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Italy vs. Slovenia

Introduction

ItalySlovenia
BackgroundItaly became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy is a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include sluggish economic growth, high youth and female unemployment, organized crime, corruption, and economic disparities between southern Italy and the more prosperous north.
The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenia's transformation to a modern state. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004; it joined the euro zone and the Schengen zone in 2007.

Geography

ItalySlovenia
LocationSouthern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia
south Central Europe, Julian Alps between Austria and Croatia
Geographic coordinates42 50 N, 12 50 E
46 07 N, 14 49 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 301,340 sq km
land: 294,140 sq km
water: 7,200 sq km
note: includes Sardinia and Sicily
total: 20,273 sq km
land: 20,151 sq km
water: 122 sq km
Area - comparativealmost twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Arizona
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundariestotal: 1,836.4 km
border countries (6): Austria 404 km, France 476 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.4 km, San Marino 37 km, Slovenia 218 km, Switzerland 698 km
total: 1,211 km
border countries (4): Austria 299 km, Croatia 600 km, Hungary 94 km, Italy 218 km
Coastline7,600 km
46.6 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
Climatepredominantly Mediterranean; alpine in far north; hot, dry in south
Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
Terrainmostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands
a short southwestern coastal strip of Karst topography on the Adriatic; an alpine mountain region lies adjacent to Italy and Austria in the north; mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 538 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) de Courmayeur 4,748 m (a secondary peak of Mont Blanc)
mean elevation: 492 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Triglav 2,864 m
Natural resourcescoal, mercury, zinc, potash, marble, barite, asbestos, pumice, fluorspar, feldspar, pyrite (sulfur), natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, arable land
lignite, lead, zinc, building stone, hydropower, forests
Land useagricultural land: 47.1%
arable land 22.8%; permanent crops 8.6%; permanent pasture 15.7%
forest: 31.4%
other: 21.5% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 22.8%
arable land 8.4%; permanent crops 1.3%; permanent pasture 13.1%
forest: 62.3%
other: 14.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land39,500 sq km (2012)
60 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsregional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice
volcanism: significant volcanic activity; Etna (elev. 3,330 m), which is in eruption as of 2010, is Europe's most active volcano; flank eruptions pose a threat to nearby Sicilian villages; Etna, along with the famous Vesuvius, which remains a threat to the millions of nearby residents in the Bay of Naples area, have both been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Stromboli, on its namesake island, has also been continuously active with moderate volcanic activity; other historically active volcanoes include Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Larderello, Pantelleria, Vulcano, and Vulsini
flooding; earthquakes
Environment - current issuesair pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities
Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage from urban air pollution and resulting acid rain
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notestrategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe
despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes
Population distributiondespite a distinctive pattern with an industrial north and an agrarian south, a fairly even population distribution exists throughout most of the country, with coastal areas, the Po River Valley, and urban centers (particularly Milan, Rome, and Naples), attracting larger and denser populations
a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; pockets in the mountainous northwest exhibit less density than elsewhere

Demographics

ItalySlovenia
Population62,007,540 (July 2016 est.)
1,978,029 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 13.69% (male 4,337,792/female 4,151,901)
15-24 years: 9.74% (male 3,026,359/female 3,012,882)
25-54 years: 42.46% (male 13,003,171/female 13,326,901)
55-64 years: 12.73% (male 3,826,630/female 4,069,855)
65 years and over: 21.37% (male 5,696,612/female 7,555,437) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 13.35% (male 136,114/female 127,904)
15-24 years: 9.58% (male 97,191/female 92,369)
25-54 years: 43.3% (male 432,824/female 423,708)
55-64 years: 14.82% (male 144,160/female 148,903)
65 years and over: 18.95% (male 152,770/female 222,086) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 45.1 years
male: 44 years
female: 46.2 years (2016 est.)
total: 44.1 years
male: 42.5 years
female: 45.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.23% (2016 est.)
-0.29% (2016 est.)
Birth rate8.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
8.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate10.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
11.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 82.2 years
male: 79.6 years
female: 85 years (2016 est.)
total population: 78.2 years
male: 74.6 years
female: 82 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.43 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.35 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.37% (2015 est.)
0.08% (2014 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Italian(s)
adjective: Italian
noun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian
Ethnic groupsItalian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)
Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 census)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS136,800 (2015 est.)
900 (2014 est.)
ReligionsChristian 80% (overwhelmingly Roman Catholic with very small groups of Jehovah's Witnesses and Protestants), Muslim (about 800,000 to 1 million), atheist and agnostic 20%
Catholic 57.8%, Muslim 2.4%, Orthodox 2.3%, other Christian 0.9%, unaffiliated 3.5%, other or unspecified 23%, none 10.1% (2002 census)
HIV/AIDS - deaths700 (2015 est.)
less than 100 (2014 est.)
LanguagesItalian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)
Slovenian (official) 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4%, Italian (official, only in municipalities where Italian national communities reside), Hungarian (official, only in municipalities where Hungarian national communities reside) (2002 census)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.2%
male: 99.4%
female: 99% (2015 est.)
definition: NA
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2014)
total: 17 years
male: 17 years
female: 18 years (2014)
Education expenditures4.2% of GDP (2013)
5.5% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 69% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.39% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 49.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.08% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.7% of population
rural: 99.4% of population
total: 99.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.3% of population
rural: 0.6% of population
total: 0.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 99.5% of population
rural: 99.6% of population
total: 99.5% of population
unimproved::
urban: 0.5% of population
rural: 0.4% of population
total: 0.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.1% of population
rural: 99.1% of population
total: 99.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.9% of population
rural: 0.9% of population
total: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationROME (capital) 3.718 million; Milan 3.099 million; Naples 2.202 million; Turin 1.765 million; Palermo 853,000; Bergamo 840,000 (2015)
LJUBLJANA (capital) 279,000 (2014)
Maternal mortality rate4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
9 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures9.2% of GDP (2014)
9.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3.95 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
2.77 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density3.4 beds/1,000 population (2011)
4.6 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate23.7% (2014)
27.4% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth30.3 years (2011 est.)
29 years (2013 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 56.5
youth dependency ratio: 21.5
elderly dependency ratio: 35.1
potential support ratio: 2.9 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 48.7
youth dependency ratio: 22
elderly dependency ratio: 26.7
potential support ratio: 3.7 (2015 est.)

Government

ItalySlovenia
Country name"conventional long form: Italian Republic
conventional short form: Italy
local long form: Repubblica Italiana
local short form: Italia
former: Kingdom of Italy
etymology: derivation is unclear, but the Latin ""Italia"" may come from the Oscan ""Viteliu"" meaning ""[Land] of Young Cattle"" (the bull was a symbol of southern Italic tribes)
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form: Slovenia
local long form: Republika Slovenija
local short form: Slovenija
former: People's Republic of Slovenia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia
etymology: related to the Slavic autonym (self-designation) ""Slovenin,"" a derivation from ""slovo"" (word), denoting ""people who speak (the same language)"" (i.e., people who understand each other)
"
Government typeparliamentary republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Rome
geographic coordinates: 41 54 N, 12 29 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Ljubljana
geographic coordinates: 46 03 N, 14 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions15 regions (regioni, singular - regione) and 5 autonomous regions (regioni autonome, singular - regione autonoma)
regions: Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Lazio (Latium), Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte (Piedmont), Puglia (Apulia), Toscana (Tuscany), Umbria, Veneto (Venetia)
autonomous regions: Friuli-Venezia Giulia; Sardegna (Sardinia); Sicilia (Sicily); Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-South Tyrol) or Trentino-Suedtirol (German); Valle d'Aosta (Aosta Valley) or Vallee d'Aoste (French)
201 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities (mestne obcine, singular - mestna obcina)
municipalities: Ajdovscina, Ankaran, Apace, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Cirkulane, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik/Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gorje, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola/Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Kosanjevica na Krki, Kostel, Kozje, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava/Lendva, Litija, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Log-Dragomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica,
Majsperk, Makole, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Mokronog-Trebelno, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran/Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Poljcane, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Recica ob Savinji, Rence-Vogrsko, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogaska Slatina, Rogasovci, Rogatec, Ruse, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sevnica, Sezana, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sredisce ob Dravi, Starse, Straza, Sveta Ana, Sveta Trojica v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij ob Scavnici, Sveti Jurij v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Tomaz, Salovci, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur, Sentrupert, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smarjeske Toplice, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pri Litiji, Sostanj, Store, Tabor, Tisina, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trnovska Vas, Trzic, Trzin, Turnisce, Velika Polana, Velike Lasce, Verzej, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vransko, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Zetale, Ziri, Zirovnica, Zrece, Zuzemberk
urban municipalities: Celje, Koper-Capodistria, Kranj, Ljubljana, Maribor, Murska Sobota, Nova Gorica, Novo Mesto, Ptuj, Slovenj Gradec, Velenje
Independence17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1871)
25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holidayRepublic Day, 2 June (1946)
Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1848 (originally for the Kingdom of Sardinia and adopted by the Kingdom of Italy in 1861); latest enacted 22 December 1947, adopted 27 December 1947, entered into force 1 January 1948
amendments: proposed by both houses of Parliament; passage requires two successive debates and approval by absolute majority of each house on the second vote; a referendum is only required when requested by one-fifth of the members of either house, by voter petition, or by five Regional Councils (elected legislative assemblies of the 15 first-level administrative regions and 5 autonomous regions of Italy); referendum not required if an amendment has been approved by a two-thirds majority in each house in the second vote; amended many times, last in 2012; note - a referendum held on 4 December 2016 on constitutional amendments was defeated
history: previous 1974 (preindependence); latest passed by Parliament 23 December 1991
amendments: proposed by at least 20 National Assembly members, by the government, or by petition of at least 30,000 voters; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; referendum required if agreed upon by at least 30 Assembly members; passage in a referendum requires participation of a majority of eligible voters and a simple majority of votes cast; amended several times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system; judicial review of legislation under certain conditions in Constitutional Court
civil law system
Suffrage18 years of age; universal except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25
18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Sergio MATTARELLA (since 3 February 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Paolo GENTILONI (since 12 December 2016); note - Prime Minister Matteo RENZI (since 22 February 2014) resigned 12 December 2016; the prime minister's official title is President of the Council of Ministers
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, known officially as the President of the Council of Ministers and locally as the Premier; nominated by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of Parliament and 58 regional representatives for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 31 January 2015 (next scheduled for 2022); prime minister appointed by the president, confirmed by parliament
election results: Sergio MATTARELLA (PD) elected president; electoral college vote count in fourth round - 665 out of 1,009 (505-vote threshold); Paolo GENTILONI (PD) sworn in as prime minister on 12 December 2016
chief of state: President Borut PAHOR (since 22 December 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Miro CERAR (since 18 September 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 November 2012 with a runoff on 2 December 2012 (next to be held in 2017); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually nominated prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly
election results: Borut PAHOR elected president; percent of vote in second round - Borut PAHOR (SD) 67.4%, Danilo TURK (independent) 32.6%; note - a snap election was held in July 2014 following the resignation of Prime Minister Alenka BRATUSEK in May 2014, Miro CERAR (SMC) elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 57 to 11
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of the Senate or Senato della Repubblica (322 seats; 315 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 7 ex-officio members appointed by the president of the Republic to serve for life) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; 629 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member from Valle d'Aosta elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - center-left coalition 123 (PD 111, SEL 7, SVP 2, other 3), center-right coalition 117 (PdL 98, LN 18, other 1), M5S 54, centrist coalition 19, other 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - center-left coalition 345 (PD 297, SEL 37, CD 6 SVP 5), center-right coalition 125 (PdL 98, LN 18, FdI 9), M5S 109, centrist coalition 47, other 3
description: bicameral Parliament consists of the National Council or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 88 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 directly elected in special constituencies for Italian and Hungarian minorities by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms); note - the National Council is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers
elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 July 2014 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - SMC 34.6%, SDS 20.7%, DeSUS 10.2%, ZL 6%, SD 6%, NSi 5.6%, ZaAB 4.3%, other 12.6%; seats by party - SMC 36, SDS 21, DeSUS 10, ZL 6, SD 6, NSi, 5, ZaAB 4, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1
note: as of January 2017, seats by party SMC 35, SDS 19, DeSUS 11, ZL 6, SD 6, NSi 5, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1, unaffiliated 6
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation or Corte Suprema di Cassazione consists of the first president (chief justice), deputy president, 54 justices presiding over 6 civil and 7 criminal divisions, and 288 judges; an additional 30 judges of lower courts serve as supporting judges; cases normally heard by 5-judge panels; more complex cases heard by 9-judge panels; Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale (consists of the court president and 14 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the High Council of the Judiciary, headed by the president of the republic; judges may serve for life; Constitutional Court judges - 5 appointed by the president, 5 elected by parliament, 5 elected by select higher courts; judges serve up to 9 years
subordinate courts: various lower civil and criminal courts (primary and secondary tribunals, courts, and courts of appeal)
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 37 judges organized into civil, criminal, commercial, labor and social security, administrative, and registry departments); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 7 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by the National Assembly upon the proposal of the Minister of Justice based on the opinions of the Judicial Council, an 11-member independent body elected by the National Assembly from proposals submitted by the president, attorneys, law universities, and sitting judges; other Supreme Court judges elected by the National Assembly from candidates proposed by the Judicial Council; Supreme Court judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly from nominations by the president of the republic; Constitutional Court president selected from among their own for a 3-year term; other judges elected for single 9-year terms
subordinate courts: county, district, regional, and high courts; specialized labor-related and social courts; Court of Audit; Administrative Court
Political parties and leadersRuling left-center-right coalition:
Civic Choice or SC [Enrico ZANETTI]
Democratic Centre or CD [Bruno TABACCI]
Democratic Party or PD [Matteo RENZI]
The New Center-Right or NCD [Angelino ALFANO]
Union of the Center or UdC [Pier Fernando CASSINI]

Center-right opposition:
Brothers of Italy-National Alliance or FdI-AN [Giorgia MELONI, Ignazio LA RUSSA, and Guido CROSETTO]
Forza Italia [Silvio BERLUSCONI] (formerly PdL)
Northern League or LN [Matteo SALVINI]
other minor parties

Other parties and parliamentary groups:
Five Star Movment or M5S (populist, anti-establishment) [Beppe GRILLO]
Liberal Popular Alliance [Denis VERDINI]
Movement of Democrats and Progressives (left; external support of governing coalition) [Pierluigi BERSANI]
Sinistra Italiani (left opposition) [Nicola FRATOIANNI]
South Tyrolean People's Party or SVP [Philipp ACHAMMER]
Alliance of Social Liberal Democrats or ZSD (formerly Alliance of Alenka Bratusek or ZaAB) [Alenka BRATUSEK]
Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Karl ERJAVEC]
Modern Center Party or SMC [Miro CERAR]
New Slovenia or NSi [Ljudmila NOVAK]
Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA]
Social Democrats or SD [Dejan ZIDAN]
United Left or ZL (collective leadership)
Political pressure groups and leaders
manufacturers and merchants associations: Confcommercio
Confindustria
organized farm groups: Confcoltivatori
Confagricoltura
major trade union confederations: Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Susanna CAMUSSO] (left wing)
Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Raffaele BONANNI] (Roman Catholic centrist)
Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] (lay centrist)
other: Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
other: various trade and public sector employee unions
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CDB, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Armando VARRICCHIO (since 2 March 2016)
chancery: 3000 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 612-4400
FAX: [1] (202) 518-2151
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco
consulate(s): Charlotte (NC), Cleveland (OH), Detroit (MI), Hattiesburg (MS), Honolulu (HI), New Orleans, Newark (NJ), Norfolk (VA), Pittsburgh (PA), Portland (OR), Seattle
chief of mission: Ambassador Bozo CERAR (since 6 September 2013)
chancery: 2410 California Street N.W., Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 386-6601
FAX: [1] (202) 386-6633
consulate(s) general: Cleveland (OH)
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kelly C. DEGNAN (since 20 January 2017); note - also accredited to San Marino
embassy: Via Vittorio Veneto 121, 00187-Rome
mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100, APO AE 09624
telephone: [39] (06) 46741
FAX: [39] (06) 4674-2244
consulate(s) general: Florence, Milan, Naples
chief of mission: Ambassador Brent Robert HARTLEY (since 12 February 2015)
embassy: Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana
mailing address: American Embassy Ljubljana, US Department of State, 7140 Ljubljana Place, Washington, DC 20521-7140
telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500
FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; design inspired by the French flag brought to Italy by Napoleon in 1797; colors are those of Milan (red and white) combined with the green uniform color of the Milanese civic guard
note: similar to the flag of Mexico, which is longer, uses darker shades of red and green, and has its coat of arms centered on the white band; Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, derive from the medieval coat of arms of the Duchy of Carniola; the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle, which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the prominent Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries) appears in the upper hoist side of the flag centered on the white and blue bands
National anthem"name: ""Il Canto degli Italiani"" (The Song of the Italians)
lyrics/music: Goffredo MAMELI/Michele NOVARO
note: adopted 1946; the anthem, originally written in 1847, is also known as ""L'Inno di Mameli"" (Mameli's Hymn), and ""Fratelli D'Italia"" (Brothers of Italy)
"
"name: ""Zdravljica"" (A Toast)
lyrics/music: France PRESEREN/Stanko PREMRL
note: adopted 1989; originally written in 1848; the full poem, whose seventh verse is used as the anthem, speaks of pan-Slavic nationalism
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)white, five-pointed star (Stella d'Italia); national colors: red, white, green
Mount Triglav; national colors: white, blue, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Italy
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years for EU nationals, 5 years for refugees and specified exceptions, 10 years for all others
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovenia; both parents if the child is born outside of Slovenia
dual citizenship recognized: yes, for select cases
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years, the last 5 of which have been continuous

Economy

ItalySlovenia
Economy - overviewItaly has a diversified economy, which is divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less-developed, highly subsidized, agricultural south, where unemployment is higher. The Italian economy is driven in large part by the manufacture of high-quality consumer goods produced by small and medium-sized enterprises, many of them family-owned. Italy also has a sizable underground economy, which by some estimates accounts for as much as 17% of GDP. These activities are most common within the agriculture, construction, and service sectors.

Italy is the third-largest economy in the euro zone, but its exceptionally high public debt and structural impediments to growth have rendered it vulnerable to scrutiny by financial markets. Public debt has increased steadily since 2007, reaching 133% of GDP in 2016. Investor concerns about Italy and the broader euro-zone crisis eased in 2013, bringing down Italy's borrowing costs on sovereign government debt from euro-era records. The government still faces pressure from investors and European partners to sustain its efforts to address Italy's longstanding structural impediments to growth, such as labor market inefficiencies, a sluggish judicial system, and a weak banking sector. Italy’s economy returned to modest growth in late 2014 for the first time since late 2011. In 2015-16, Italy’s economy grew 0.7% each year. In 2016, overall unemployment was 11.7%, but youth unemployment remains high at 37.1%.
With excellent infrastructure, a well-educated work force, and a strategic location between the Balkans and Western Europe, Slovenia has one of the highest per capita GDPs in Central Europe, despite having suffered a protracted recession in 2008-2009 in the wake of the global financial crisis. Slovenia became the first 2004 EU entrant to adopt the euro (on 1 January 2007) and has experienced one of the most stable political transitions in Central and Southeastern Europe.

In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. In 2007, Slovenia was invited to begin the process for joining the OECD; it became a member in 2012. However, long-delayed privatizations, particularly within Slovenia’s largely state-owned and increasingly indebted banking sector, have fueled investor concerns since 2012 that the country would need EU-IMF financial assistance. In 2013, the European Commission granted Slovenia permission to begin recapitalizing ailing lenders and transferring their nonperforming assets into a “bad bank” established to restore bank balance sheets. From 2014 to 2016, export-led growth, fueled by demand in larger European markets pushed GDP growth to 2.3% per year, while stubbornly-high unemployment fell slightly to below 12%.

Prime Minister CERAR’s government took office in September 2014, pledging to press ahead with commitments to privatize a select group of state-run companies, rationalize public spending, and further stabilize the banking sector.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$2.221 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.204 trillion (2015 est.)
$2.187 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$68.35 billion (2016 est.)
$65.96 billion (2015 est.)
$63.91 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate0.8% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2015 est.)
-0.3% (2014 est.)
2.5% (2016 est.)
2.3% (2015 est.)
3.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$36,300 (2016 est.)
$36,300 (2015 est.)
$36,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$33,100 (2016 est.)
$32,000 (2015 est.)
$31,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 2.2%
industry: 23.9%
services: 73.8% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 2.3%
industry: 33.6%
services: 64.1% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line29.9% (2012 est.)
14.3% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 26.8% (2000)
lowest 10%: 3.8%
highest 10%: 20.2% (2012)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)-0.2% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2015 est.)
0.5% (2016 est.)
-0.5% (2015 est.)
Labor force25.6 million (2016 est.)
926,600 (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 3.9%
industry: 28.3%
services: 67.8% (2011)
agriculture: 3.7%
industry: 31.7%
services: 64.6% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate11.4% (2016 est.)
11.9% (2015 est.)
11.2% (2016 est.)
12.3% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index31.9 (2012 est.)
27.3 (1995)
24.5 (2015)
25 (2014)
Budgetrevenues: $842.5 billion
expenditures: $889.8 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $19.32 billion
expenditures: $20.51 billion (2016 est.)
Industriestourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
Industrial production growth rate0.8% (2016 est.)
5.6% (2015 est.)
Agriculture - productsfruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; beef, dairy products; fish
hops, wheat, coffee, corn, apples, pears; cattle, sheep, poultry
Exports$436.3 billion (2016 est.)
$450.1 billion (2015 est.)
$20.56 billion (2016 est.)
$19.99 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesengineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco; minerals, nonferrous metals
manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food
Exports - partnersGermany 12.3%, France 10.3%, US 8.7%, UK 5.4%, Spain 4.8%, Switzerland 4.7% (2015)
Germany 19.1%, Italy 10.6%, Austria 8%, Croatia 6.8%, Slovakia 4.7%, Hungary 4.4%, France 4.2% (2015)
Imports$372.2 billion (2016 est.)
$391.2 billion (2015 est.)
$20.52 billion (2016 est.)
$19.65 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesengineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages, tobacco
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food
Imports - partnersGermany 15.4%, France 8.7%, China 7.7%, Netherlands 5.6%, Spain 5%, Belgium 4.7% (2015)
Germany 16.5%, Italy 13.6%, Austria 10.2%, China 5.5%, Croatia 5.1%, Turkey 4% (2015)
Debt - external$2.444 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$2.3 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
$46.3 billion (31 January 2017 est.)
$48.2 billion (31 January 2016 est.)
Exchange rateseuros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt132.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
132.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: Italy reports its data on public debt according to guidelines set out in the Maastricht Treaty; general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year, in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the central government, state government, local government and social security funds
81.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
83.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$130.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$142.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$753 million (28 February 2017 est.)
$850 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$50.76 billion (2016 est.)
$29.57 billion (2015 est.)
$3.009 billion (2016 est.)
$2.217 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$1.852 trillion (2016 est.)
$43.99 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$472.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$463.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$15.64 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.49 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$610.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$594.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$8.093 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.843 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$587.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$615.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$480.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$5.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.94 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate0.25% (31 December 2013)
0.75% (31 December 2012)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
0% (16 March 2016)
0.05% (4 Sept 2014)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
Commercial bank prime lending rate3.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.13% (31 December 2015 est.)
2.3% (31 Januay 2017 est.)
2.7% (31 January 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$2.97 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.053 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$29.64 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$29.94 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.069 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.026 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
$17.27 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.52 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
Stock of broad money$2.134 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$2.284 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$25.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$23.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues45.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
43.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
-2.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 42.7%
male: 41.3%
female: 44.7% (2014 est.)
total: 20.2%
male: 19.4%
female: 21.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 60.9%
government consumption: 18.8%
investment in fixed capital: 16.5%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 29.7%
imports of goods and services: -26.1% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 51.7%
government consumption: 18.9%
investment in fixed capital: 18.4%
investment in inventories: 1.3%
exports of goods and services: 79.1%
imports of goods and services: -69.4% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving18.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
19% of GDP (2015 est.)
18.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
26.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
25.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
26% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

ItalySlovenia
Electricity - production283 billion kWh (2015 est.)
16.53 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption297 billion kWh (2015 est.)
14.57 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports4.5 billion kWh (2015 est.)
10.28 billion kWh (2016)
Electricity - imports50.8 billion kWh (2015 est.)
8.325 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production100,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports1.395 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Oil - exports24,640 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves544.5 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves53.72 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2016)
Natural gas - production5.785 billion cu m (2016 est.)
4.5 million cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption70.91 billion cu m (2016 est.)
836.5 million cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports21.2 million cu m (2016 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - imports65.28 billion cu m (2016 est.)
832 million cu m (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity120 million kW (2015 est.)
3.37 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels57.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
31.8% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants18.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
31.9% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
34.4% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources24% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
1.7% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production1.578 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption1.266 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
13,710 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports533,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports261,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
13,710 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy362 million Mt (2013 est.)
14.3 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

ItalySlovenia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 20,236,305
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 753,082
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 38 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 92.52 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 150 (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.354 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modern, well-developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services
domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks
international: country code - 39; a series of submarine cables provide links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat (2015)
general assessment: well-developed telecommunications infrastructure
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 155 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 386 (2015)
Internet country code.it
.si
Internet userstotal: 40.559 million
percent of population: 65.6% (July 2015 est.)
total: 1.45 million
percent of population: 73.1% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediatwo Italian media giants dominate - the publicly owned Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI) with 3 national terrestrial stations and privately owned Mediaset with 3 national terrestrial stations; a large number of private stations and Sky Italia - a satellite TV network; RAI operates 3 AM/FM nationwide radio stations; about 1,300 commercial radio stations (2007)
public TV broadcaster, Radiotelevizija Slovenija (RTV), operates a system of national and regional TV stations; 35 domestic commercial TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 60% of households are connected to multi-channel cable TV; public radio broadcaster operates 3 national and 4 regional stations; more than 75 regional and local commercial and non-commercial radio stations (2007)

Transportation

ItalySlovenia
Railwaystotal: 20,181.7 km
standard gauge: 18,770.1 km 1.435-m gauge (12,893.6 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 122.3 km 1.000-m gauge (122.3 km electrified); 1,289.3 km 0.950-m gauge (151.3 km electrified) (2014)
total: 1,229 km
standard gauge: 1,229 km 1.435-m gauge (503 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 487,700 km
paved: 487,700 km (includes 6,700 km of expressways) (2007)
total: 38,985 km
paved: 38,985 km (includes 769 km of expressways) (2012)
Waterways2,400 km (used for commercial traffic; of limited overall value compared to road and rail) (2012)
(some transport on the Drava River) (2012)
Pipelinesgas 20,223 km; oil 1,393 km; refined products 1,574 km (2013)
gas 844 km; oil 5 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Augusta, Cagliari, Genoa, Livorno, Taranto, Trieste, Venice
oil terminal(s): Melilli (Santa Panagia) oil terminal, Sarroch oil terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Genoa (1,847,648), Gioia Tauro (2,264,798), La Spezia (1,307,274)
LNG terminal(s) (import): La Spezia, Panigaglia, Porto Levante
major seaport(s): Koper
Merchant marinetotal: 681
by type: bulk carrier 105, cargo 42, carrier 1, chemical tanker 164, container 21, liquefied gas 28, passenger 25, passenger/cargo 154, petroleum tanker 59, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 39, specialized tanker 9, vehicle carrier 30
foreign-owned: 90 (Denmark 4, France 2, Greece 7, Luxembourg 14, Netherlands 2, Nigeria 1, Norway 6, Singapore 1, Sweden 1, Switzerland 13, Taiwan 10, Turkey 4, UK 2, US 23)
registered in other countries: 201 (Bahamas 1, Belize 3, Cayman Islands 7, Cyprus 6, Georgia 2, Gibraltar 4, Greece 5, Liberia 47, Malta 45, Marshall Islands 1, Morocco 1, Netherlands 6, Panama 25, Portugal 12, Russia 14, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4, Singapore 5, Slovakia 2, Spain 1, Sweden 5, Turkey 1, UK 3, unknown 1) (2010)
registered in other countries: 24 (Cyprus 5, Liberia 7, Malta 4, Marshall Islands 6, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Slovakia 1) (2010)
Airports129 (2013)
16 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 98
over 3,047 m: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 31
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 29
under 914 m: 11 (2013)
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 31
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 20 (2013)
total: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (2013)

Military

ItalySlovenia
Military branchesItalian Armed Forces: Army (Esercito Italiano, EI), Navy (Marina Militare Italiana, MMI), Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana, AMI), Carabinieri Corps (Arma dei Carabinieri, CC), Financial Guard (Guardia di Finanza) (2015)
Slovenian Armed Forces (Slovenska Vojska, SV): Forces Command (with ground units, naval element, air and air defense brigade); Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief (ACPDR) (2013)
Military service age and obligation18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; women may serve in any military branch; Italian citizenship required; 1-year service obligation (2013)
18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2003 (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.31% of GDP (2015)
1.47% of GDP (2014)
1.59% of GDP (2013)
1.63% of GDP (2012)
1.68% of GDP (2011)
0.93% of GDP (2016)
0.94% of GDP (2015)
0.98% of GDP (2014)
1.06% of GDP (2013)
1.17% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

ItalySlovenia
Disputes - internationalItaly's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern Africa
since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Piranski Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led Slovenia to lift its objections to Croatia joining the EU; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovenia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements
Illicit drugsimportant gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; money laundering by organized crime and from smuggling
minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 16,033 (Afghanistan); 14,336 (Somalia); 14,247 (Nigeria); 13,412 (Pakistan); 11,327 (Mali); 10,049 (Eritrea); 7,723 (Gambia); 5,805 (Cote d'Ivoire) (2016)
stateless persons: 701 (2016)
note: 420,461 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals by sea (January 2015 - July 2017)
note: 477,791 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - December 2016)

Source: CIA Factbook