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Italy vs. San Marino

Introduction

ItalySan Marino
BackgroundItaly became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy is a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include sluggish economic growth, high youth and female unemployment, organized crime, corruption, and economic disparities between southern Italy and the more prosperous north.
Geographically the third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named MARINUS in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of the EU, although it is not a member; social and political trends in the republic track closely with those of its larger neighbor, Italy.

Geography

ItalySan Marino
LocationSouthern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia
Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy
Geographic coordinates42 50 N, 12 50 E
43 46 N, 12 25 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 301,340 sq km
land: 294,140 sq km
water: 7,200 sq km
note: includes Sardinia and Sicily
total: 61 sq km
land: 61 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativealmost twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Arizona
about one-third the size of Washington, DC
Land boundariestotal: 1,836.4 km
border countries (6): Austria 404 km, France 476 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.4 km, San Marino 37 km, Slovenia 218 km, Switzerland 698 km
total: 37 km
border countries (1): Italy 37 km
Coastline7,600 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
none (landlocked)
Climatepredominantly Mediterranean; alpine in far north; hot, dry in south
Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
Terrainmostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands
rugged mountains
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 538 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) de Courmayeur 4,748 m (a secondary peak of Mont Blanc)
mean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m
highest point: Monte Titano 755 m
Natural resourcescoal, mercury, zinc, potash, marble, barite, asbestos, pumice, fluorspar, feldspar, pyrite (sulfur), natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, arable land
building stone
Land useagricultural land: 47.1%
arable land 22.8%; permanent crops 8.6%; permanent pasture 15.7%
forest: 31.4%
other: 21.5% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 16.7%
arable land 16.7%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0%
forest: 0%
other: 83.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land39,500 sq km (2012)
0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsregional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice
volcanism: significant volcanic activity; Etna (elev. 3,330 m), which is in eruption as of 2010, is Europe's most active volcano; flank eruptions pose a threat to nearby Sicilian villages; Etna, along with the famous Vesuvius, which remains a threat to the millions of nearby residents in the Bay of Naples area, have both been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Stromboli, on its namesake island, has also been continuously active with moderate volcanic activity; other historically active volcanoes include Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Larderello, Pantelleria, Vulcano, and Vulsini
NA
Environment - current issuesair pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities
air pollution; urbanization decreasing rural farmlands
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution
Geography - notestrategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe
landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennine Mountains

Demographics

ItalySan Marino
Population62,007,540 (July 2016 est.)
33,285 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 13.69% (male 4,337,792/female 4,151,901)
15-24 years: 9.74% (male 3,026,359/female 3,012,882)
25-54 years: 42.46% (male 13,003,171/female 13,326,901)
55-64 years: 12.73% (male 3,826,630/female 4,069,855)
65 years and over: 21.37% (male 5,696,612/female 7,555,437) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 15.46% (male 2,736/female 2,410)
15-24 years: 11.34% (male 1,944/female 1,832)
25-54 years: 41.34% (male 6,480/female 7,280)
55-64 years: 12.52% (male 2,075/female 2,092)
65 years and over: 19.34% (male 2,883/female 3,553) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 45.1 years
male: 44 years
female: 46.2 years (2016 est.)
total: 44.2 years
male: 43.1 years
female: 45.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.23% (2016 est.)
0.78% (2016 est.)
Birth rate8.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
8.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate10.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
8.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 82.2 years
male: 79.6 years
female: 85 years (2016 est.)
total population: 83.3 years
male: 80.7 years
female: 86.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.43 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.5 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.37% (2015 est.)
NA
Nationalitynoun: Italian(s)
adjective: Italian
noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sammarinese
Ethnic groupsItalian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)
Sammarinese, Italian
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS136,800 (2015 est.)
NA
ReligionsChristian 80% (overwhelmingly Roman Catholic with very small groups of Jehovah's Witnesses and Protestants), Muslim (about 800,000 to 1 million), atheist and agnostic 20%
Roman Catholic
HIV/AIDS - deaths700 (2015 est.)
NA
LanguagesItalian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)
Italian
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2014)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2012)
Education expenditures4.2% of GDP (2013)
2.4% of GDP (2011)
Urbanizationurban population: 69% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.39% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 94.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.62% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major cities - populationROME (capital) 3.718 million; Milan 3.099 million; Naples 2.202 million; Turin 1.765 million; Palermo 853,000; Bergamo 840,000 (2015)
SAN MARINO 4,000 (2014)
Health expenditures9.2% of GDP (2014)
6.1% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3.95 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
6.36 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density3.4 beds/1,000 population (2011)
3.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Government

ItalySan Marino
Country name"conventional long form: Italian Republic
conventional short form: Italy
local long form: Repubblica Italiana
local short form: Italia
former: Kingdom of Italy
etymology: derivation is unclear, but the Latin ""Italia"" may come from the Oscan ""Viteliu"" meaning ""[Land] of Young Cattle"" (the bull was a symbol of southern Italic tribes)
"
conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
conventional short form: San Marino
local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
local short form: San Marino
etymology: named after Saint MARINUS, the traditional founder of the country
Government typeparliamentary republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Rome
geographic coordinates: 41 54 N, 12 29 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: San Marino (city)
geographic coordinates: 43 56 N, 12 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions15 regions (regioni, singular - regione) and 5 autonomous regions (regioni autonome, singular - regione autonoma)
regions: Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Lazio (Latium), Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte (Piedmont), Puglia (Apulia), Toscana (Tuscany), Umbria, Veneto (Venetia)
autonomous regions: Friuli-Venezia Giulia; Sardegna (Sardinia); Sicilia (Sicily); Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-South Tyrol) or Trentino-Suedtirol (German); Valle d'Aosta (Aosta Valley) or Vallee d'Aoste (French)
9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle
Independence17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1871)
3 September 301 (traditional founding date)
National holidayRepublic Day, 2 June (1946)
Founding of the Republic (or Feast of Saint Marinus), 3 September (A.D. 301)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1848 (originally for the Kingdom of Sardinia and adopted by the Kingdom of Italy in 1861); latest enacted 22 December 1947, adopted 27 December 1947, entered into force 1 January 1948
amendments: proposed by both houses of Parliament; passage requires two successive debates and approval by absolute majority of each house on the second vote; a referendum is only required when requested by one-fifth of the members of either house, by voter petition, or by five Regional Councils (elected legislative assemblies of the 15 first-level administrative regions and 5 autonomous regions of Italy); referendum not required if an amendment has been approved by a two-thirds majority in each house in the second vote; amended many times, last in 2012; note - a referendum held on 4 December 2016 on constitutional amendments was defeated
history: consists of several legislative instruments, chief among them the Statutes (Leges Statuti) of 1600 and the Declaration of Citizen Rights of 1974
amendments: proposed by the Great and General Council; passage requires two-thirds majority Council vote; Council passage by absolute majority vote also requires passage in a referendum; Declaration of Civil Rights amended several times, last in 2012 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system; judicial review of legislation under certain conditions in Constitutional Court
civil law system with Italian civil law influences
Suffrage18 years of age; universal except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Sergio MATTARELLA (since 3 February 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Paolo GENTILONI (since 12 December 2016); note - Prime Minister Matteo RENZI (since 22 February 2014) resigned 12 December 2016; the prime minister's official title is President of the Council of Ministers
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, known officially as the President of the Council of Ministers and locally as the Premier; nominated by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of Parliament and 58 regional representatives for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 31 January 2015 (next scheduled for 2022); prime minister appointed by the president, confirmed by parliament
election results: Sergio MATTARELLA (PD) elected president; electoral college vote count in fourth round - 665 out of 1,009 (505-vote threshold); Paolo GENTILONI (PD) sworn in as prime minister on 12 December 2016
chief of state: co-chiefs of state Captain Regent Mimma ZIVOLI and Captain Regent Vanessa D'AMBROSIO (for the period 1 April 2017 - 1 October 2017)
head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Nicola RENZI (since 27 December 2016)
cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Grand and General Council
elections/appointments: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 6-month term; election last held in March 2017 (next to be held in September 2017); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 5-year term; election last held on 11 November 2012 (next to be held by November 2017)
election results: Mimma ZIVOLI (Civic 10) and Vanessa D'AMBROSIO (SU) elected captains regent; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA; Pasquale VALENTINI (PDCS) elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA
note: the directly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects 2 of its members to serve as the captains regent (co-chiefs of state) for a 6-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 9 other members, all are selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 9 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has some prime ministerial roles
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of the Senate or Senato della Repubblica (322 seats; 315 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 7 ex-officio members appointed by the president of the Republic to serve for life) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; 629 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member from Valle d'Aosta elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - center-left coalition 123 (PD 111, SEL 7, SVP 2, other 3), center-right coalition 117 (PdL 98, LN 18, other 1), M5S 54, centrist coalition 19, other 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - center-left coalition 345 (PD 297, SEL 37, CD 6 SVP 5), center-right coalition 125 (PdL 98, LN 18, FdI 9), M5S 109, centrist coalition 47, other 3
description: unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 20 November 2016 (next to be held by November 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - San Marino First 39.4% (including PDCS 24.5%, PS 7.7%, PSD 7.2%), Adesso, sm 31.0% (including Democratic Socialist Left 12.1%, Repubblica Futura 9.6%, Civic 10 9.3%), Democracy in Action 22.8% (including RETE Movement 18.3%, Democratic Movement-San Marino Together 4.5%); seats by party - San Marino First 25 (PDCS 16, PS 5, PSD 4), Adesso, sm 20 (Democratic Socialist Left 8, Repubblica Futura 6, Civic 10 6), Democracy in Action 15 (including RETE Movement 12, Democratic Movement-San Marino Together 3)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation or Corte Suprema di Cassazione consists of the first president (chief justice), deputy president, 54 justices presiding over 6 civil and 7 criminal divisions, and 288 judges; an additional 30 judges of lower courts serve as supporting judges; cases normally heard by 5-judge panels; more complex cases heard by 9-judge panels; Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale (consists of the court president and 14 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the High Council of the Judiciary, headed by the president of the republic; judges may serve for life; Constitutional Court judges - 5 appointed by the president, 5 elected by parliament, 5 elected by select higher courts; judges serve up to 9 years
subordinate courts: various lower civil and criminal courts (primary and secondary tribunals, courts, and courts of appeal)
highest court(s): Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII (consists of 12 members); note - the College of Guarantors for the Constitutionality and General Norms functions as San Marino's constitutional court
judge selection and term of office: judges elected by the Grand and General Council from among its own to serve 5-year terms
subordinate courts: first instance and first appeal criminal, administrative, and civil courts; justices of the peace or conciliatory judges
Political parties and leadersRuling left-center-right coalition:
Civic Choice or SC [Enrico ZANETTI]
Democratic Centre or CD [Bruno TABACCI]
Democratic Party or PD [Matteo RENZI]
The New Center-Right or NCD [Angelino ALFANO]
Union of the Center or UdC [Pier Fernando CASSINI]

Center-right opposition:
Brothers of Italy-National Alliance or FdI-AN [Giorgia MELONI, Ignazio LA RUSSA, and Guido CROSETTO]
Forza Italia [Silvio BERLUSCONI] (formerly PdL)
Northern League or LN [Matteo SALVINI]
other minor parties

Other parties and parliamentary groups:
Five Star Movment or M5S (populist, anti-establishment) [Beppe GRILLO]
Liberal Popular Alliance [Denis VERDINI]
Movement of Democrats and Progressives (left; external support of governing coalition) [Pierluigi BERSANI]
Sinistra Italiani (left opposition) [Nicola FRATOIANNI]
South Tyrolean People's Party or SVP [Philipp ACHAMMER]
San Marino Common Good (includes Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Marco GATTI], We Sammarinese or NS [Marco ARZILLI], Party of Socialists and Democrats or PSD [Paride ANDREOLI], Popular Alliance or AP [Gabriele GATTI])
Entente for the Country (Intesa per il Paese; includes Socialist Party or PS [Alessandro BEVITORI], Union for the Republic or UPR [Marco PODESCHI)
Active Citizenship (includes Civic 10 [Mateo CIACCI], United Left or SU [Gastone PASOLINI])
Political pressure groups and leaders
manufacturers and merchants associations: Confcommercio
Confindustria
organized farm groups: Confcoltivatori
Confagricoltura
major trade union confederations: Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Susanna CAMUSSO] (left wing)
Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Raffaele BONANNI] (Roman Catholic centrist)
Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] (lay centrist)
other: Roman Catholic Church
NA
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CDB, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
CE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Armando VARRICCHIO (since 2 March 2016)
chancery: 3000 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 612-4400
FAX: [1] (202) 518-2151
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco
consulate(s): Charlotte (NC), Cleveland (OH), Detroit (MI), Hattiesburg (MS), Honolulu (HI), New Orleans, Newark (NJ), Norfolk (VA), Pittsburgh (PA), Portland (OR), Seattle
chief of mission: Ambassador Paolo RONDELLI (since 16 July 2007)
chancery: 1711 N Street NW, 2nd floor, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: 202-250-1535
FAX: 202-223-2748
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kelly C. DEGNAN (since 20 January 2017); note - also accredited to San Marino
embassy: Via Vittorio Veneto 121, 00187-Rome
mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100, APO AE 09624
telephone: [39] (06) 46741
FAX: [39] (06) 4674-2244
consulate(s) general: Florence, Milan, Naples
the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the US Ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; design inspired by the French flag brought to Italy by Napoleon in 1797; colors are those of Milan (red and white) combined with the green uniform color of the Milanese civic guard
note: similar to the flag of Mexico, which is longer, uses darker shades of red and green, and has its coat of arms centered on the white band; Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the main colors derive from the shield of the coat of arms, which features three white towers on three peaks on a blue field; the towers represent three castles built on San Marino's highest feature, Mount Titano: Guaita, Cesta, and Montale; the coat of arms is flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty); the white and blue colors are also said to stand for peace and liberty respectively
National anthem"name: ""Il Canto degli Italiani"" (The Song of the Italians)
lyrics/music: Goffredo MAMELI/Michele NOVARO
note: adopted 1946; the anthem, originally written in 1847, is also known as ""L'Inno di Mameli"" (Mameli's Hymn), and ""Fratelli D'Italia"" (Brothers of Italy)
"
"name: ""Inno Nazionale della Repubblica"" (National Anthem of the Republic)
lyrics/music: no lyrics/Federico CONSOLO
note: adopted 1894; the music for the lyric-less anthem is based on a 10th century chorale piece
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)white, five-pointed star (Stella d'Italia); national colors: red, white, green
three peaks each displaying a tower; national colors: white, blue
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Italy
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years for EU nationals, 5 years for refugees and specified exceptions, 10 years for all others
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of San Marino
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 30 years

Economy

ItalySan Marino
Economy - overviewItaly has a diversified economy, which is divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less-developed, highly subsidized, agricultural south, where unemployment is higher. The Italian economy is driven in large part by the manufacture of high-quality consumer goods produced by small and medium-sized enterprises, many of them family-owned. Italy also has a sizable underground economy, which by some estimates accounts for as much as 17% of GDP. These activities are most common within the agriculture, construction, and service sectors.

Italy is the third-largest economy in the euro zone, but its exceptionally high public debt and structural impediments to growth have rendered it vulnerable to scrutiny by financial markets. Public debt has increased steadily since 2007, reaching 133% of GDP in 2016. Investor concerns about Italy and the broader euro-zone crisis eased in 2013, bringing down Italy's borrowing costs on sovereign government debt from euro-era records. The government still faces pressure from investors and European partners to sustain its efforts to address Italy's longstanding structural impediments to growth, such as labor market inefficiencies, a sluggish judicial system, and a weak banking sector. Italy’s economy returned to modest growth in late 2014 for the first time since late 2011. In 2015-16, Italy’s economy grew 0.7% each year. In 2016, overall unemployment was 11.7%, but youth unemployment remains high at 37.1%.
San Marino's economy relies heavily on tourism, banking, and the manufacture and export of ceramics, clothing, fabrics, furniture, paints, spirits, tiles, and wine. The manufacturing and financial sectors account for more than half of San Marino's GDP. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy.

San Marino's economy has been contracting since 2008, largely due to weakened demand from Italy - which accounts for nearly 90% of its export market - and financial sector consolidation. Difficulties in the banking sector, the recent global economic downturn, and the sizable decline in tax revenues have contributed to negative real GDP growth. The government has adopted measures to counter the downturn, including subsidized credit to businesses and is seeking to shift its growth model away from a reliance on bank and tax secrecy. San Marino does not issue public debt securities; when necessary, it finances deficits by drawing down central bank deposits.

The economy benefits from foreign investment due to its relatively low corporate taxes and low taxes on interest earnings. The income tax rate is also very low, about one-third the average EU level. San Marino continues to work towards harmonizing its fiscal laws with EU and international standards. In September 2009, the OECD removed San Marino from its list of tax havens that have yet to fully adopt global tax standards, and in 2010 San Marino signed Tax Information Exchange Agreements with most major countries. In 2013, the San Marino Government signed a Double Taxation Agreement with Italy, but a referendum on EU membership failed to reach the quorum needed to bring it to a vote.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$2.221 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.204 trillion (2015 est.)
$2.187 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$2.023 billion (2016 est.)
$2.003 billion (2015 est.)
$1.993 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate0.8% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2015 est.)
-0.3% (2014 est.)
1% (2016 est.)
0.5% (2015 est.)
-1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$36,300 (2016 est.)
$36,300 (2015 est.)
$36,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$65,300 (2016 est.)
$64,600 (2015 est.)
$64,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 2.2%
industry: 23.9%
services: 73.8% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 0.1%
industry: 39.2%
services: 60.7% (2009)
Population below poverty line29.9% (2012 est.)
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 26.8% (2000)
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices)-0.2% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2015 est.)
0.6% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2015 est.)
Labor force25.6 million (2016 est.)
21,960 (September 2013 es)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 3.9%
industry: 28.3%
services: 67.8% (2011)
agriculture: 0.2%
industry: 33.5%
services: 66.3% (September 2013 es)
Unemployment rate11.4% (2016 est.)
11.9% (2015 est.)
8.7% (2014 est.)
8.1% (2013 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $842.5 billion
expenditures: $889.8 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $667.7 million
expenditures: $712.8 million (2011 est.)
Industriestourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine
Industrial production growth rate0.8% (2016 est.)
-1.1% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - productsfruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; beef, dairy products; fish
wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides
Exports$436.3 billion (2016 est.)
$450.1 billion (2015 est.)
$3.827 billion (2011 est.)
$2.576 billion (2010 est.)
Exports - commoditiesengineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco; minerals, nonferrous metals
building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics
Exports - partnersGermany 12.3%, France 10.3%, US 8.7%, UK 5.4%, Spain 4.8%, Switzerland 4.7% (2015)
Italy 82.3% (2012 est.)
Imports$372.2 billion (2016 est.)
$391.2 billion (2015 est.)
$2.551 billion (2011 est.)
$2.132 billion (2010 est.)
Imports - commoditiesengineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages, tobacco
wide variety of consumer manufactures, food, energy
Imports - partnersGermany 15.4%, France 8.7%, China 7.7%, Netherlands 5.6%, Spain 5%, Belgium 4.7% (2015)
Italy 81.8% (2012 est.)
Debt - external$2.444 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$2.3 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
$NA
Exchange rateseuros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt132.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
132.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: Italy reports its data on public debt according to guidelines set out in the Maastricht Treaty; general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year, in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the central government, state government, local government and social security funds
25.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
20.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$130.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$142.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$392 million (2014 est.)
$539.3 million (2013 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$1.852 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.556 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$587.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$615.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$480.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$NA
Commercial bank prime lending rate3.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.13% (31 December 2015 est.)
5.92% (31 December 2011 est.)
5.38% (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$2.97 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.053 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$8.822 billion (30 September 2010)
$8.008 billion (31 December 2009)
Stock of narrow money$1.069 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.026 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
$1.326 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of broad money$2.134 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$2.284 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.584 billion (31 December 2007)
Taxes and other revenues45.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
42.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
-2.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 60.9%
government consumption: 18.8%
investment in fixed capital: 16.5%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 29.7%
imports of goods and services: -26.1% (2016 est.)
household consumption: NA%
government consumption: NA%
investment in fixed capital: NA%
investments in inventories: NA%
exports of goods and services: 176.6%
imports of goods and services: -153.3% (2011)

Telecommunications

ItalySan Marino
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 20,236,305
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 16,550
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 50 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 92.52 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 150 (July 2015 est.)
total: 37,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 111 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modern, well-developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services
domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks
international: country code - 39; a series of submarine cables provide links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat (2015)
general assessment: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity over 160 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network (2015)
Internet country code.it
.sm
Internet userstotal: 40.559 million
percent of population: 65.6% (July 2015 est.)
total: 17,200
percent of population: 52.6% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediatwo Italian media giants dominate - the publicly owned Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI) with 3 national terrestrial stations and privately owned Mediaset with 3 national terrestrial stations; a large number of private stations and Sky Italia - a satellite TV network; RAI operates 3 AM/FM nationwide radio stations; about 1,300 commercial radio stations (2007)
state-owned public broadcaster operates 1 TV station and 3 radio stations; receives radio and TV broadcasts from Italy (2012)

Transportation

ItalySan Marino
Roadwaystotal: 487,700 km
paved: 487,700 km (includes 6,700 km of expressways) (2007)
total: 292 km
paved: 292 km (2006)

Military

ItalySan Marino
Military branchesItalian Armed Forces: Army (Esercito Italiano, EI), Navy (Marina Militare Italiana, MMI), Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana, AMI), Carabinieri Corps (Arma dei Carabinieri, CC), Financial Guard (Guardia di Finanza) (2015)
no regular military forces; voluntary Military Corps (Corpi Militari) performs ceremonial duties and limited police support functions (2010)
Military service age and obligation18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; women may serve in any military branch; Italian citizenship required; 1-year service obligation (2013)
18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription; government has the authority to call up all San Marino citizens from 16-60 years of age to service in the military (2012)

Transnational Issues

ItalySan Marino
Disputes - internationalItaly's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern Africa
none

Energy

ItalySan Marino
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook