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Kazakhstan vs. China

Introduction

KazakhstanChina
Background"Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated to the region by the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. Soviet policies reduced the number of ethnic Kazakhs in the 1930s and enabled non-ethnic Kazakhs to outnumber natives. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural ""Virgin Lands"" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) further skewed the ethnic mixture. Non-Muslim ethnic minorities departed Kazakhstan in large numbers from the mid-1990s through the mid-2000s and a national program has repatriated about a million ethnic Kazakhs back to Kazakhstan. These trends have allowed Kazakhs to become the titular majority again. This dramatic demographic shift has also undermined the previous religious diversity and made the country more than 70% Muslim. Kazakhstan's economy is larger than those of all the other Central Asian states largely due to the country's vast natural resources. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity, expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets, diversifying the economy, enhancing Kazakhstan's economic competitiveness, and strengthening relations with neighboring states and foreign powers.
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For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, MAO's successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight. Since the early 1990s, China has increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations.

Geography

KazakhstanChina
LocationCentral Asia, northwest of China; a small portion west of the Ural (Zhayyq) River in easternmost Europe
Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
Geographic coordinates48 00 N, 68 00 E
35 00 N, 105 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Asia
Areatotal: 2,724,900 sq km
land: 2,699,700 sq km
water: 25,200 sq km
total: 9,596,960 sq km
land: 9,326,410 sq km
water: 270,550 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than four times the size of Texas
slightly smaller than the US
Land boundariestotal: 13,364 km
border countries (5): China 1,765 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,212 km, Russia 7,644 km, Turkmenistan 413 km, Uzbekistan 2,330 km
total: 22,457 km
border countries (14): Afghanistan 91 km, Bhutan 477 km, Burma 2,129 km, India 2,659 km, Kazakhstan 1,765 km, North Korea 1,352 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,063 km, Laos 475 km, Mongolia 4,630 km, Nepal 1,389 km, Pakistan 438 km, Russia (northeast) 4,133 km, Russia (northwest) 46 km, Tajikistan 477 km, Vietnam 1,297 km
regional border(s) (2): Hong Kong 33 km, Macau 3 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked); note - Kazakhstan borders the Aral Sea, now split into two bodies of water (1,070 km), and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km)
14,500 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatecontinental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid
extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
Terrainvast flat steppe extending from the Volga in the west to the Altai Mountains in the east and from the plains of western Siberia in the north to oases and deserts of Central Asia in the south
mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 387 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Vpadina Kaundy -132 m
highest point: Khan Tangiri Shyngy (Pik Khan-Tengri) 6,995 m
mean elevation: 1,840 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (highest peak in Asia and highest point on earth above sea level)
Natural resourcesmajor deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium
coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, rare earth elements, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest), arable land
Land useagricultural land: 77.4%
arable land 8.9%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 68.5%
forest: 1.2%
other: 21.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 54.7%
arable land 11.3%; permanent crops 1.6%; permanent pasture 41.8%
forest: 22.3%
other: 23% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land20,660 sq km (2012)
690,070 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsearthquakes in the south; mudslides around Almaty
frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
volcanism: China contains some historically active volcanoes including Changbaishan (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu, or P'aektu-san), Hainan Dao, and Kunlun although most have been relatively inactive in recent centuries
Environment - current issuesradioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with former defense industries and test ranges scattered throughout the country pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers that flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices
air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; China is the world's largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteworld's largest landlocked country; Russia leases approximately 6,000 sq km of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome; in January 2004, Kazakhstan and Russia extended the lease to 2050
world's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US) and largest country situated entirely in Asia; Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak above sea level
Population distributionmost of the country displays a low population density, particularly the interior; population clusters appear in urban agglomerations in the far northern and southern portions of the country
overwhelming majority of the population is found in the eastern half of the country; the west, with its vast mountainous and desert areas, remains sparsely populated; though ranked first in the world in total population, overall density is less than that of many other countries in Asia and Europe; high population density is found along the Yangtze and Yellow River valleys, the Xi Jiang River delta, the Sichuan Basin (around Chengdu), in and around Beijing, and the industrial area around Shenyang

Demographics

KazakhstanChina
Population18,360,353 (July 2016 est.)
1,373,541,278 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 25.68% (male 2,336,444/female 2,378,769)
15-24 years: 14.66% (male 1,371,133/female 1,319,938)
25-54 years: 42.5% (male 3,808,164/female 3,994,781)
55-64 years: 9.77% (male 784,035/female 1,008,935)
65 years and over: 7.4% (male 470,485/female 887,669) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 17.1% (male 126,732,020/female 108,172,771)
15-24 years: 13.27% (male 97,126,460/female 85,135,228)
25-54 years: 48.42% (male 339,183,101/female 325,836,319)
55-64 years: 10.87% (male 75,376,730/female 73,859,424)
65 years and over: 10.35% (male 67,914,015/female 74,205,210) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 30.3 years
male: 29 years
female: 31.6 years (2016 est.)
total: 37.1 years
male: 36.2 years
female: 38.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.09% (2016 est.)
0.43% (2016 est.)
Birth rate18.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
12.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 0.94 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.53 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.15 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 20.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 22.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 12.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 12.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 70.8 years
male: 65.6 years
female: 75.7 years (2016 est.)
total population: 75.5 years
male: 73.5 years
female: 77.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.28 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.6 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.21% (2015 est.)
0.1% (2012 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Kazakhstani(s)
adjective: Kazakhstani
noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese
Ethnic groupsKazakh (Qazaq) 63.1%, Russian 23.7%, Uzbek 2.9%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Uighur 1.4%, Tatar 1.3%, German 1.1%, other 4.4% (2009 est.)
Han Chinese 91.6%, Zhuang 1.3%, other (includes Hui, Manchu, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Tujia, Tibetan, Mongol, Dong, Buyei, Yao, Bai, Korean, Hani, Li, Kazakh, Dai and other nationalities) 7.1%
note: the Chinese Government officially recognizes 56 ethnic groups (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS23,100 (2015 est.)
780,000 (2012 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 70.2%, Christian 26.2% (mainly Russian Orthodox), other 0.2%, atheist 2.8%, unspecified 0.5% (2009 est.)
Buddhist 18.2%, Christian 5.1%, Muslim 1.8%, folk religion 21.9%, Hindu < 0.1%, Jewish < 0.1%, other 0.7% (includes Daoist (Taoist)), unaffiliated 52.2%
note: officially atheist (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths500 (2015 est.)
NA
Languages"Kazakh (official, Qazaq) 74% (understand spoken language), Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the ""language of interethnic communication"") 94.4% (understand spoken language) (2009 est.)
"
Standard Chinese or Mandarin (official; Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
note: Zhuang is official in Guangxi Zhuang, Yue is official in Guangdong, Mongolian is official in Nei Mongol, Uighur is official in Xinjiang Uygur, Kyrgyz is official in Xinjiang Uygur, and Tibetan is official in Xizang (Tibet)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.8% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.4%
male: 98.2%
female: 94.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2016)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2015)
Education expenditures3.1% of GDP (2009)
NA
Urbanizationurban population: 53.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.86% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 55.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 85.6% of population
total: 92.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 14.4% of population
total: 7.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 93% of population
total: 95.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 7% of population
total: 4.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 97% of population
rural: 98.1% of population
total: 97.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3% of population
rural: 1.9% of population
total: 2.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 86.6% of population
rural: 63.7% of population
total: 76.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13.4% of population
rural: 36.3% of population
total: 23.5% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationAlmaty 1.523 million; ASTANA (capital) 759,000 (2015)
Shanghai 23.741 million; BEIJING (capital) 20.384 million; Chongqing 13.332 million; Guangdong 12.458 million; Tianjin 11.21 million; Shenzhen 10.749 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate12 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
27 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight3.7% (2011)
3.4% (2010)
Health expenditures4.4% of GDP (2014)
5.5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3.27 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
1.49 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
Hospital bed density7.2 beds/1,000 population (2012)
3.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate23.5% (2014)
7.3% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 50.3
youth dependency ratio: 40.1
elderly dependency ratio: 10.1
potential support ratio: 9.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 36.6
youth dependency ratio: 23.5
elderly dependency ratio: 13
potential support ratio: 7.7 (2015 est.)

Government

KazakhstanChina
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Kazakhstan
conventional short form: Kazakhstan
local long form: Qazaqstan Respublikasy
local short form: Qazaqstan
former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the name ""Kazakh"" derives from the Turkic word ""kaz"" meaning ""to wander,"" recalling the Kazakh's nomadic lifestyle; the Persian suffix ""-stan"" means ""place of"" or ""country,"" so the word Kazakhstan literally means ""Land of the Wanderers""
"
"conventional long form: People's Republic of China
conventional short form: China
local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
local short form: Zhongguo
abbreviation: PRC
etymology: English name derives from the Qin (Chin) rulers of the 3rd century B.C., who comprised the first imperial dynasty of ancient China; the Chinese name Zhongguo translates as ""Central Nation""
"
Government typepresidential republic
communist state
Capitalname: Astana
geographic coordinates: 51 10 N, 71 25 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note: Kazakhstan has two time zones
"name: Beijing
geographic coordinates: 39 55 N, 116 23 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note: despite its size, all of China falls within one time zone; many people in Xinjiang Province observe an unofficial ""Xinjiang time zone"" of UTC+6, two hours behind Beijing
"
Administrative divisions14 provinces (oblyslar, singular - oblys) and 2 cities* (qalalar, singular - qala); Almaty (Taldyqorghan), Almaty*, Aqmola (Kokshetau), Aqtobe, Astana*, Atyrau, Batys Qazaqstan [West Kazakhstan] (Oral), Mangghystau (Aqtau), Ongtustik Qazaqstan [South Kazakhstan] (Shymkent), Pavlodar, Qaraghandy, Qostanay, Qyzylorda, Shyghys Qazaqstan [East Kazakhstan] (Oskemen), Soltustik Qazaqstan [North Kazakhstan] (Petropavl), Zhambyl (Taraz)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses); in 1995, the Governments of Kazakhstan and Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a period of 20 years an area of 6,000 sq km enclosing the Baykonur space launch facilities and the city of Bayqongyr (Baykonur, formerly Leninsk); in 2004, a new agreement extended the lease to 2050
23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural)
provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Taiwan)
autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia), Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur, Xizang (Tibet)
municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin
note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau
Independence16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
1 October 1949 (People's Republic of China established); notable earlier dates: 221 B.C. (unification under the Qin Dynasty); 1 January 1912 (Qing Dynasty replaced by the Republic of China)
National holidayIndependence Day, 16 December (1991)
National Day (anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1937, 1978 (preindependence), 1993; latest approved by referendum 30 August 1995, effective 5 September 1995
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic on the recommendation of Parliament or the government; the president has the option of submitting draft amendments to Parliament or directly to a referendum; passage of amendments to Parliament requires three-fourths majority vote of both houses and the signature of the president; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote by more than one-half of the voters in at least two-thirds of the oblasts, major cities, and the capital, followed by the signature of the president; amended several times, last in 2017 (2017)
several previous; latest promulgated 4 December 1982; amended several times, last in 2004 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and by the theory and practice of the Russian Federation
civil law influenced by Soviet and continental European civil law systems; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; note - criminal procedure law revised in early 2012
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch"chief of state: President Nursultan Abishuly NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 22 February 1990, elected president 1 December 1991)
head of government: Prime Minister Bakytzhan SAGINTAYEV (since 9 September 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Askar MAMIN (since 13 September 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the Mazhilis; note - constitutional amendments in May 2007 shortened the presidential term from 7 to 5 years and established a 2-consecutive-term limit; NAZARBAYEV has official status as the ""First President of Kazakhstan"" and is allowed unlimited terms
election results: Nursultan Abishuly NAZARBAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Nursultan Abishuly NAZARBAYEV (Nur Otan) 97.8%, other 2.2%
"
chief of state: President XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013); Vice President LI Yuanchao (since 14 March 2013)
head of government: Premier LI Keqiang (since 16 March 2013); Executive Vice Premiers ZHANG Gaoli (since 16 March 2013), LIU Yandong (since 16 March 2013), MA Kai (since 16 March 2013), WANG Yang (since 16 March 2013)
cabinet: State Council appointed by National People's Congress
elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by National People's Congress for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5-17 March 2013 (next to be held in March 2018); premier nominated by president, confirmed by National People's Congress
election results: XI Jinping elected president; National People's Congress vote - 2,952 ; LI Yuanchao elected vice president with 2,940 votes
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (47 seats; 32 members indirectly elected by majority two-round vote by the oblast-level assemblies and 15 members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms, with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the Mazhilis (107 seats; 98 members directly elected in a single national constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 9 indirectly elected by the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan, a 350-member, presidentially appointed advisory body designed to represent the country's ethnic minorities)
elections: Senate - last held on 1 October 2014 (next to be held in 2017); Mazhilis - last held on 20 March 2016 (next to be held by 2021)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Nur Otan 16; Mazhilis - percent of vote by party - Nur Otan 82.2%, Ak Zhol 7.2%, Communist People's Party 7.1%, other 3.5%; seats by party - Nur Otan 84, Ak Zhol 7, Communist People's Party 7
description: unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,987 seats; members indirectly elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses, and the People's Liberation Army; members serve 5-year terms); note - in practice, only members of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its 8 allied parties, and CCP-approved independent candidates are elected
elections: last held in December 2012-February 2013 (next to be held in late 2017 to early 2018)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - 2,987
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of the Republic (consists of 44 members); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the president of the republic on recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council and confirmed by the Senate; judges normally serve until age 65 but can be extended to age 70; Constitutional Council - the president of the republic, the Senate chairperson, and the Majilis chairperson each appoints 1 member for a 3-year term and each appoints 1 member for a 6-year term; chairperson of the Constitutional Council appointed by the president of the republic for a 6-year term
subordinate courts: regional and local courts
highest court(s): Supreme People's Court (consists of over 340 judges including the chief justice, 13 grand justices organized into a civil committee and tribunals for civil, economic, administrative, complaint and appeal, and communication and transportation cases)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the People's National Congress (NPC); term limited to 2 consecutive 5-year terms; other justices and judges nominated by the chief justice and appointed by the Standing Committee of the NPC; term of other justices and judges determined by the NPC
subordinate courts: Higher People's Courts; Intermediate People's Courts; District and County People's Courts; Autonomous Region People's Courts; Special People's Courts for military, maritime, transportation, and forestry issues
note: in late 2014, China unveiled planned judicial reforms
Political parties and leadersAk Zhol (Bright Path) Party or Democratic Party of Kazakhstan Ak Zhol [Azat PERUASHEV]
Auyl National Patriotic Party [Ali BEKTAYEV] (Auyl is a September 2015 merger of the Patriots’ Party and the Auyl Social Democratic Party)
Birlik (Unity) [Serik SULTANGALI] (Birlik is an April 2013 merger of Adilet (Justice; formerly Democratic Party of Kazakhstan) and Rukhaniyat (Spirituality))
Communist People's Party of Kazakhstan [Vladislav KOSAREV]
National Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]
Nur Otan (Radiant Fatherland) Democratic People's Party [Nursultan NAZARBAYEV] (the Agrarian, Asar, and Civic parties merged with Otan)
Chinese Communist Party or CCP [XI Jinping]
note: China has eight nominally independent small parties ultimately controlled by the CCP
Political pressure groups and leadersAdil-Soz [Tamara KALEYEVA]
Chairman of Bureau's Council [Roza AKYLBEKOVA]
Confederation of Free Trade Unions [Larissa KHARKOVA]
Foundation for Support of Civil Initiatives [Nurul RAKHIMBEK]
International Legal Initiative [Aina SHORMANBAYEVA]
Kazakhstan International Bureau on Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS]
Legal Media Centre (sometimes known as the North Kazakhstan Legal Media Centre) [Diana OKREMOVA]
Public Foundation for Parliamentary Development [Zauresh BATTALOVA]
Republican Network of International Monitors [Daniyar LIVAZOV]
Transparency International [Natalya KOVALEVA]
no substantial political opposition groups exist
International organization participationADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer), ZC
ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, CDB, CICA, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-24 (observer), G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Yerzhan KAZYKHANOV (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 1401 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 232-5488
FAX: [1] (202) 232-5845
consulate(s) general: New York
chief of mission: Ambassador CUI Tiankai (since 3 April 2013)
chancery: 3505 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 495-2266
FAX: [1] (202) 495-2138
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador George KROL (since 18 March 2015)
embassy: Rakhymzhan Koshkarbayev Ave. No 3, Astana 010010
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [7] (7172) 70-21-00
FAX: [7] (7172) 54-09-14
Consulate(s) General: Almaty
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires David A. RANK (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: 55 An Jia Lou Lu, 100600 Beijing
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [86] (10) 8531-3000
FAX: [86] (10) 8531-3300
consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang, Wuhan
Flag description"a gold sun with 32 rays above a soaring golden steppe eagle, both centered on a sky blue background; the hoist side displays a national ornamental pattern ""koshkar-muiz"" (the horns of the ram) in gold; the blue color is of religious significance to the Turkic peoples of the country, and so symbolizes cultural and ethnic unity; it also represents the endless sky as well as water; the sun, a source of life and energy, exemplifies wealth and plenitude; the sun's rays are shaped like grain, which is the basis of abundance and prosperity; the eagle has appeared on the flags of Kazakh tribes for centuries and represents freedom, power, and the flight to the future
"
red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner; the color red represents revolution, while the stars symbolize the four social classes - the working class, the peasantry, the urban petty bourgeoisie, and the national bourgeoisie (capitalists) - united under the Communist Party of China
National anthem"name: ""Menin Qazaqstanim"" (My Kazakhstan)
lyrics/music: Zhumeken NAZHIMEDENOV and Nursultan NAZARBAYEV/Shamshi KALDAYAKOV
note: adopted 2006; President Nursultan NAZARBAYEV played a role in revising the lyrics
"
"name: ""Yiyongjun Jinxingqu"" (The March of the Volunteers)
lyrics/music: TIAN Han/NIE Er
note: adopted 1949; the anthem, though banned during the Cultural Revolution, is more commonly known as ""Zhongguo Guoge"" (Chinese National Song); it was originally the theme song to the 1935 Chinese movie, ""Sons and Daughters in a Time of Storm""
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow
dragon; national colors: red, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kazakhstan
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: least one parent must be a citizen of China
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: while naturalization is theoretically possible, in practical terms it is extremely difficult; residency is required but not specified

Economy

KazakhstanChina
Economy - overviewKazakhstan, geographically the largest of the former Soviet republics, excluding Russia, possesses substantial fossil fuel reserves and other minerals and metals, such as uranium, copper, and zinc. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. The government realizes that its economy suffers from an overreliance on oil and extractive industries and has made initial attempts to diversify its economy by targeting sectors like transport, pharmaceuticals, telecommunications, petrochemicals and food processing for greater development and investment.

Kazakhstan's vast hydrocarbon and mineral reserves form the backbone of its economy. Chevron-led Tengizchevroil announced a $36.8 billion expansion of Kazakhstan’s premiere Tengiz oil field in July 2016. Meanwhile, the super-giant Kashagan field finally launched production in October 2016 after years of delay and an estimated $55 billion in development costs.

Kazakhstan is landlocked and depends on Russia to export its oil to Europe. It also exports oil directly to China. In 2010, Kazakhstan joined Russia and Belarus to establish a Customs Union in an effort to boost foreign investment and improve trade. The Customs Union evolved into a Single Economic Space in 2012 and the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) in January 2015. In part due to weak commodity prices, Kazakhstan’s exports to EAEU countries declined 23.5% in 2016. Imports from EAEU countries to Kazakhstan declined 13.7%.

The economic downturn of its EAEU partner, Russia, and the decline in global commodity prices from 2014-2015 contributed to an economic slowdown in Kazakhstan, which continues to experience its slowest economic growth since the financial crises of 2008-09. In 2014, Kazakhstan devalued its currency, the tenge, and announced a stimulus package to cope with its economic challenges. In the face of further decline in the ruble, oil prices, and the regional economy, Kazakhstan announced in 2015 it would replace its currency band with a floating exchange rate, leading to a sharp fall in the value of the tenge. Since reaching a low of 391 to the dollar in January 2016, the tenge has modestly appreciated, helped by somewhat higher oil prices.

Despite some positive institutional and legislative changes in the last several years, investors remain concerned about corruption, bureaucracy, and arbitrary law enforcement, especially at the regional and municipal levels. An additional concern is the condition of the country’s banking sector, which suffers from low liquidity, poor asset quality, and a lack of transparency. Investors also question the potentially negative effects on the economy of a contested presidential succession as Kazakhstan’s first president, Nursultan NAZARBAYEV, who turns 77 in 2017, has not announced whether he will seek reelection in 2019.
"Since the late 1970s, China has moved from a closed, centrally planned system to a more market-oriented one that plays a major global role. China has implemented reforms in a gradualist fashion, resulting in efficiency gains that have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Reforms began with the phase-out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, growth of the private sector, development of stock markets and a modern banking system, and opening to foreign trade and investment. China continues to pursue an industrial policy, state-support of key sectors, and a restrictive investment regime. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences, China in 2016 stood as the largest economy in the world, surpassing the US in 2014 for the first time in modern history. China became the world's largest exporter in 2010, and the largest trading nation in 2013. Still, China's per capita income is below the world average.

After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years, China in July 2005 moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. From mid-2005 to late 2008, the renminbi appreciated more than 20% against the US dollar, but the exchange rate remained virtually pegged to the dollar from the onset of the global financial crisis until June 2010, when Beijing allowed resumption of a gradual liberalization. In 2015, the People’s Bank of China announced it would continue to carefully push for full convertibility of the renminbi after the currency was accepted as part of the IMF’s special drawing rights basket. After engaging in one-way, large-scale intervention to resist appreciation of the RMB for a decade, China’s 2016 intervention in foreign exchange markets has sought to prevent a rapid RMB depreciation that would have negative consequences for the United States, China, and the global economy.

China’s economic growth has slowed since 2011. The Chinese Government faces numerous economic challenges including: (a) reducing its high domestic savings rate and correspondingly low domestic household consumption; (b) servicing its high corporate debt burdens to maintain financial stability (c) facilitating higher-wage job opportunities for the aspiring middle class, including rural migrants and college graduates, while maintaining competitiveness; (d) dampening speculative investment in the real estate sector; (e) reducing industrial overcapacity; and (f) raising productivity growth rates through the more efficient allocation of capital. Economic development has progressed further in coastal provinces than in the interior, and by 2016 more than 169.3 million migrant workers and their dependents had relocated to urban areas to find work. One consequence of China’s population control policy known as the “one-child policy”—which was relaxed in 2016 to permit all families to have two children-- is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the North - is another long-term problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and urbanization. The Chinese government is seeking to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil, focusing on natural gas, nuclear, and clean energy development. In 2016, China ratified the Paris Agreement, a multilateral agreement to combat climate change, and committed to peak its carbon dioxide emissions between 2025 and 2030.

The government's 13th Five-Year Plan, unveiled in March 2016, emphasizes the need to increase innovation and boost domestic consumption to make the economy less dependent on government investment, exports, and heavy industry. However, China has made only marginal progress toward these rebalancing goals. Under President XI Jinping, Beijing has signaled its understanding that China's long-term economic health depends on giving the market a more decisive role in allocating resources, but has moved slowly on market-oriented reforms because of potential negative consequences for stability and short-term economic growth. He has also increased state-control over key sectors and Party control over State Owned Enterprises. Chinese leaders in 2010 pledged to double China’s GDP by 2020, and the 13th Five Year Plan includes annual economic growth targets of at least 6.5% through 2020 to achieve that goal. In recent years, China has renewed its support for state-owned enterprises in sectors considered important to ""economic security,"" explicitly looking to foster globally competitive industries. Chinese leaders also have undermined some market-oriented reforms by reaffirming the “dominant” role of the state in the economy, a stance that threatens to discourage private initiative and make the economy less efficient over time.
"
GDP (purchasing power parity)$468.8 billion (2016 est.)
$464.2 billion (2015 est.)
$458.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$21.14 trillion (2016 est.)
$19.82 trillion (2015 est.)
$18.34 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1% (2016 est.)
1.2% (2015 est.)
4.3% (2014 est.)
6.7% (2016 est.)
6.9% (2015 est.)
7.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$25,700 (2016 est.)
$26,300 (2015 est.)
$26,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$14,600 (2016 est.)
$14,500 (2015 est.)
$13,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 4.6%
industry: 31.8%
services: 57.9% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 8.6%
industry: 39.8%
services: 51.6%
(2016 est.)
Population below poverty line2.7% (2015 est.)
3.3%
note: in 2011, China set a new poverty line at RMB 2300 (approximately US $400)
(2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 4.3%
highest 10%: 22% (2013 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 31.4%
note: data are for urban households only (2012)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)14.6% (2016 est.)
6.7% (2015 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
1.4% (2015 est.)
Labor force8.964 million (2016 est.)
907.5 million
note: by the end of 2012, China's population at working age (15-64 years) was 1.004 billion (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 18.1%
industry: 20.4%
services: 61.6% (2017 est.)
agriculture: 28.3%
industry: 29.3%
services: 42.4%
(2015 est.)
Unemployment rate4.9% (2016 est.)
5% (2015 est.)
4% (2016 est.)
4.1% (2015 est.)
note: data are for registered urban unemployment, which excludes private enterprises and migrants
Distribution of family income - Gini index26.3 (2013)
31.5 (2003)
46.5 (2016 est.)
46.2 (2015 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $23.35 billion
expenditures: $27.25 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $2.3 trillion
expenditures: $2.708 trillion (2016 est.)
Industriesoil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, uranium, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials
world leader in gross value of industrial output; mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products (including footwear, toys, and electronics); food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites
Industrial production growth rate-1.1% (2016 est.)
6% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsgrain (mostly spring wheat and barley), potatoes, vegetables, melons; livestock
world leader in gross value of agricultural output; rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, apples, cotton, pork, mutton, eggs; fish, shrimp
Exports$35.28 billion (2016 est.)
$46.29 billion (2015 est.)
$2.098 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.143 trillion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesoil and oil products, natural gas, ferrous metals, chemicals, machinery, grain, wool, meat, coal
electrical and other machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, furniture, textiles, integrated circuits
Exports - partnersChina 15.1%, Russia 12.3%, France 9.3%, Germany 7.9%, Italy 6.7%, Greece 4.1% (2015)
US 18%, Hong Kong 14.6%, Japan 6%, South Korea 4.5% (2015)
Imports$24.5 billion (2016 est.)
$33.65 billion (2015 est.)
$1.587 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.576 trillion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, metal products, foodstuffs
electrical and other machinery, oil and mineral fuels; nuclear reactor, boiler, and machinery components; optical and medical equipment, metal ores, motor vehicles; soybeans
Imports - partnersRussia 32.9%, China 25.9%, Germany 4.2% (2015)
South Korea 10.9%, US 9%, Japan 8.9%, Germany 5.5%, Australia 4.1% (2015)
Debt - external$147.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$153.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.421 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.418 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratestenge (KZT) per US dollar -
348.5 (2016 est.)
221.73 (2015 est.)
221.73 (2014 est.)
179.19 (2013 est.)
149.11 (2012 est.)
Renminbi yuan (RMB) per US dollar -
6.626 (2016 est.)
6.2275 (2015 est.)
6.2275 (2014 est.)
6.1958 (2013 est.)
6.3123 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt25.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: official data; data cover both central government debt and local government debt, which China's National Audit Office estimated at RMB 10.72 trillion (approximately US$1.66 trillion) in 2011; data exclude policy bank bonds, Ministry of Railway debt, China Asset Management Company debt, and non-performing loans
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$30.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$28.07 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.01 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.405 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$8.156 billion (2016 est.)
-$5.464 billion (2015 est.)
$196.4 billion (2016 est.)
$304.2 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$128.1 billion (2016 est.)
$10.73 trillion (2016 est.)
note: because China's exchange rate is determined by fiat rather than by market forces, the official exchange rate measure of GDP is not an accurate measure of China's output; GDP at the official exchange rate substantially understates the actual level of China's output vis-a-vis the rest of the world; in China's situation, GDP at purchasing power parity provides the best measure for comparing output across countries
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$148.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$139.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.458 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.221 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$35.27 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$33.77 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.317 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.096 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$744 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.737 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$26.23 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$7.321 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.188 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.005 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate11% (10 April 2017)
12% (9 January 2017)
2.25% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.25% (31 December 2015 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate13.7% (31 March 2017 est.)
14.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.35% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.35% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$60.94 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$50.83 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$15.37 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.47 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$13.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.933 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.015 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.175 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$60.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$50.25 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$22.35 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$21.44 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues18.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 54.1%
government consumption: 11.9%
investment in fixed capital: 23.5%
investment in inventories: 6.4%
exports of goods and services: 29.3%
imports of goods and services: -25.2% (2015 est.)
household consumption: 37.1%
government consumption: 14%
investment in fixed capital: 43.7%
investment in inventories: 1.6%
exports of goods and services: 22%
imports of goods and services: 18.5% (2015 est.)
Gross national saving25.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
27.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
27.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
46% of GDP (2016 est.)
47.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
49.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

KazakhstanChina
Electricity - production94.49 billion kWh (2016 est.)
6.142 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption91.66 billion kWh (2014 est.)
5.92 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports2.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
18.91 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports644.2 million kWh (2014 est.)
6.185 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production1.621 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
3.983 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports145,800 bbl/day (2014 est.)
7.599 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - exports1.292 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
58,650 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves30 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
25 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves2.407 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
6 billion cu m (31 December 2016 )
Natural gas - production21.38 billion cu m (2016 est.)
150 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption13.1 billion cu m (2016 est.)
224 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports13.7 billion cu m (2016 est.)
3.918 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports2.2 billion cu m (2014 est.)
75.1 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity22.06 million kW (2016 est.)
1.646 billion kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels87% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
64% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants13% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
20.2% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
2% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.3% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
13.7% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production228,600 bbl/day (2016 est.)
10.35 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption186,300 bbl/day (2016 est.)
11.12 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports846 bbl/day (2015 est.)
593,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports44,490 bbl/day (2015 est.)
600,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy257.8 million Mt (2014 est.)
9.135 billion Mt (2014 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
population without electricity: 1,200,000
electrification - total population: 99.9%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 99.8% (2016)

Telecommunications

KazakhstanChina
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 4,143,100
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 23 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 230.996 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 31.39 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 173 (July 2015 est.)
total: 1,305.738 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 95 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: inherited an outdated telecommunications network from the Soviet era requiring modernization
domestic: intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; number of fixed-line connections is inadequate; mobile-cellular usage increased rapidly and the market is now highly mature - subscriber base exceeds 170 per 100 persons
international: country code - 7; international traffic with other former Soviet republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay and with other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (2017)
general assessment: domestic and international services are available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns; China continues to develop its telecommunications infrastructure; China in the summer of 2008 began a major restructuring of its telecommunications industry, resulting in the consolidation of its 6 telecom service operators to 3, China Telecom, China Mobile, and China Unicom, each providing both fixed-line and mobile services
domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; the number of Internet users now over 50% of the population; a domestic satellite system with several earth stations is in place
international: country code - 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean; 1 Intersputnik - Indian Ocean region; and 1 Inmarsat - Pacific and Indian Ocean regions) (2012)
Internet country code.kz
.cn
Internet userstotal: 13.23 million
percent of population: 72.9% (July 2015 est.)
total: 687.845 million
percent of population: 50.3% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate owns nearly all radio and TV transmission facilities and operates national TV and radio networks; there are 3 TV channels: Kazakhstan, KAZsport, Balapan; and 4 radio stations: Kazakh Radiosy, Shalkar, Astana, and Classic; some former state-owned media outlets have been privatized; households with satellite dishes have access to foreign media; a small number of commercial radio stations operate along with state-run radio stations; recent legislation requires all media outlets to register with the government and all TV providers to broadcast in digital format by 2018; broadcasts reach 98.63% of the population as well as neighboring countries (2017)
all broadcast media are owned by, or affiliated with, the Communist Party of China or a government agency; no privately owned TV or radio stations; state-run Chinese Central TV, provincial, and municipal stations offer more than 2,000 channels; the Central Propaganda Department lists subjects that are off limits to domestic broadcast media with the government maintaining authority to approve all programming; foreign-made TV programs must be approved prior to broadcast; increasingly, Chinese turn to online television to access Chinese and international films and television shows (2017)

Transportation

KazakhstanChina
Railwaystotal: 14,184 km
broad gauge: 14,184 km 1.520-m gauge (4,056 km electrified) (2014)
total: 124,000 km
standard gauge: 124,000 km 1.435-m gauge (80,000 km electrified); 102,000 traditional, 22,000 high-speed (2017)
Roadwaystotal: 97,418 km
paved: 87,140 km
unpaved: 10,278 km (2012)
total: 4,577,300 km
paved: 4,046,300 km (includes 123,500 km of expressways)
unpaved: 531,000 km (2015)
Waterways4,000 km (on the Ertis (Irtysh) River (80%) and Syr Darya (Syrdariya) River) (2010)
110,000 km (navigable waterways) (2011)
Pipelinescondensate 658 km; gas 12,432 km; oil 11,313 km; refined products 1,095 km; water 1,465 km (2013)
gas 70,000 km; crude oil 22,900 km; refined petroleum products 25,500 km; water 710,206 km (2015)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Caspian Sea - Aqtau (Shevchenko), Atyrau (Gur'yev)
river port(s): Oskemen (Ust-Kamenogorsk), Pavlodar, Semey (Semipalatinsk) (Irtysh River)
major seaport(s): Dalian, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Tianjin
river port(s): Guangzhou (Pearl)
container port(s) (TEUs): Dalian (9,591,000), Guangzhou (17,097,000), Ningbo (20,636,000), Qingdao (17,323,000), Shanghai (36,516,000), Shenzhen (24,142,000), Tianjin (13,881,000)(2015)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Fujian, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, Shanghai, Tangshan, Zhejiang
Merchant marinetotal: 11
by type: cargo 1, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 1, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 3 (Austria 1, Ireland 1, Turkey 1) (2010)
total: 4,052
by type: bulk carrier 1,020, container 187, general cargo 632, oil tanker 474, other 1,739 (2016)
foreign-owned: 22 (Hong Kong 18, Indonesia 2, Japan 2) (2010)
registered in other countries: 1,559 (Bangladesh 1, Belize 61, Cambodia 177, Comoros 1, Cyprus 6, Georgia 10, Honduras 2, Hong Kong 500, India 1, Indonesia 1, Kiribati 26, Liberia 4, Malta 6, Marshall Islands 14, North Korea 3, Panama 534, Philippines 4, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 65, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Sierra Leone 19, Singapore 29, South Korea 6, Thailand 1, Togo 1, Tuvalu 4, UK 7, Vanuatu 1, unknown 73) (2010)
Airports96 (2013)
507 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 63
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 25
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
total: 463
over 3,047 m: 71
2,438 to 3,047 m: 158
1,524 to 2,437 m: 123
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 86 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 33
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 13 (2013)
total: 44
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
Heliports3 (2013)
47 (2013)

Military

KazakhstanChina
Military branchesKazakhstan Armed Forces: Land Forces, Navy, Air Defense Forces (2017)
People's Liberation Army (PLA): Army, Navy (PLAN, includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (Zhongguo Renmin Jiefangjun Kongjun, PLAAF, includes airborne forces), Rocket Force (strategic missile force), and Strategic Support Force (space and cyber forces); People's Armed Police (Renmin Wuzhuang Jingcha Budui, PAP); PLA Reserve Force (2016)
Military service age and obligation18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 2 years, but Kazakhstan is transitioning to a largely contract force; military cadets in intermediate (ages 15-17) and higher (ages 17-21) education institutes are classified as military service personnel (2017)
18-24 years of age for selective compulsory military service, with a 2-year service obligation; no minimum age for voluntary service (all officers are volunteers); 18-19 years of age for women high school graduates who meet requirements for specific military jobs; a recent military decision allows women in combat roles; the first class of women warship commanders was in 2011 (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.03% of GDP (2015)
1.04% of GDP (2014)
1.08% of GDP (2013)
1.05% of GDP (2012)
0.94% of GDP (2011)
1.3% of GDP (2017 est)
1.28% of GDP (2016)
1.95% of GDP (2015)
1.9% of GDP (2014)
1.85% of GDP (2013)

Transnational Issues

KazakhstanChina
Disputes - internationalKyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; field demarcation of the boundaries commenced with Uzbekistan in 2004 and with Turkmenistan in 2005; ongoing demarcation with Russia began in 2007; demarcation with China was completed in 2002; creation of a seabed boundary with Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea remains under discussion; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea
continuing talks and confidence-building measures work toward reducing tensions over Kashmir that nonetheless remains militarized with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; China and India continue their security and foreign policy dialogue started in 2005 related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; China claims most of India's Arunachal Pradesh to the base of the Himalayas; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the largest of which lie in Bhutan's northwest and along the Chumbi salient; Burmese forces attempting to dig in to the largely autonomous Shan State to rout local militias tied to the drug trade, prompts local residents to periodically flee into neighboring Yunnan Province in China; Chinese maps show an international boundary symbol off the coasts of the littoral states of the South China Seas, where China has interrupted Vietnamese hydrocarbon exploration; China asserts sovereignty over Scarborough Reef along with the Philippines and Taiwan, and over the Spratly Islands together with Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Brunei; the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea eased tensions in the Spratlys but is not the legally binding code of conduct sought by some parties; Vietnam and China continue to expand construction of facilities in the Spratlys and in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands;
China occupies some of the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; the Japanese-administered Senkaku Islands are also claimed by China and Taiwan; certain islands in the Yalu and Tumen Rivers are in dispute with North Korea; North Korea and China seek to stem illegal migration to China by North Koreans, fleeing privations and oppression, by building a fence along portions of the border and imprisoning North Koreans deported by China; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with their 2004 Agreement; China and Tajikistan have begun demarcating the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; citing environmental, cultural, and social concerns, China has reconsidered construction of 13 dams on the Salween River, but energy-starved Burma, with backing from Thailand, remains intent on building five hydro-electric dams downstream despite regional and international protests
Chinese and Hong Kong authorities met in March 2008 to resolve ownership and use of lands recovered in Shenzhen River channelization, including 96-hectare Lok Ma Chau Loop
Illicit drugssignificant illicit cultivation of cannabis for CIS markets, as well as limited cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug ephedrine); limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; significant consumer of opiates
major transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle region of Southeast Asia; growing domestic consumption of synthetic drugs, and heroin from Southeast and Southwest Asia; source country for methamphetamine and heroin chemical precursors, despite new regulations on its large chemical industry; more people believed to be convicted and executed for drug offences than anywhere else in the world, according to NGOs (2008)
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 8,451 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 317,098 (Vietnam); undetermined (North Korea) (2016)
IDPs: undetermined (2014)

Source: CIA Factbook