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Kenya vs. Ethiopia

Introduction

KenyaEthiopia
BackgroundFounding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978, when Vice President Daniel MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but were viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. President MOI stepped down in December 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA, the son of founding president Jomo KENYATTA, and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform.
KIBAKI's reelection in December 2007 brought charges of vote rigging from Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) candidate Raila ODINGA and unleashed two months of violence in which as many as 1,500 people died. African Union-sponsored mediation led by former UN Secretary General Kofi ANNAN in late February 2008 resulted in a power-sharing accord bringing ODINGA into the government in the restored position of prime minister. The power sharing accord included a broad reform agenda, the centerpiece of which was constitutional reform. In August 2010, Kenyans overwhelmingly adopted a new constitution in a national referendum. The new constitution introduced additional checks and balances to executive power and significant devolution of power and resources to 47 newly created counties. It also eliminated the position of prime minister following the first presidential election under the new constitution, which occurred in March 2013. Uhuru KENYATTA won the election and was sworn into office in April 2013.
Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front. A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea in the late 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. In November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission (EEBC) issued specific coordinates as virtually demarcating the border and pronounced its work finished. Alleging that the EEBC acted beyond its mandate in issuing the coordinates, Ethiopia has not accepted them and has not withdrawn troops from previously contested areas pronounced by the EEBC as belonging to Eritrea. In August 2012, longtime leader Prime Minister MELES Zenawi died in office and was replaced by his Deputy Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn, marking the first peaceful transition of power in decades.

Geography

KenyaEthiopia
LocationEastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania
Eastern Africa, west of Somalia
Geographic coordinates1 00 N, 38 00 E
8 00 N, 38 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 580,367 sq km
land: 569,140 sq km
water: 11,227 sq km
total: 1,104,300 sq km
land: 1 million sq km
water: 104,300 sq km
Area - comparativefive times the size of Ohio; slightly more than twice the size of Nevada
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 3,457 km
border countries (5): Ethiopia 867 km, Somalia 684 km, South Sudan 317 km, Tanzania 775 km, Uganda 814 km
total: 5,925 km
border countries (6): Djibouti 342 km, Eritrea 1,033 km, Kenya 867 km, Somalia 1,640 km, South Sudan 1,299 km, Sudan 744 km
Coastline536 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
none (landlocked)
Climatevaries from tropical along coast to arid in interior
tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation
Terrainlow plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west
high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 762 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m
mean elevation: 1,330 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Danakil Depression -125 m
highest point: Ras Dejen 4,533 m
Natural resourceslimestone, soda ash, salt, gemstones, fluorspar, zinc, diatomite, gypsum, wildlife, hydropower
small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 48.1%
arable land 9.8%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 37.4%
forest: 6.1%
other: 45.8% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 36.3%
arable land 15.2%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 20%
forest: 12.2%
other: 51.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,030 sq km (2012)
2,900 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsrecurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons
volcanism: limited volcanic activity; the Barrier (elev. 1,032 m) last erupted in 1921; South Island is the only other historically active volcano
geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Great Rift Valley; Erta Ale (elev. 613 m), which has caused frequent lava flows in recent years, is the country's most active volcano; Dabbahu became active in 2005, forcing evacuations; other historically active volcanoes include Alayta, Dalaffilla, Dallol, Dama Ali, Fentale, Kone, Manda Hararo, and Manda-Inakir
Environment - current issueswater pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea
Geography - notethe Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value
landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; Ethiopia is, therefore, the most populous landlocked country in the world; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Ethiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated in Ethiopia: coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean

Demographics

KenyaEthiopia
Population46,790,758
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
102,374,044
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 40.87% (male 9,592,017/female 9,532,032)
15-24 years: 18.83% (male 4,398,554/female 4,411,586)
25-54 years: 33.54% (male 7,938,111/female 7,755,128)
55-64 years: 3.84% (male 819,665/female 976,862)
65 years and over: 2.92% (male 590,961/female 775,842) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 43.71% (male 22,430,798/female 22,316,910)
15-24 years: 20.04% (male 10,182,973/female 10,332,626)
25-54 years: 29.45% (male 14,970,645/female 15,178,999)
55-64 years: 3.89% (male 1,939,635/female 2,047,041)
65 years and over: 2.91% (male 1,338,985/female 1,635,432) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 19.5 years
male: 19.4 years
female: 19.6 years (2016 est.)
total: 17.8 years
male: 17.6 years
female: 18 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.81% (2016 est.)
2.88% (2016 est.)
Birth rate25.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
36.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate6.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 38.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 42.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 33.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 51.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 58.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 43.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 64 years
male: 62.6 years
female: 65.5 years (2016 est.)
total population: 62.2 years
male: 59.8 years
female: 64.7 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate3.14 children born/woman (2016 est.)
5.07 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate5.91% (2015 est.)
1.15% (2014 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Kenyan(s)
adjective: Kenyan
noun: Ethiopian(s)
adjective: Ethiopian
Ethnic groupsKikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%
Oromo 34.4%, Amhara (Amara) 27%, Somali (Somalie) 6.2%, Tigray (Tigrinya) 6.1%, Sidama 4%, Gurage 2.5%, Welaita 2.3%, Hadiya 1.7%, Afar (Affar) 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Silte 1.3%, Kefficho 1.2%, other 8.8% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS1,517,700 (2015 est.)
730,300 (2014 est.)
ReligionsChristian 83% (Protestant 47.7%, Catholic 23.4%, other Christian 11.9%), Muslim 11.2%, Traditionalists 1.7%, other 1.6%, none 2.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2009 est.)
Ethiopian Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.5%, traditional 2.7%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths35,800 (2015 est.)
23,400 (2014 est.)
LanguagesEnglish (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
Oromo (official working language in the State of Oromiya) 33.8%, Amharic (official national language) 29.3%, Somali (official working language of the State of Sumale) 6.2%, Tigrigna (Tigrinya) (official working language of the State of Tigray) 5.9%, Sidamo 4%, Wolaytta 2.2%, Gurage 2%, Afar (official working language of the State of Afar) 1.7%, Hadiyya 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Opuuo 1.2%, Kafa 1.1%, other 8.1%, English (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic (2007 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78%
male: 81.1%
female: 74.9% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 49.1%
male: 57.2%
female: 41.1% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2009)
total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 8 years (2012)
Education expenditures5.3% of GDP (2015)
4.5% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 25.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 19.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.89% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 81.6% of population
rural: 56.8% of population
total: 63.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 18.4% of population
rural: 43.2% of population
total: 36.8% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 93.1% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 57.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.9% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 42.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 31.2% of population
rural: 29.7% of population
total: 30.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 68.8% of population
rural: 70.3% of population
total: 69.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 27.2% of population
rural: 28.2% of population
total: 28% of population
unimproved:
urban: 72.8% of population
rural: 71.8% of population
total: 72% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationNAIROBI (capital) 3.915 million; Mombassa 1.104 million (2015)
ADDIS ABABA (capital) 3.238 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate510 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
353 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight11% (2014)
25.2% (2014)
Health expenditures5.7% of GDP (2014)
4.9% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density1.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
6.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate5.9% (2014)
3.3% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth20.3 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)
19.6 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Demographic profileKenya has experienced dramatic population growth since the mid-20th century as a result of its high birth rate and its declining mortality rate. More than 40% of Kenyans are under the age of 15 because of sustained high fertility, early marriage and childbearing, and an unmet need for family planning. Kenya’s persistent rapid population growth strains the labor market, social services, arable land, and natural resources. Although Kenya in 1967 was the first sub-Saharan country to launch a nationwide family planning program, progress in reducing the birth rate has largely stalled since the late 1990s, when the government decreased its support for family planning to focus on the HIV epidemic. Government commitment and international technical support spurred Kenyan contraceptive use, decreasing the fertility rate (children per woman) from about 8 in the late 1970s to less than 5 children twenty years later, but it has plateaued at just over 3 children today.
Kenya is a source of emigrants and a host country for refugees. In the 1960s and 1970s, Kenyans pursued higher education in the UK because of colonial ties, but as British immigration rules tightened, the US, the then Soviet Union, and Canada became attractive study destinations. Kenya’s stagnant economy and political problems during the 1980s and 1990s led to an outpouring of Kenyan students and professionals seeking permanent opportunities in the West and southern Africa. Nevertheless, Kenya’s relative stability since its independence in 1963 has attracted hundreds of thousands of refugees escaping violent conflicts in neighboring countries; Kenya presently shelters nearly 400,000 Somali refugees.
Ethiopia is a predominantly agricultural country – more than 80% of the population lives in rural areas – that is in the early stages of demographic transition. Infant, child, and maternal mortality have fallen sharply over the past decade, but the total fertility rate has declined more slowly and the population continues to grow. The rising age of marriage and the increasing proportion of women remaining single have contributed to fertility reduction. While the use of modern contraceptive methods among married women has increased significantly from 6 percent in 2000 to 27 percent in 2012, the overall rate is still quite low.
Ethiopia’s rapid population growth is putting increasing pressure on land resources, expanding environmental degradation, and raising vulnerability to food shortages. With more than 40 percent of the population below the age of 15 and a fertility rate of over 5 children per woman (and even higher in rural areas), Ethiopia will have to make further progress in meeting its family planning needs if it is to achieve the age structure necessary for reaping a demographic dividend in the coming decades.
Poverty, drought, political repression, and forced government resettlement have driven Ethiopia’s internal and external migration since the 1960s. Before the 1974 revolution, only small numbers of the Ethiopian elite went abroad to study and then returned home, but under the brutal Derg regime thousands fled the country, primarily as refugees. Between 1982 and 1991 there was a new wave of migration to the West for family reunification. Since the defeat of the Derg in 1991, Ethiopians have migrated to escape violence among some of the country’s myriad ethnic groups or to pursue economic opportunities. Internal and international trafficking of women and children for domestic work and prostitution is a growing problem.
Contraceptive prevalence rate66% (2015)
37.9% (2015)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 80.9
youth dependency ratio: 75.8
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
potential support ratio: 19.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 81.6
youth dependency ratio: 75.2
elderly dependency ratio: 6.3
potential support ratio: 15.8 (2015 est.)

Government

KenyaEthiopia
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
conventional short form: Kenya
local long form: Republic of Kenya/Jamhuri ya Kenya
local short form: Kenya
former: British East Africa
etymology: named for Mount Kenya; the meaning of the name is unclear but may derive from the Kikuyu, Embu, and Kamba words ""kirinyaga,"" ""kirenyaa,"" and ""kiinyaa"" - all of which mean ""God's resting place""
"
"conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
conventional short form: Ethiopia
local long form: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
local short form: Ityop'iya
former: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa
abbreviation: FDRE
etymology: the country name derives from the Greek word ""Aethiopia,"" which in classical times referred to lands south of Egypt in the Upper Nile region
"
Government typepresidential republic
federal parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Nairobi
geographic coordinates: 1 17 S, 36 49 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Addis Ababa
geographic coordinates: 9 02 N, 38 42 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions47 counties; Baringo, Bomet, Bungoma, Busia, Elgeyo/Marakwet, Embu, Garissa, Homa Bay, Isiolo, Kajiado, Kakamega, Kericho, Kiambu, Kilifi, Kirinyaga, Kisii, Kisumu, Kitui, Kwale, Laikipia, Lamu, Machakos, Makueni, Mandera, Marsabit, Meru, Migori, Mombasa, Murang'a, Nairobi City, Nakuru, Nandi, Narok, Nyamira, Nyandarua, Nyeri, Samburu, Siaya, Taita/Taveta, Tana River, Tharaka-Nithi, Trans Nzoia, Turkana, Uasin Gishu, Vihiga, Wajir, West Pokot
9 ethnically based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)
Independence12 December 1963 (from the UK)
oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years (may be traced to the Aksumite Kingdom, which coalesced in the first century B.C.)
National holidayJamhuri Day (Independence Day), 12 December (1963); note - Madaraka Day, 1 June (1963) marks the day Kenya attained internal self-rule
Derg Downfall Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)
Constitutionprevious 1963, 1969; latest drafted 6 May 2010, passed by referendum 4 August 2010, promulgated 27 August 2010 (2016)
several previous; latest drafted June 1994, adopted 8 December 1994, entered into force 21 August 1995 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review in a new Supreme Court established pursuant to the new constitution
civil law system
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Uhuru KENYATTA (since 9 April 2013); Deputy President William RUTO (since 9 April 2013); note - position of the prime minister abolished after the March 2013 elections
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, subject to confirmation by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president and deputy president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); in addition to receiving an absolute majority popular vote, the presidential candidate must also win at least 25% of the votes cast in each of more than half of the 47 counties to avoid a runoff; election last held on 4 March 2013 (next to be held in 2017)
election results: Uhuru KENYATTA elected president in first round; percent of vote - Uhuru KENYATTA (TNA) 50.1%, Raila ODINGA (ODM) 43.7%, Musalia MUDAVADI (UDF) 4.0%, other 2.2%
chief of state: President MULATU Teshome Wirtu (since 7 October 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn (since 21 September 2012); Deputy Prime Minister DEMEKE Mekonnen Hassen
cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by both chambers of Parliament for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister designated by the majority party following legislative elections
election results: MULATU Teshome Wirtu (OPDO) elected president by acclamation
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral parliament consists of the Senate (67 seats; 47 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 20 directly elected by proportional representation vote - 16 women, 2 representing youth, and 2 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly (349 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 47 women in single-seat constituencies elected by simple majority vote, and 12 members nominated by the National Assembly - 6 representing youth and 6 representing the disabled; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 4 March 2013 (next to be held in 2017)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Jubilee Alliance 30 (TNA 17, URP 12, NARC 1); CORD Coalition 28 (ODM 17, FORD-K 5, WDM-K 5, other 1); Amani Coalition 6 (KANU 3, UDF 3), APK 3; National Assembly - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - Jubilee Alliance 167 (TNA 89, URP 75, NARC 3), CORD Coalition 141 (ODM 96, WDM-K 26, FORD-K 10, other 9), Amani Coalition 24 (UDF 12, KANU 6, NFK 6), Eagle Coalition 2 (KNC 2), APK 5, FORD-P 4, independent 4, other 2
bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation or Yefedereshein Mikir Bete (153 seats; members indirectly elected by state assemblies to serve 5-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives or Yehizb Tewokayoch Mekir Bete (547 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; 22 seats reserved for minorities; all members serve 5-year terms); note - the House of Federation is responsible for interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues and the House of People's Representatives is responsible for passing legislation
elections: last held on 24 May 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: House of Representatives percent of vote - NA; seats by party - EPRDF 501, SPDP 24, BGPDP 9, ANDP 8, GPUDM 3, APDO 1, HNL 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of chief and deputy chief justices and 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: chief and deputy chief justices nominated by Judicial Service Commission (JSC) and appointed by president with approval of the National Assembly; other judges nominated by the JSC and appointed by president; chief justice serves a nonrenewable 10-year term or till age 70 whichever comes first; other judges serve till age 70
subordinate courts: High Court; Court of Appeal; military courts; magistrates' courts; religious courts
highest court(s): Federal Supreme Court (consists of 11 judges); note - the House of Federation has jurisdiction for all constitutional issues
judge selection and term of office: president and vice president of Federal Supreme Court recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; other Supreme Court judges nominated by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council (a 10-member body chaired by the president of the Federal Supreme Court) and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; judges serve until retirement at age 60
subordinate courts: federal high courts and federal courts of first instance; state court systems (mirror structure of federal system); sharia courts and customary and traditional courts
Political parties and leadersAlliance Party of Kenya or APK [Kiraitu MURUNGI]
Amani National Congress [Musalia MUDAVADI]
Coalition for Reforms and Democracy or CORD (includes ODM, WDM-K, FORD-K) [Raila ODINGA]
Federal Party of Kenya or FPK [Cyrus JIRONGA]
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya or FORD-K [Moses WETANGULA]
Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-P [Henry OBWOCHA]
Jubilee Party [Uhuru KENYATTA]
Kenya African National Union or KANU [Gideon MOI]
National Rainbow Coalition or NARC [Charity NGILU]
Orange Democratic Movement Party of Kenya or ODM [Raila ODINGA]
Wiper Democratic Movement-K or WDM-K (formerly Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya or ODM-K) [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]
Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP [Taha AHMED]
Argoba People Democratic Organization or APDO
Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Party or BGPDP
Blue Party (Semayawi Party) [Solomon TESSEMA, spokesman]
Ethiopian Federal Democratic Unity Forum or MEDREK [Beyene PETROS] (a 4-party alliance)
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [Hailemarian DESALEGN] (including the following organizations: Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM; Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO; Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement or SEPDM; Tigray People's Liberation Front or TPLF)
Gambella Peoples Unity Democratic Movement or GPUDM
Harari National League or HNL [Murad ABDULHADI]
Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP
Political pressure groups and leadersAfrican Center for Open Governance [Gladwell OTIENO]
Anglican Church of Kenya [Archbishop Jackson Nasoore Ole SAPIT]
Council of Imams and Preachers of Kenya or CIPK [Sheikh Mohammed KHALIFA]
Federation of Women Lawyers in Kenya
Kenya Association of Manufacturers
Kenya Human Rights Commission or KHRC [George KEGORO]
Kenya Private Sector Alliance
Kenyans for Peace with Truth and Justice (umbrella group of more than 30 NGOs)
Muslim Human Rights Forum [Ali-Amin KIMATHI]
National Muslim Leaders Forum or NAMLEF [Abdullahi ABDI]
Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Canon Peter Karanja MWANGI]
Roman Catholic Church [Cardinal John NJUE]
Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Adan WACHU, secretary general]

other: labor unions, other Christian churches
Ginbot 7 Movement
Ogaden National Liberation Front or ONLF
Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Robinson GITHAE (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
consulate(s): New York
chief of mission: Ambassador GIRMA Birru Geda (since 6 January 2011)
chancery: 3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 364-1200
FAX: [1] (202) 587-0195
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Seattle
consulate(s): Houston, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Robert F. GODEC (since 16 January 2013)
embassy: United Nations Avenue, Nairobi; P.O. Box 606 Village Market, Nairobi 00621
mailing address: American Embassy Nairobi, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-8900
telephone: [254] (20) 363-6000
FAX: [254] (20) 363-6157
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Peter H. VROOMAN (since 2016)
embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
mailing address: P.O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
telephone: [251] 11 130-6000
FAX: 124-2401 [251] 11 124 2401
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large Maasai warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center; black symbolizes the majority population, red the blood shed in the struggle for freedom, green stands for natural wealth, and white for peace; the shield and crossed spears symbolize the defense of freedom
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red, with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; green represents hope and the fertility of the land, yellow symbolizes justice and harmony, while red stands for sacrifice and heroism in the defense of the land; the blue of the disk symbolizes peace and the pentagram represents the unity and equality of the nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia
note: Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag (adopted ca. 1895) were so often appropriated by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the Pan-African colors; the emblem in the center of the current flag was added in 1996
National anthem"name: ""Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"" (Oh God of All Creation)
lyrics/music: Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE/traditional, adapted by Graham HYSLOP, Thomas KALUME, Peter KIBUKOSYA, Washington OMONDI, and George W. SENOGA-ZAKE
note: adopted 1963; based on a traditional Kenyan folk song
"
"name: ""Whedefit Gesgeshi Woud Enat Ethiopia"" (March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia)
lyrics/music: DEREJE Melaku Mengesha/SOLOMON Lulu
note: adopted 1992
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)lion; national colors: black, red, green, white
Abyssinian lion (traditional), yellow pentagram with five rays of light on a blue field (promoted by current government); national colors: green, yellow, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kenya
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ethiopia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years

Economy

KenyaEthiopia
Economy - overviewKenya is the economic, financial, and transport hub of East Africa. Kenya’s real GDP growth has averaged over 5% for the last eight years. Since 2014, Kenya has been ranked as a lower middle income country because its per capita GDP crossed a World Bank threshold. While Kenya has a growing entrepreneurial middle class and steady growth, its economic and development trajectory could be impaired by weak governance and corruption. Although reliable numbers are hard to find, unemployment and under-employment are extremely high, and could be near 40% of the population.

Agriculture remains the backbone of the Kenyan economy, contributing one-third of GDP. About 75% of Kenya’s population of roughly 44.2 million work at least part-time in the agricultural sector, including livestock and pastoral activities. Over 75% of agricultural output is from small-scale, rain-fed farming or livestock production.

Inadequate infrastructure continues to hamper Kenya’s efforts to improve its annual growth to the 8-10% range so that it can meaningfully address poverty and unemployment. The KENYATTA administration has been successful in courting external investment for infrastructure development. International financial institutions and donors remain important to Kenya's economic growth and development, but Kenya has also successfully raised capital in the global bond market. Kenya issued its first sovereign bond offering in mid-2014. Nairobi has contracted with a Chinese company to construct a new standard gauge railway connecting Mombasa and Nairobi, with completion expected in June 2017. In 2013, the country adopted a devolved system of government with the creation of 47 counties, and is in the process of devolving state revenues and responsibilities to the counties. Inflationary pressures and sharp currency depreciation peaked in early 2012 but have since abated following low global food and fuel prices and monetary interventions by the Central Bank. Drought-like conditions in parts of the country have pushed March 2017 inflation above 9%. Chronic budget deficits, including a shortage of funds in mid-2015, hampered the government’s ability to implement proposed development programs, but the economy is back in balance with many indicators, including foreign exchange reserves, interest rates, and FDI moving in the right direction. Underlying weaknesses were exposed in the banking sector in 2016 when the government was forced to take over three small and undercapitalized banks. In 2016, the government enacted legislation that limits interest rates banks can charge on loans and set a rate that banks must pay their depositors. This measure led to a sharp shrinkage of credit in the economy.

Tourism holds a significant place in Kenya’s economy. A spate of terrorist attacks by the Somalia-based group al-Shabaab reduced international tourism earning after their deadly 2013 attack on Nairobi’s Westgate mall, which killed 67 people, but the sector is now recovering. In 2016, tourist arrivals grew by 17% while revenues from tourism increased by 37%.
Ethiopia - the second most populous country in Africa - is a one-party state with a planned economy. For more than a decade before 2016, Ethiopia grew at a rate between 8% and 11% annually – one of the fastest growing states among the 188 IMF member countries. This growth was driven by government investment in infrastructure, as well as sustained progress in the agricultural and service sectors. More than 70% of Ethiopia’s population is still employed in the agricultural sector, but services have surpassed agriculture as the principal source of GDP.

Ethiopia has the lowest level of income-inequality in Africa and one of the lowest in the world, with a Gini coefficient comparable to that of the Scandinavian countries. Yet despite progress toward eliminating extreme poverty, Ethiopia remains one of the poorest countries in the world, due both to rapid population growth and a low starting base. Changes in rainfall associated with world-wide weather patterns resulted in the worst drought in thirty years in 2015/2016, creating food insecurity for millions of Ethiopians.

The state is heavily engaged in the economy. Ongoing infrastructure projects include power production and distribution, roads, rails, airports and industrial parks. Key sectors are state-owned, including telecommunications, banking and insurance, and power distribution. Under Ethiopia's constitution, the state owns all land and provides long-term leases to tenants. Title rights in urban areas, particularly Addis Ababa, are poorly regulated, and subject to corruption.

Ethiopia’s foreign exchange earnings are led by the services sector - primarily the state-run Ethiopian Airlines - followed by exports of several commodities. While coffee remains the largest foreign exchange earner, Ethiopia is diversifying exports, and commodities such as gold, sesame, khat, livestock and horticulture products are becoming increasingly important. Manufacturing represented less than 8% of total exports in 2016, but manufacturing exports should increase due to a growing international presence.

The banking, insurance, telecommunications, and micro-credit industries are restricted to domestic investors, but Ethiopia has attracted roughly $8.5 billion in foreign direct investment, mostly from China, Turkey, India and the EU; US FDI is $567 million. Investment has been primarily in infrastructure, construction, agriculture/horticulture, agricultural processing, textiles, leather and leather products.

In the fall of 2015, the government finalized and published the current 2016-2020 five-year plan, known as the Growth and Transformation Plan II, which emphasizes developing manufacturing in sectors where Ethiopia has a comparative advantage, such as textiles and garments, leather goods, and processed agricultural products. To support industrialization, Ethiopia plans to increase installed power generation capacity by 8,320 MW, up from a capacity of 2,000 MW, by building three more major dams and expanding to other sources of renewable energy.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$152.7 billion (2016 est.)
$144.1 billion (2015 est.)
$136.4 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$174.7 billion (2016 est.)
$164.1 billion (2015 est.)
$148.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate6% (2016 est.)
5.6% (2015 est.)
5.3% (2014 est.)
6.5% (2016 est.)
10.2% (2015 est.)
10.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,400 (2016 est.)
$3,300 (2015 est.)
$3,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1,900 (2016 est.)
$1,800 (2015 est.)
$1,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 32.7%
industry: 18%
services: 49.3% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 36.2%
industry: 17%
services: 46.8% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line43.4% (2012 est.)
29.6% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 37.8% (2005)
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 25.6% (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)6.1% (2016 est.)
6.6% (2015 est.)
7.7% (2016 est.)
10.1% (2015 est.)
Labor force18.66 million (2016 est.)
50.97 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 61.1%
industry: 6.7%
services: 32.2% (2005 est.)
agriculture: 72.7%
industry: 7.4%
services: 19.9% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate40% (2013 est.)
40% (2001 est.)
17.5% (2012 est.)
18% (2011 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index42.5 (2008 est.)
44.9 (1997)
33 (2011)
30 (2000)
Budgetrevenues: $12.89 billion
expenditures: $17.85 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $10.07 billion
expenditures: $11.85 billion (2016 est.)
Industriessmall-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, clothing, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products, horticulture, oil refining; aluminum, steel, lead; cement, commercial ship repair, tourism
food processing, beverages, textiles, leather, garments, chemicals, metals processing, cement
Industrial production growth rate6.6% (2016 est.)
9% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productstea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, fish, pork, poultry, eggs
cereals, coffee, oilseed, cotton, sugarcane, vegetables, khat, cut flowers; hides, cattle, sheep, goats; fish
Exports$6.363 billion (2016 est.)
$5.982 billion (2015 est.)
$2.932 billion (2016 est.)
$2.935 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiestea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement
coffee (27%, by value), oilseeds (17%), edible vegetables including khat (17%), gold (13%), flowers (7%), live animals (7%), raw leather products (3%), meat products (3%)
Exports - partnersUganda 10.7%, US 7.9%, Tanzania 7.7%, Netherlands 7%, Zambia 5.8%, UK 5.7% (2015)
Switzerland 14.3%, China 11.7%, US 9.5%, Netherlands 8.7%, Saudi Arabia 5.9%, Germany 5.7% (2015)
Imports$16.34 billion (2016 est.)
$15.56 billion (2015 est.)
$14.7 billion (2016 est.)
$15.87 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics
machinery and aircraft (14%, by value), metal and metal products, (14%), electrical materials, (13%), petroleum products (12%), motor vehicles, (10%), chemicals and fertilizers (4%)
Imports - partnersChina 30%, India 15.5%, UAE 5.7%, US 4.8%, Japan 4.7% (2015)
China 20.5%, US 9.2%, Saudi Arabia 6.5%, India 4.5% (2015)
Debt - external$20.25 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.92 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$22.49 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$19.04 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesKenyan shillings (KES) per US dollar -
102 (2016 est.)
98.179 (2015 est.)
98.179 (2014 est.)
87.921 (2013 est.)
84.53 (2012 est.)
birr (ETB) per US dollar -
23.25 (2016 est.)
21.55 (2015 est.)
21.55 (2014 est.)
19.8 (2013 est.)
17.71 (2012 est.)
Fiscal year1 July - 30 June
8 July - 7 July
Public debt50.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
48% of GDP (2015 est.)
54.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
49.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: official data cover central government debt, including debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury and treasury debt owned by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$7.374 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.548 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.956 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.113 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$3.822 billion (2016 est.)
-$4.335 billion (2015 est.)
-$7.206 billion (2016 est.)
-$7.483 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$69.17 billion (2016 est.)
$69.22 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$26.16 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$22.09 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$14.79 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$NA
Central bank discount rate11.5% (20 January 2016)
7% (31 December 2010)
NA%
Commercial bank prime lending rate17.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
16.09% (31 December 2015 est.)
12.2% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$31.52 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$27.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$36.33 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$28.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$11.07 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.927 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$14.43 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$11.97 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$24.02 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$18.92 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$28 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$24.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues18.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
14.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-7.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
-2.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 77.6%
government consumption: 14.2%
investment in fixed capital: 21.3%
investment in inventories: -0.3%
exports of goods and services: 15.2%
imports of goods and services: -28% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 65.9%
government consumption: 10.2%
investment in fixed capital: 37.6%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 8.7%
imports of goods and services: -22.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
12.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
29% of GDP (2016 est.)
31.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
30.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

KenyaEthiopia
Electricity - production9.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
9.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption7.6 billion kWh (2014 est.)
6.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports38 million kWh (2014 est.)
1.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports79 million kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports11,270 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
430,000 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity2.281 million kW (2015 est.)
2.4 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels42.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
8.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants43.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
88.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources13.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
3.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production12,610 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption92,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
61,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports575 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports82,950 bbl/day (2013 est.)
58,740 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy13 million Mt (2013 est.)
9.3 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 35,400,000
electrification - total population: 20%
electrification - urban areas: 60%
electrification - rural areas: 7% (2013)
population without electricity: 71,200,000
electrification - total population: 24%
electrification - urban areas: 85%
electrification - rural areas: 10% (2013)

Telecommunications

KenyaEthiopia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 85,496
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 890,642
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 37.716 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 82 (July 2015 est.)
total: 42.312 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 43 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the mobile-cellular system is generally good, especially is urban areas; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system
domestic: sole fixed-line provider, Telkom Kenya, privatized in 2013 and is now 60% owned by Helios Investment Partners, a London-based equity fund, and 40% owned by the the Kenyan Government; multiple providers in the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom in mobile-cellular telephone usage with teledensity reaching 80 per 100 persons in 2015
international: country code - 254; landing point for the EASSy, TEAMS and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (2015)
general assessment: Ethio Telecom maintains a monopoly over telecommunication services; open-wire, microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; 2 domestic satellites provide the national trunk service
domestic: the number of mobile telephones is increasing steadily from a small base and now stands at over 40 per 100 persons
international: country code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.ke
.et
Internet userstotal: 20.952 million
percent of population: 45.6% (July 2015 est.)
total: 11.538 million
percent of population: 11.6% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediaabout a half-dozen large-scale privately owned media companies with TV and radio stations, as well as a state-owned TV broadcaster, provide service nationwide; satellite and cable TV subscription services available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates 2 national radio channels and provides regional and local radio services in multiple languages; many private radio stations broadcast on a national level along with over 100 private and non-profit provincial stations broadcasting in local languages; transmissions of several international broadcasters available (2014)
6 public TV stations broadcasting nationally and 10 public radio broadcasters; 7 private radio stations and 19 community radio stations (2017)

Transportation

KenyaEthiopia
Railwaystotal: 3,806 km
narrow gauge: 3,334 km 1.000-m gauge
standard gauge: 472 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
total: 659 km (Ethiopian segment of the 756 km Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
standard gauge: 659 km 1.435-m gauge
note: electric railway with redundant power supplies; under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia and managed by a Chinese contractor (2017)
Roadwaystotal: 161,452 km
paved: 14,420 km (8,500 km highways, 1,872 urban roads, and 4,048 rural roads)
unpaved: 147,032 km (2017)
total: 110,414 km
paved: 14,354 km
unpaved: 96,060 km (2015)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Kisumu, Mombasa
LNG terminal(s) (import): Mombasa
Ethiopia is landlocked and uses the ports of Djibouti in Djibouti and Berbera in Somalia
Merchant marineregistered in other countries: 5 (Comoros 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, unknown 1) (2010)
total: 8
by type: cargo 8 (2010)
Airports197 (2013)
57 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 16
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 181
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 107
under 914 m: 60 (2013)
total: 40
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 8 (2013)

Military

KenyaEthiopia
Military branchesKenya Defence Forces: Kenya Army, Kenya Navy, Kenya Air Force (2012)
Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF): Ground Forces, Ethiopian Air Force (Ye Ityopya Ayer Hayl, ETAF) (2013)
Military service age and obligation18-26 years of age for male and female voluntary service (under 18 with parental consent), with a 9-year obligation (7 years for Kenyan Navy); applicants must be Kenyan citizens and provide a national identity card (obtained at age 18) and a school-leaving certificate; women serve under the same terms and conditions as men; mandatory retirement at age 55 (2012)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but the military can conduct callups when necessary and compliance is compulsory (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.51% of GDP (2015)
1.33% of GDP (2014)
1.56% of GDP (2013)
1.67% of GDP (2012)
1.54% of GDP (2011)
0.71% of GDP (2015)
0.73% of GDP (2014)
0.81% of GDP (2013)
0.87% of GDP (2012)
1.09% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

KenyaEthiopia
Disputes - international"Kenya served as an important mediator in brokering Sudan's north-south separation in February 2005; Kenya provides shelter to an estimated 580,000 refugees, including Ugandans who flee across the border periodically to seek protection from Lord's Resistance Army rebels; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists; the boundary that separates Kenya's and Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the ""Ilemi Triangle,"" which Kenya has administered since colonial times
"
"Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; ""Somaliland"" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera and trade ties to landlocked Ethiopia; civil unrest in eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia
"
Illicit drugswidespread harvesting of small plots of marijuana; transit country for South Asian heroin destined for Europe and North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa; significant potential for money-laundering activity given the country's status as a regional financial center; massive corruption, and relatively high levels of narcotics-associated activities
transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe, as well as cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (khat) for local use and regional export, principally to Djibouti and Somalia (legal in all three countries); the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money laundering center
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 313,255 (Somalia); 104,700 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 29,894 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers); 27,640 (Ethiopia) (refugees and asylum seekers); 9,881 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 6,086 (Burundi) (2017)
IDPs: 138,000 (represents people displaced since the 1990s by ethnic and political violence and land disputes and who sought refuge mostly in camps; persons who took refuge in host communities or were evicted in urban areas are not included in the data; data is not available on pastoralists displaced by cattle rustling, violence, natural disasters, and development projects; the largest displacement resulted from 2007-08 post-election violence (2016)
stateless persons: 20,000 (2016); note - the stateless population consists of Nubians, Kenyan Somalis, and coastal Arabs; the Nubians are descendants of Sudanese soldiers recruited by the British to fight for them in East Africa more than a century ago; Nubians did not receive Kenyan citizenship when the country became independent in 1963; only recently have Nubians become a formally recognized tribe and had less trouble obtaining national IDs; Galjeel and other Somalis who have lived in Kenya for decades are included with more recent Somali refugees and denied ID cards
refugees (country of origin): 375,685 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 249,903 (Somalia) (refugees); 161,398 (Eritrea) (refugees and asylum seekers); 41,588 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2017)
IDPs: 258,000 (border war with Eritrea from 1998-2000; ethnic clashes; and ongoing fighting between the Ethiopian military and separatist rebel groups in the Sumale and Oromiya regions; natural disasters; intercommunal violence; most IDPs live in Sumale state) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook