate. More than 40% of Kenyans are under the age of 15 because of sustained high fertility, early marriage and childbearing, and an unmet need for family planning. Kenya’s persistent rapid population growth strains the labor market, social services, arable land, and natural resources. Although Kenya in 1967 was the first sub-Saharan country to launch a nationwide family planning program, progress in reducing the birth rate has largely stalled since the late 1990s, when the government decreased its support for family planning to focus on the HIV epidemic. Government commitment and international technical support spurred Kenyan contraceptive use, decreasing the fertility rate (children per woman) from about 8 in the late 1970s to less than 5 children twenty years later, but it has plateaued at just over 3 children today.
Kenya is a source of emigrants and a host country for refugees. In the 1960s and 1970s, Kenyans pursued higher education in the UK because of colonial ties, but as British immigration rules tightened, the US, the then Soviet Union, and Canada became attractive study destinations. Kenya’s stagnant economy and political problems during the 1980s and 1990s led to an outpouring of Kenyan students and professionals seeking permanent opportunities in the West and southern Africa. Nevertheless, Kenya’s relative stability since its independence in 1963 has attracted hundreds of thousands of refugees escaping violent conflicts in neighboring countries; Kenya presently shelters nearly 400,000 Somali refugees.
Somalia scores very low for most humanitarian indicators, suffering from poor governance, protracted internal conflict, underdevelopment, economic decline, poverty, social and gender inequality, and environmental degradation. Despite civil war and famine raising its mortality rate, Somalia’s high fertility rate and large proportion of people of reproductive age maintain rapid population growth, with each generation being larger than the prior one. More than 60% of Somalia’s population is younger than 25, and the fertility rate is among the world’s highest at almost 6 children per woman – a rate that has decreased little since the 1970s.
A lack of educational and job opportunities is a major source of tension for Somalia’s large youth cohort, making them vulnerable to recruitment by extremist and pirate groups. Somalia has one of the world’s lowest primary school enrollment rates – just over 40% of children are in school – and one of world’s highest youth unemployment rates. Life expectancy is low as a result of high infant and maternal mortality rates, the spread of preventable diseases, poor sanitation, chronic malnutrition, and inadequate health services.
During the two decades of conflict that followed the fall of the SIAD regime in 1991, hundreds of thousands of Somalis fled their homes. Today Somalia is the world’s third highest source country for refugees, after Syria and Afghanistan. Insecurity, drought, floods, food shortages, and a lack of economic opportunities are the driving factors.
As of 2016, more than 1.1 million Somali refugees were hosted in the region, mainly in Kenya, Yemen, Egypt, Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Uganda, while more than 1.1 million Somalis were internally displaced. Since the implementation of a tripartite voluntary repatriation agreement among Kenya, Somalia, and the UNHCR in 2013, nearly 40,000 Somali refugees have returned home from Kenya’s Dadaab refugee camp – still houses to approximately 260,000 Somalis. The flow sped up rapidly after the Kenyan Government in May 2016 announced its intention to close the camp, worsening security and humanitarian conditions in receiving communities in south-central Somalia. Despite the conflict in Yemen, thousands of Somalis and other refugees and asylum seekers from the Horn of Africa risk their lives crossing the Gulf of Aden to reach Yemen and beyond (often Saudi Arabia). Bossaso in Puntland overtook Obock, Djibouti, as the primary departure point in mid-2014.
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 80.9
youth dependency ratio: 75.8
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
potential support ratio: 19.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 98.1
youth dependency ratio: 92.5
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6
potential support ratio: 17.9 (2015 est.)

Government

KenyaSomalia
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
conventional short form: Kenya
local long form: Republic of Kenya/Jamhuri ya Kenya
local short form: Kenya
former: British East Africa
etymology: named for Mount Kenya; the meaning of the name is unclear but may derive from the Kikuyu, Embu, and Kamba words ""kirinyaga,"" ""kirenyaa,"" and ""kiinyaa"" - all of which mean ""God's resting place""
"
"conventional long form: Federal Republic of Somalia
conventional short form: Somalia
local long form: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalkaa Soomaaliya
local short form: Soomaaliya
former: Somali Republic, Somali Democratic Republic
etymology: ""Land of the Somali"" (ethnic group)
"
Government typepresidential republic
federal parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Nairobi
geographic coordinates: 1 17 S, 36 49 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Mogadishu
geographic coordinates: 2 04 N, 45 20 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions47 counties; Baringo, Bomet, Bungoma, Busia, Elgeyo/Marakwet, Embu, Garissa, Homa Bay, Isiolo, Kajiado, Kakamega, Kericho, Kiambu, Kilifi, Kirinyaga, Kisii, Kisumu, Kitui, Kwale, Laikipia, Lamu, Machakos, Makueni, Mandera, Marsabit, Meru, Migori, Mombasa, Murang'a, Nairobi City, Nakuru, Nandi, Narok, Nyamira, Nyandarua, Nyeri, Samburu, Siaya, Taita/Taveta, Tana River, Tharaka-Nithi, Trans Nzoia, Turkana, Uasin Gishu, Vihiga, Wajir, West Pokot
18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe (Middle Jubba), Jubbada Hoose (Lower Jubba), Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe (Middle Shabeelle), Shabeellaha Hoose (Lower Shabeelle), Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed
Independence12 December 1963 (from the UK)
1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland that became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960 and Italian Somaliland that became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960 to form the Somali Republic)
National holidayJamhuri Day (Independence Day), 12 December (1963); note - Madaraka Day, 1 June (1963) marks the day Kenya attained internal self-rule
Foundation of the Somali Republic, 1 July (1960); note - 26 June (1960) in Somaliland
Constitutionprevious 1963, 1969; latest drafted 6 May 2010, passed by referendum 4 August 2010, promulgated 27 August 2010 (2016)
previous 1961, 1979; latest drafted 12 June 2012, approved 1 August 2012 (provisional) (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review in a new Supreme Court established pursuant to the new constitution
mixed legal system of civil law, Islamic law, and customary law (referred to as Xeer)
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - position of the prime minister abolished after the March 2013 elections
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, subject to confirmation by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president and deputy president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); in addition to receiving an absolute majority popular vote, the presidential candidate must also win at least 25% of the votes cast in each of more than half of the 47 counties to avoid a runoff; election last held on 4 March 2013 (next to be held in 2017)
election results: Uhuru KENYATTA elected president in first round; percent of vote - Uhuru KENYATTA (TNA) 50.1%, Raila ODINGA (ODM) 43.7%, Musalia MUDAVADI (UDF) 4.0%, other 2.2%
"chief of state: President Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed ""Farmaajo"" (since 8 February 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Hassan Ali KHAYRE (since 1 March 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister, approved by the House of the People
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Federal Parliament by two-thirds majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term; election last held on 8 February 2017 (previously scheduled for 30 September 2016 but postponed repeatedly); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the House of the People
election results: Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed ""Farmaajo"" elected president; Federal Parliament second round vote - Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed ""Farmaajo"" (TPP) 184, HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (PDP) 97, Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed (ARS) 46
"
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral parliament consists of the Senate (67 seats; 47 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 20 directly elected by proportional representation vote - 16 women, 2 representing youth, and 2 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly (349 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 47 women in single-seat constituencies elected by simple majority vote, and 12 members nominated by the National Assembly - 6 representing youth and 6 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 4 March 2013 (next to be held in 2017)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Jubilee Alliance 30 (TNA 17, URP 12, NARC 1); CORD Coalition 28 (ODM 17, FORD-K 5, WDM-K 5, other 1); Amani Coalition 6 (KANU 3, UDF 3), APK 3; National Assembly - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Jubilee Alliance 167 (TNA 89, URP 75, NARC 3), CORD Coalition 141 (ODM 96, WDM-K 26, FORD-K 10, other 9), Amani Coalition 24 (UDF 12, KANU 6, NFK 6), Eagle Coalition 2 (KNC 2), APK 5, FORD-P 4, independent 4, other 2
description: bicameral Federal Parliament to consist of an Upper House (54 seats; senators elected by state assemblies to serve 4-year terms) and the House of the People (275 seats; members elected by regional delegates to serve 4-year terms)
note: the inaugural House of the People was appointed in September 2012 by clan elders; in elections in 2016 and 2017, the Federal Parliament became bicameral with elections scheduled for 10 October 2016 for the Upper House and 23 October to 10 November 2016 for the House of the People; while the elections were delayed, they were eventually held in most regions despite voting irregularites; on 27 December 2016, 41 Upper House senators and 242 House of the People members were sworn in
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of chief and deputy chief justices and 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: chief and deputy chief justices nominated by Judicial Service Commission (JSC) and appointed by president with approval of the National Assembly; other judges nominated by the JSC and appointed by president; chief justice serves a nonrenewable 10-year term or till age 70 whichever comes first; other judges serve till age 70
subordinate courts: High Court; Court of Appeal; military courts; magistrates' courts; religious courts
highest court(s): the provisional constitution stipulates the establishment of the Constitutional Court (consists of 5 judges including the chief judge and deputy chief judge); note - under the terms of the 2004 Transitional National Charter, a Supreme Court based in Mogadishu and an Appeal Court were established; yet most regions have reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either secular, traditional Somali customary law, or sharia Islamic law
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president upon proposal of the Judicial Service Commission, a 9-member judicial and administrative body; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: federal- and federal member state-level courts; military courts; sharia Islamic courts
Political parties and leadersAlliance Party of Kenya or APK [Kiraitu MURUNGI]
Amani National Congress [Musalia MUDAVADI]
Coalition for Reforms and Democracy or CORD (includes ODM, WDM-K, FORD-K) [Raila ODINGA]
Federal Party of Kenya or FPK [Cyrus JIRONGA]
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya or FORD-K [Moses WETANGULA]
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-P [Henry OBWOCHA]
Jubilee Party [Uhuru KENYATTA]
Kenya African National Union or KANU [Gideon MOI]
National Rainbow Coalition or NARC [Charity NGILU]
Orange Democratic Movement Party of Kenya or ODM [Raila ODINGA]
Wiper Democratic Movement-K or WDM-K (formerly Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya or ODM-K) [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]
CADHI [Abdirahman IBRAHIM]
Cosmopolitan Democratic Party [Yarow Sharef ADEN]
Daljir Party or DP [Hassan MOALIM, chairperson]
Democratic Green Party of Somalia or DGPS [Abdullahi Y. MAHAMOUD]
Democratic Party of Somalia or DPS [Maslah Mohamed SIAD]
Green Leaf for Democracy or GLED
Hiil Qaran
Justice and Communist Party [Mohamed NUR]
Liberal Party of Somalia
National Unity Party (Xisbiga MIdnimo-Quaran) [Abdurahman BAADIYOW]
Peace and Development Party or PDP
Somali National Party or SNP [Mohammed Ameen Saeed AHMED]
Somali People's Party [Mahamud Hassan RAGE]
Somali Green Party (local chapter of Federation of Green Parties of Africa)
Tayo or TPP [Mohamed Abdullahi MOHAMED]
Tiir Party [Fadhil Sheik MOHAMUD]
United and Democratic Party [Salad Ali JELLE]
United Somali Parliamentarians
Political pressure groups and leadersAfrican Center for Open Governance [Gladwell OTIENO]
Anglican Church of Kenya [Archbishop Jackson Nasoore Ole SAPIT]
Council of Imams and Preachers of Kenya or CIPK [Sheikh Mohammed KHALIFA]
Federation of Women Lawyers in Kenya
Kenya Association of Manufacturers
Kenya Human Rights Commission or KHRC [George KEGORO]
Kenya Private Sector Alliance
Kenyans for Peace with Truth and Justice (umbrella group of more than 30 NGOs)
Muslim Human Rights Forum [Ali-Amin KIMATHI]
National Muslim Leaders Forum or NAMLEF [Abdullahi ABDI]
Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Canon Peter Karanja MWANGI]
Roman Catholic Church [Cardinal John NJUE]
Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Adan WACHU, secretary general]

other: labor unions, other Christian churches
other: numerous political associations and clan and sub-clan factions exist in support and against political leaders from each clan, Federal Member State presidents, and other political leaders including the former and current presidents
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU (candidate), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, LAS, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Robinson GITHAE (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
consulate(s): New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmed Issa AWAD (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 425 East 61st Street, Suite 702, New York City, NY 10021
telephone: [1] (212) 688-9410, 688-5046
FAX: [1] (212) 759-0651
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Robert F. GODEC (since 16 January 2013)
embassy: United Nations Avenue, Nairobi; P.O. Box 606 Village Market, Nairobi 00621
mailing address: American Embassy Nairobi, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-8900
telephone: [254] (20) 363-6000
FAX: [254] (20) 363-6157
the US Mission to Somalia, operating out of the US Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya, is headed by Ambassador Stephen M. SCHWARTZ (since 9 August 2016)
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large Maasai warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center; black symbolizes the majority population, red the blood shed in the struggle for freedom, green stands for natural wealth, and white for peace; the shield and crossed spears symbolize the defense of freedom
light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; the blue field was originally influenced by the flag of the UN, but today is said to denote the sky and the neighboring Indian Ocean; the five points of the star represent the five regions in the horn of Africa that are inhabited by Somali people: the former British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland (which together make up Somalia), Djibouti, Ogaden (Ethiopia), and the North East Province (Kenya)
National anthem"name: ""Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"" (Oh God of All Creation)
lyrics/music: Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE/traditional, adapted by Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE
note: adopted 1963; based on a traditional Kenyan folk song
"
"name: ""Qolobaa Calankeed"" (Every Nation Has its own Flag)
lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Abdullahi QARSHE
note: adopted 2012; written in 1959
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)lion; national colors: black, red, green, white
leopard; national colors: blue, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kenya
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Somalia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Economy

KenyaSomalia
Economy - overviewKenya is the economic, financial, and transport hub of East Africa. Kenya’s real GDP growth has averaged over 5% for the last eight years. Since 2014, Kenya has been ranked as a lower middle income country because its per capita GDP crossed a World Bank threshold. While Kenya has a growing entrepreneurial middle class and steady growth, its economic and development trajectory could be impaired by weak governance and corruption. Although reliable numbers are hard to find, unemployment and under-employment are extremely high, and could be near 40% of the population.

Agriculture remains the backbone of the Kenyan economy, contributing one-third of GDP. About 75% of Kenya’s population of roughly 44.2 million work at least part-time in the agricultural sector, including livestock and pastoral activities. Over 75% of agricultural output is from small-scale, rain-fed farming or livestock production.

Inadequate infrastructure continues to hamper Kenya’s efforts to improve its annual growth to the 8-10% range so that it can meaningfully address poverty and unemployment. The KENYATTA administration has been successful in courting external investment for infrastructure development. International financial institutions and donors remain important to Kenya's economic growth and development, but Kenya has also successfully raised capital in the global bond market. Kenya issued its first sovereign bond offering in mid-2014. Nairobi has contracted with a Chinese company to construct a new standard gauge railway connecting Mombasa and Nairobi, with completion expected in June 2017. In 2013, the country adopted a devolved system of government with the creation of 47 counties, and is in the process of devolving state revenues and responsibilities to the counties. Inflationary pressures and sharp currency depreciation peaked in early 2012 but have since abated following low global food and fuel prices and monetary interventions by the Central Bank. Drought-like conditions in parts of the country have pushed March 2017 inflation above 9%. Chronic budget deficits, including a shortage of funds in mid-2015, hampered the government’s ability to implement proposed development programs, but the economy is back in balance with many indicators, including foreign exchange reserves, interest rates, and FDI moving in the right direction. Underlying weaknesses were exposed in the banking sector in 2016 when the government was forced to take over three small and undercapitalized banks. In 2016, the government enacted legislation that limits interest rates banks can charge on loans and set a rate that banks must pay their depositors. This measure led to a sharp shrinkage of credit in the economy.

Tourism holds a significant place in Kenya’s economy. A spate of terrorist attacks by the Somalia-based group al-Shabaab reduced international tourism earning after their deadly 2013 attack on Nairobi’s Westgate mall, which killed 67 people, but the sector is now recovering. In 2016, tourist arrivals grew by 17% while revenues from tourism increased by 37%.
Despite the lack of effective national governance, Somalia maintains an informal economy largely based on livestock, remittance/money transfer companies, and telecommunications. Somalia's government lacks the ability to collect domestic revenue and external debt – mostly in arrears – was estimated at 93% of GDP in 2014.

Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock normally accounting for about 40% of GDP and more than 50% of export earnings. Nomads and semi-pastoralists, who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large portion of the population. Economic activity is estimated to have increased by 3.7% in 2016 because of growth in the agriculture, construction and telecommunications sector. Somalia's small industrial sector, based on the processing of agricultural products, has largely been looted and the machinery sold as scrap metal.

In recent years, Somalia's capital city, Mogadishu, has witnessed the development of the city's first gas stations, supermarkets, and airline flights to Turkey since the collapse of central authority in 1991. Mogadishu's main market offers a variety of goods from food to electronic gadgets. Hotels continue to operate and are supported with private-security militias. Formalized economic growth has yet to expand outside of Mogadishu and a few regional capitals, and within the city, security concerns dominate business. Telecommunication firms provide wireless services in most major cities and offer the lowest international call rates on the continent. In the absence of a formal banking sector, money transfer/remittance services have sprouted throughout the country, handling up to $1.6 billion in remittances annually, although international concerns over the money transfers into Somalia continues to threaten these services’ ability to operate in Western nations.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$152.7 billion (2016 est.)
$144.1 billion (2015 est.)
$136.4 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$4.719 billion (2016 est.)
$4.551 billion (2015 est.)
$4.431 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP - real growth rate6% (2016 est.)
5.6% (2015 est.)
5.3% (2014 est.)
3.7% (2016 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
3.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,400 (2016 est.)
$3,300 (2015 est.)
$3,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$400 (2016 est.)
$400 (2015 est.)
$400 (2014 est.)
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 32.7%
industry: 18%
services: 49.3% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 60.2%
industry: 7.4%
services: 32.5% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line43.4% (2012 est.)
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 37.8% (2005)
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices)6.1% (2016 est.)
6.6% (2015 est.)
1.5% (2016 est.)
-0.5% (2015 est.)
Labor force18.66 million (2016 est.)
3.109 million (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 61.1%
industry: 6.7%
services: 32.2% (2005 est.)
agriculture: 71%
industry and services: 29% (1975)
Unemployment rate40% (2013 est.)
40% (2001 est.)
NA%
Budgetrevenues: $12.89 billion
expenditures: $17.85 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $145.3 million
expenditures: $151.1 million (2014 est.)
Industriessmall-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, clothing, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products, horticulture, oil refining; aluminum, steel, lead; cement, commercial ship repair, tourism
light industries, including sugar refining, textiles, wireless communication
Industrial production growth rate6.6% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2014 est.)
Agriculture - productstea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, fish, pork, poultry, eggs
bananas, sorghum, corn, coconuts, rice, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans; cattle, sheep, goats; fish
Exports$6.363 billion (2016 est.)
$5.982 billion (2015 est.)
$819 million (2014 est.)
$779 million (2013 est.)
Exports - commoditiestea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement
livestock, bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal
Exports - partnersUganda 10.7%, US 7.9%, Tanzania 7.7%, Netherlands 7%, Zambia 5.8%, UK 5.7% (2015)
UAE 36.1%, Oman 33.4%, Yemen 15.5% (2015)
Imports$16.34 billion (2016 est.)
$15.56 billion (2015 est.)
$3.482 billion (2014 est.)
$3.322 billion (2013 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics
manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, qat
Imports - partnersChina 30%, India 15.5%, UAE 5.7%, US 4.8%, Japan 4.7% (2015)
Oman 17.1%, Djibouti 17%, India 15%, China 10.7%, Kenya 5.5%, Pakistan 4% (2015)
Debt - external$20.25 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.92 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$5.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.054 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange ratesKenyan shillings (KES) per US dollar -
102 (2016 est.)
98.179 (2015 est.)
98.179 (2014 est.)
87.921 (2013 est.)
84.53 (2012 est.)
Somali shillings (SOS) per US dollar -
20,227 (2014 est.)
20,227 (2013 est.)
Fiscal year1 July - 30 June
NA
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$7.374 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.548 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$30.45 million (2014 est.)
Current Account Balance-$3.822 billion (2016 est.)
-$4.335 billion (2015 est.)
-$644 million (2014 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$69.17 billion (2016 est.)
$5.925 billion (2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$5.537 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.662 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$NA
Central bank discount rate11.5% (20 January 2016)
7% (31 December 2010)
NA%
Commercial bank prime lending rate17.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
16.09% (31 December 2015 est.)
NA%
Taxes and other revenues18.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
2.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-7.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
-0.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 77.6%
government consumption: 14.2%
investment in fixed capital: 21.3%
investment in inventories: -0.3%
exports of goods and services: 15.2%
imports of goods and services: -28% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 72.1%
government consumption: 8.7%
investment in fixed capital: 19.8%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 0.3%
imports of goods and services: -1.7% (2015 est.)

Energy

KenyaSomalia
Electricity - production9.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
300 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption7.6 billion kWh (2014 est.)
300 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports38 million kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports79 million kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports11,270 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity2.281 million kW (2015 est.)
81,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels42.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants43.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources13.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production12,610 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption92,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
5,700 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports575 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports82,950 bbl/day (2013 est.)
5,679 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy13 million Mt (2013 est.)
900,000 Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 35,400,000
electrification - total population: 20%
electrification - urban areas: 60%
electrification - rural areas: 7% (2013)
population without electricity: 8,900,000
electrification - total population: 15%
electrification - urban areas: 33%
electrification - rural areas: 4% (2013)

Telecommunications

KenyaSomalia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 85,496
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 51,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 37.716 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 82 (July 2015 est.)
total: 5.836 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 55 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the mobile-cellular system is generally good, especially is urban areas; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system
domestic: sole fixed-line provider, Telkom Kenya, privatized in 2013 and is now 60% owned by Helios Investment Partners, a London-based equity fund, and 40% owned by the the Kenyan Government; multiple providers in the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom in mobile-cellular telephone usage with teledensity reaching 80 per 100 persons in 2015
international: country code - 254; landing point for the EASSy, TEAMS and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (2015)
general assessment: the public telecommunications system was almost completely destroyed or dismantled during the civil war; private companies offer limited local fixed-line service, and private wireless companies offer service in most major cities, while charging the lowest international rates on the continent
domestic: local cellular telephone systems have been established in Mogadishu and in several other population centers with one company beginning to provide 3G services in late 2012
international: country code - 252; Mogadishu is a landing point for the EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa with Europe and North America (2012)
Internet country code.ke
.so
Internet userstotal: 20.952 million
percent of population: 45.6% (July 2015 est.)
total: 187,000
percent of population: 1.8% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediaabout a half-dozen large-scale privately owned media companies with TV and radio stations, as well as a state-owned TV broadcaster, provide service nationwide; satellite and cable TV subscription services available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates 2 national radio channels and provides regional and local radio services in multiple languages; many private radio stations broadcast on a national level along with over 100 private and non-profit provincial stations broadcasting in local languages; transmissions of several international broadcasters available (2014)
2 private TV stations rebroadcast Al-Jazeera and CNN; Somaliland has 1 government-operated TV station and Puntland has 1 private TV station; the transitional government operates Radio Mogadishu; 1 SW and roughly 10 private FM radio stations broadcast in Mogadishu; several radio stations operate in central and southern regions; Somaliland has 1 government-operated radio station; Puntland has roughly a half-dozen private radio stations; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are available (2007)

Transportation

KenyaSomalia
Roadwaystotal: 161,452 km
paved: 14,420 km (8,500 km highways, 1,872 urban roads, and 4,048 rural roads)
unpaved: 147,032 km (2017)
total: 22,100 km
paved: 2,608 km
unpaved: 19,492 km (2000)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Kisumu, Mombasa
LNG terminal(s) (import): Mombasa
major seaport(s): Berbera, Kismaayo
Merchant marineregistered in other countries: 5 (Comoros 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, unknown 1) (2010)
total: 1
by type: cargo 1 (2008)
Airports197 (2013)
61 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 16
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 181
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 107
under 914 m: 60 (2013)
total: 55
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 20
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 6 (2013)

Military

KenyaSomalia
Military branchesKenya Defence Forces: Kenya Army, Kenya Navy, Kenya Air Force (2012)
National Security Force (NSF): Somali Army (2011)
Military service age and obligation18-26 years of age for male and female voluntary service (under 18 with parental consent), with a 9-year obligation (7 years for Kenyan Navy); applicants must be Kenyan citizens and provide a national identity card (obtained at age 18) and a school-leaving certificate; women serve under the same terms and conditions as men; mandatory retirement at age 55 (2012)
18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2012)

Transnational Issues

KenyaSomalia
Disputes - international"Kenya served as an important mediator in brokering Sudan's north-south separation in February 2005; Kenya provides shelter to an estimated 580,000 refugees, including Ugandans who flee across the border periodically to seek protection from Lord's Resistance Army rebels; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists; the boundary that separates Kenya's and Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the ""Ilemi Triangle,"" which Kenya has administered since colonial times
"
"Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; ""Somaliland"" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera to landlocked Ethiopia and have established commercial ties with other regional states; ""Puntland"" and ""Somaliland"" ""governments"" seek international support in their secessionist aspirations and overlapping border claims; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading south across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists
"
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 313,255 (Somalia); 104,700 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 29,894 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers); 27,640 (Ethiopia) (refugees and asylum seekers); 9,881 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 6,086 (Burundi) (2017)
IDPs: 138,000 (represents people displaced since the 1990s by ethnic and political violence and land disputes and who sought refuge mostly in camps; persons who took refuge in host communities or were evicted in urban areas are not included in the data; data is not available on pastoralists displaced by cattle rustling, violence, natural disasters, and development projects; the largest displacement resulted from 2007-08 post-election violence (2016)
stateless persons: 20,000 (2016); note - the stateless population consists of Nubians, Kenyan Somalis, and coastal Arabs; the Nubians are descendants of Sudanese soldiers recruited by the British to fight for them in East Africa more than a century ago; Nubians did not receive Kenyan citizenship when the country became independent in 1963; only recently have Nubians become a formally recognized tribe and had less trouble obtaining national IDs; Galjeel and other Somalis who have lived in Kenya for decades are included with more recent Somali refugees and denied ID cards
refugees (country of origin): 9,263 (Yemen) (2017)
IDPs: 1,106,751 (civil war since 1988, clan-based competition for resources; 2011 famine; insecurity because of fighting between al-Shabaab and the Transitional Federal Government's allied forces) (2017)

Source: CIA Factbook