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Israel vs. Jordan

Introduction

IsraelJordan
Background"Following World War II, Britain withdrew from its mandate of Palestine, and the UN proposed partitioning the area into Arab and Jewish states, an arrangement rejected by the Arabs. Nonetheless, an Israeli state was declared in 1948, and Israel subsequently defeated the Arab armies in a series of wars that did not end deep tensions between the two sides. (The territories Israel has occupied since the 1967 war are not included in the Israel country profile, unless otherwise noted.) On 25 April 1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula pursuant to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. In keeping with the framework established at the Madrid Conference in October 1991, Israel conducted bilateral negotiations with Palestinian representatives and Syria to achieve a permanent settlement with each. Israel and Palestinian officials on 13 September 1993 signed a Declaration of Principles (also known as the ""Oslo Accords""), enshrining the idea of a two-state solution to their conflict and guiding an interim period of Palestinian self-rule. The parties achieved six additional significant interim agreements between 1994 and 1999 aimed at creating the conditions for a two-state solution, but most were never fully realized. Outstanding territorial and other disputes with Jordan were resolved in the 26 October 1994 Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty.
Progress toward a final status agreement with the Palestinians was undermined by Israeli-Palestinian violence between 2001 and February 2005. Israel in 2005 unilaterally disengaged from the Gaza Strip, evacuating settlers and its military while retaining control over most points of entry into the Gaza Strip. The election of HAMAS to head the Palestinian Legislative Council in 2006 temporarily froze relations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (PA). Israel engaged in a 34-day conflict with Hizballah in Lebanon from July-August 2006 and a 23-day conflict with HAMAS in the Gaza Strip from December 2008-January 2009. In November 2012, Israel engaged in a seven-day conflict with HAMAS in the Gaza Strip. Direct talks with the Palestinians most recently launched in July 2013 but were suspended in April 2014. The talks represented the fourth concerted effort to resolve final status issues between the sides since they were first discussed at Camp David in 2000. Three months later HAMAS and other militant groups launched rockets into Israel, which led to a 51-day conflict between Israel and militants in Gaza.
"
Following World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the League of Nations awarded Britain the mandate to govern much of the Middle East. Britain demarcated a semi-autonomous region of Transjordan from Palestine in the early 1920s. The area gained its independence in 1946 and thereafter became The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The country's long-time ruler, King HUSSEIN (1953-99), successfully navigated competing pressures from the major powers (US, USSR, and UK), various Arab states, Israel, and a large internal Palestinian population. Jordan lost the West Bank to Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War. King HUSSEIN in 1988 permanently relinquished Jordanian claims to the West Bank; in 1994 he signed a peace treaty with Israel. King ABDALLAH II, King HUSSEIN's eldest son, assumed the throne following his father's death in 1999. He has implemented modest political and economic reforms, including the passage of a new electoral law in early 2016 ahead of legislative elections held in September. The Islamic Action Front, which is the political arm of the Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood, returned to parliament with 15 seats after boycotting the previous two elections in 2010 and 2013.

Geography

IsraelJordan
LocationMiddle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon
Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia, between Israel (to the west) and Iraq
Geographic coordinates31 30 N, 34 45 E
31 00 N, 36 00 E
Map referencesMiddle East
Middle East
Areatotal: 20,770 sq km
land: 20,330 sq km
water: 440 sq km
total: 89,342 sq km
land: 88,802 sq km
water: 540 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than New Jersey
about three-quarters the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundariestotal: 1,068 km
border countries (6): Egypt 208 km, Gaza Strip 59 km, Jordan 307 km, Lebanon 81 km, Syria 83 km, West Bank 330 km
total: 1,744 km
border countries (5): Iraq 179 km, Israel 307 km, Saudi Arabia 731 km, Syria 379 km, West Bank 148 km
Coastline273 km
26 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 3 nm
Climatetemperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas
mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)
TerrainNegev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift Valley
mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great Rift Valley separates eastern and western banks of the Jordan River
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 508 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
highest point: Har Meron 1,208 m
mean elevation: 812 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
highest point: Jabal Umm ad Dami 1,854 m
Natural resourcestimber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand
phosphates, potash, shale oil
Land useagricultural land: 23.8%
arable land 13.7%; permanent crops 3.8%; permanent pasture 6.3%
forest: 7.1%
other: 69.1% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 11.4%
arable land 2%; permanent crops 1%; permanent pasture 8.4%
forest: 1.1%
other: 87.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land2,250 sq km (2012)
964 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardssandstorms may occur during spring and summer; droughts; periodic earthquakes
droughts; periodic earthquakes
Environment - current issueslimited arable land and natural freshwater resources pose serious constraints; desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides
limited natural freshwater resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteLake Tiberias (Sea of Galilee) is an important freshwater source; the Dead Sea is the second saltiest body of water in the world (after Lake Assal in Djibouti); in 2014, there were 423 settlements in the Israeli-occupied territories - 42 settlements in the Golan Heights, 381 sites in the occupied Palestinian territories to include 212 settlements and 134 outposts in the West Bank, and 35 settlements in East Jerusalem; there are no Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip because all were evacuated in 2005 (2014 est.)
strategic location at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and as the Arab country that shares the longest border with Israel and the occupied West Bank
Population distributionpopulation concentrated in and around Tel-Aviv, as well as around the Sea of Galilee; the south remains sparsely populated with the exception of the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba
population heavily concentrated in the west, and particularly the northwest, in and around the capital of Amman; a sizeable, but smaller population is located in the southwest along the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba

Demographics

IsraelJordan
Population8,174,527 (includes populations of the Golan Heights of Golan Sub-District and also East Jerusalem, which was annexed by Israel after 1967) (July 2016 est.)
note: approximately 21,000 Israeli settlers live in the Golan Heights (2015); approximately 201,000 Israeli settlers live in East Jerusalem (2014)
8,185,384
note: increased estimate reflects revised assumptions about the net migration rate due to the increased flow of Syrian refugees (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 27.73% (male 1,159,980/female 1,106,946)
15-24 years: 15.52% (male 648,199/female 620,218)
25-54 years: 37.15% (male 1,552,754/female 1,484,059)
55-64 years: 8.51% (male 340,601/female 355,382)
65 years and over: 11.09% (male 405,511/female 500,877) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 35.04% (male 1,470,865/female 1,397,057)
15-24 years: 20.12% (male 842,202/female 804,557)
25-54 years: 36.44% (male 1,491,855/female 1,491,302)
55-64 years: 4.46% (male 177,720/female 187,181)
65 years and over: 3.94% (male 151,071/female 171,574) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 29.7 years
male: 29.1 years
female: 30.4 years (2016 est.)
total: 22.3 years
male: 21.9 years
female: 22.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.53% (2016 est.)
0.83% (2016 est.)
Birth rate18.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
25.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate5.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
3.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-13.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 14.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 15.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 13.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 82.4 years
male: 80.6 years
female: 84.4 years (2016 est.)
total population: 74.6 years
male: 73.2 years
female: 76.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.66 children born/woman (2016 est.)
3.18 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
NA
Nationalitynoun: Israeli(s)
adjective: Israeli
noun: Jordanian(s)
adjective: Jordanian
Ethnic groupsJewish 74.8% (of which Israel-born 75.6%, Europe/America/Oceania-born 16.6%, Africa-born 4.9%, Asia-born 2.9%), non-Jewish 25.2% (mostly Arab) (2015 est.)
Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
NA
ReligionsJewish 74.8%, Muslim 17.6%, Christian 2%, Druze 1.6%, other 4% (2015 est.)
Muslim 97.2% (official; predominantly Sunni), Christian 2.2% (majority Greek Orthodox, but some Greek and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant denominations), Buddhist 0.4%, Hindu 0.1%, Jewish <0.1, folk religionist <0.1, unaffiliated <0.1, other <0.1 (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
NA
LanguagesHebrew (official), Arabic (used officially for Arab minority), English (most commonly used foreign language)
Arabic (official), English (widely understood among upper and middle classes)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.8%
male: 98.7%
female: 96.8% (2011 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.4%
male: 97.7%
female: 92.9% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 16 years (2014)
total: 13 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2012)
Education expenditures5.9% of GDP (2013)
NA
Urbanizationurban population: 92.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.37% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 83.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.79% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97.8% of population
rural: 92.3% of population
total: 96.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.2% of population
rural: 7.7% of population
total: 3.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 98.6% of population
rural: 98.9% of population
total: 98.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.4% of population
rural: 1.1% of population
total: 1.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationTel Aviv-Yafo 3.608 million; Haifa 1.097 million; JERUSALEM (proclaimed capital) 839,000 (2015)
AMMAN (capital) 1.155 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate5 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
58 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures7.8% of GDP (2014)
7.5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3.62 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
2.65 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density3.3 beds/1,000 population (2012)
1.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate25.8% (2014)
28.1% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth27.3 years (2011 est.)
24.7 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 64.1
youth dependency ratio: 45.7
elderly dependency ratio: 18.4
potential support ratio: 5.4 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 64.8
youth dependency ratio: 58.5
elderly dependency ratio: 6.2
potential support ratio: 16 (2015 est.)

Government

IsraelJordan
Country name"conventional long form: State of Israel
conventional short form: Israel
local long form: Medinat Yisra'el
local short form: Yisra'el
etymology: named after the ancient Kingdom of Israel; according to Biblical tradition, the Jewish patriarch Jacob received the name ""Israel"" (""He who struggles with God"") after he wrestled an entire night with an angel of the Lord; Jacob's 12 sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel, who formed the Kingdom of Israel
"
conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
conventional short form: Jordan
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah
local short form: Al Urdun
former: Transjordan
etymology: named for the Jordan River, which makes up part of Jordan's northwest border
Government typeparliamentary democracy
parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capitalname: Jerusalem: note - while Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital in 1950, the international community does not recognize it as such; the US, like all other countries, maintains its embassy in Tel Aviv-Yafo
geographic coordinates: 31 46 N, 35 14 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, Friday before the last Sunday in March; ends the last Sunday in October
name: Amman
geographic coordinates: 31 57 N, 35 56 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in March; ends last Friday in October
Administrative divisions6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv
12 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); 'Ajlun, Al 'Aqabah, Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, Al ?Asimah (Amman), At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Jarash, Ma'an, Ma'daba
Independence14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
National holidayIndependence Day, 14 May (1948); note - Israel declared independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday may occur in April or May
Independence Day, 25 May (1946)
Constitutionhistory: no formal constitution; some functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the Basic Laws, and the Law of Return (as amended)
amendments: proposed by Government of Israel ministers or by the Knesset; passage requires a majority vote of Knesset members and subject to Supreme Court judicial review; 11 of the 13 Basic Laws have been amended at least once, latest in 2014 (2016)
history: previous 1928 (preindependence); latest initially adopted 28 November 1947, revised and ratified 1 January 1952
amendments: proposed by 10 or more members of the Senate or by the House of Representatives followed by referral to the relevant House committee for its review and opinion; if accepted, the proposal is referred to the government for restatement as a draft; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of both the Senate and the House and ratification by the king; amended several times, last in 2016 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religious laws
mixed system developed from codes instituted by the Ottoman Empire (based on French law), British common law, and Islamic law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Reuven RIVLIN (since 27 July 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Binyamin NETANYAHU (since 31 March 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by prime minister and approved by the Knesset
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Knesset for a 7-year term (limited to 1 term); election last held on 10 June 2014 (next to be held in 2021 but can be called earlier); following legislative elections, the president, in consultation with party leaders, tasks a Knesset member (usually the member of the largest party) with forming a government
election results: Reuven RIVLIN elected president in second round; Knesset vote - Reuven RIVLIN (Likud) 63, Meir SHEETRIT (The Movement) 53 , other/invalid 4
chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 February 1999); Crown Prince HUSSEIN (born 28 June 1994), eldest son of King ABDALLAH II
head of government: Prime Minister Hani MULKI (since 1 June 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the monarch
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Knesset (120 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 17 March 2015 (next to be held in 2019 but can be called earlier)
election results: percent of vote by party - Likud 23.4%, Zionist Camp 18.7%, Joint List 10.6%, Yesh Atid 8.8%, Kulanu 7.5%, The Jewish Home 6.7%, Shas, 5.7%, Yisrael Beitenu 5.1%, UTJ 5.0%, Meretz 3.9%, Yachad 3.0%, other 1.6%; seats by party - Likud 30, Zionist Camp 24, Joint List 13, Yesh Atid 11, Kulanu 10, The Jewish Home 8, Shas 7, Yisrael Beitenu 6, UTJ 6, Meretz 5
description: bicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-'Umma consists of the Senate, or the House of Notables or Majlis al-Ayan (65 seats; members appointed by the monarch to serve 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or House of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwaab (130 seats; 115 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by open-list proportional representation vote and 15 seats for women; 12 of the 115 seats reserved for Christian, Chechen, and Circassian candidates; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Deputies - last held on 20 September 2016 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 14 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges selected by the Judicial Selection Committee consisting of 3 Supreme Court judges, 2 Cabinet members including the Minister of Justice as chairman, 2 Knesset members, and 2 representatives from the Israel Bar Association; judges can serve up to mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: district and magistrate courts; national and regional labor courts; special and religious courts
highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Supreme Court (consists of 15 judges including the chief justice; 7-judge panels for important cases and 5 judge panels for most appeals cases); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members including the court chairman)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the king; other judges nominated by the Judicial Council, an 11-member judicial policy-making body consisting of high-level judicial officials and judges, and approved by the king; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court members appointed by the king for 6-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Major Felonies Court; Courts of First Instance; Magistrate Courts; religious courts; state security courts
Political parties and leaders"Balad [Jamal ZAHALKA]
Democratic Front for Peace and Equality (HADASH) [ODEH]
Kulanu [Moshe KAHLON]
Labor [Yitzhak HERZOG]
Likud [Binyamin NETANYAHU]
Meretz [Zehava GALON]
SHAS [Arye DERI]
Tekumah/National Union (Ichud Leumi) [Uri ARIEL]
The Jewish Home (Habayit Hayehudi) [Naftali BENNETT]
The Movement (Hatnuah) [Tzipora ""Tzipi"" LIVNI]
United Arab List-Ta'al [Masud GANAIM]
United Torah Judaism or UTJ [Yaakov LITZMAN] (an alliance of three parties)
Yesh Atid [Yair LAPID]
Yisrael Beiteinu [Avigdor LIEBERMAN]
"
Ahl al-Himma
Al-Bayyan
Al-Hayah Jordanian Party [Zahier AMR]
Arab Ba'ath Socialist Party [Akram al-HIMSI]
Ba'ath Arab Progressive Party [Fuad DABBOUR]
Citizenship
Construction
Cooperation
Dawn
Democratic People's Party [Ablah ABU ULBAH]
Democratic Popular Unity Party [Sa'id DIAB]
Dignity
Du'a Party [Muhammed ABU BAKR]
Free Voice
Islamic Action Front or IAF [Hamzah MANSOUR]
Islamic Centrist Party [Muhammad al-HAJ]
Jordanian Communist Party [Munir HAMARNAH]
Jordanian National Party [Muna ABU BAKR]
Jordanian United Front [Amjad al-MAJALI]
Labor and Trade
Muslim Center Party [Haitham ALAMAERAH]
Nation
National Congress Party [Raheeh GHARAYBEH, general secretary]
National Accord Youth Block
National Action
National Constitution Party [Ahmad al-SHUNAQ]
National Current Party [Abd al-Hadi al-MAJALI]
National Movement for Direct Democracy [Muhammad al-QAQ]
National Union
National Unity
Nobel Jerusalem
Risalah Party [Hazem QASHOU]
Salvation
Stronger Jordan
The Direct Democratic Nationalists Movement Party [Nash'at KHALIFAH]
The Homeland (Hizb Al-Watan)
The People
Unified Front
United Front
Voice of the Nation; qtgan
Political pressure groups and leadersBreaking the Silence [Yehuda SHAUL, executive director] collects testimonies from soldiers who served in the West Bank and Gaza Strip
B'Tselem [Hagai EL-AD, executive director] monitors human rights abuses
Peace Now [Yariv OPPENHEIMER, secretary general] supports territorial concessions in the West Bank and Gaza Strip
YESHA Council [Avi ROEHD, chairman] promotes settler interests and opposes territorial compromise
15 April Movement [Mohammad SUNEID, chairman]
24 March Movement [Mu'az al-KHAWALIDAH, Abdel Rahman HASANEIN, spokespersons]
1952 Constitution Movement
Anti-Normalization Committee [Hamzah MANSOUR, chairman]
Economic and Social Association of Retired Servicemen and Veterans or ESARSV [Abdulsalam al-HASSANAT, chairman]
Group of 36
Higher Coordination Committee of Opposition Parties [Said DIAB]
Higher National Committee for Military Retirees or HNCMR [Ali al-HABASHNEH, chairman]
Hirak
Jordan Bar Association [Saleh al-ARMUTI, chairman]
Jordanian Campaign for Change or Jayin
Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood [Dr. Hamam SAID, controller general]
Jordanian Press Association [Sayf al-SHARIF, president]
National Front for Reform or NFR [Ahmad OBEIDAT, chairman]
Popular Gathering for Reform
Professional Associations Council [Abd al-Hadi al-FALAHAT, chairman]
Sons of Jordan
International organization participationBIS, BSEC (observer), CE (observer), CERN, CICA, EBRD, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW (signatory), OSCE (partner), Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CD, CICA, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Ron DERMER (since 3 December 2013)
chancery: 3514 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 364-5500
FAX: [1] (202) 364-5607
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador Dina Khalil Tawiq KAWAR (since 27 June 2016)
chancery: 3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 966-2664
FAX: [1] (202) 966-3110
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador David FRIEDMAN (since 23 May 2017)
embassy: 71 HaYarkon Street, Tel Aviv 6343229
telephone: [972] (3) 519-7475
FAX: [972] (3) 516-4390
consular agent: Haifa
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Henry T. WOOSTER (since 24 March 2017)
embassy: Abdoun, Al-Umawyeen St., Amman
mailing address: P. O. Box 354, Amman 11118 Jordan; Unit 70200, Box 5, DPO AE 09892-0200
telephone: [962] (6) 590-6000
FAX: [962] (6) 592-0163
Flag descriptionwhite with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the Magen David (Star of David or Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag; the basic design resembles a traditional Jewish prayer shawl (tallit), which is white with blue stripes; the hexagram as a Jewish symbol dates back to medieval times
note: the Israeli flag proclamation states that the flag colors are sky blue and white, but the exact shade of blue has never been set and can vary from a light to a dark blue
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), representing the Abbassid Caliphate, white, representing the Ummayyad Caliphate, and green, representing the Fatimid Caliphate; a red isosceles triangle on the hoist side, representing the Great Arab Revolt of 1916, and bearing a small white seven-pointed star symbolizing the seven verses of the opening Sura (Al-Fatiha) of the Holy Koran; the seven points on the star represent faith in One God, humanity, national spirit, humility, social justice, virtue, and aspirations; design is based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I
National anthem"name: ""Hatikvah"" (The Hope)
lyrics/music: Naftali Herz IMBER/traditional, arranged by Samuel COHEN
note: adopted 2004, unofficial since 1948; used as the anthem of the Zionist movement since 1897; the 1888 arrangement by Samuel COHEN is thought to be based on the Romanian folk song ""Carul cu boi"" (The Ox Driven Cart)
"
"name: ""As-salam al-malaki al-urdoni"" (Long Live the King of Jordan)
lyrics/music: Abdul-Mone'm al-RIFAI'/Abdul-Qader al-TANEER
note: adopted 1946; the shortened version of the anthem is used most commonly, while the full version is reserved for special occasions
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; withdrew acceptance of International Criminal Court jurisdiction in 2002
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Star of David (Magen David), menorah (seven-branched lampstand); national colors: blue, white
eagle; national colors: black, white, green, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Israel
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but naturalized citizens are not allowed to maintain dual citizenship
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 out of the 5 years preceding the application for naturalization
note: Israeli law (Law of Return, 5 July 1950) provides for the granting of citizenship to any Jew - defined as a person being born to a Jewish mother or having converted to Judaism while renouncing any other religion - who immigrates to and expresses a desire to settle in Israel on the basis of the Right of aliyah; the 1970 amendment of this act extended the right to family members including the spouse of a Jew, any child or grandchild, and the spouses of children and grandchildren
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Jordan
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

Economy

IsraelJordan
Economy - overview"Israel has a technologically advanced free market economy. Cut diamonds, high-technology equipment, and pharmaceuticals are among its leading exports. Its major imports include crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Israel usually posts sizable trade deficits, which are offset by tourism and other service exports, as well as significant foreign investment inflows.

Between 2004 and 2013, growth averaged nearly 5% per year, led by exports. The global financial crisis of 2008-09 spurred a brief recession in Israel, but the country entered the crisis with solid fundamentals, following years of prudent fiscal policy and a resilient banking sector. Israel's economy also weathered the 2011 Arab Spring because strong trade ties outside the Middle East have insulated the economy from spillover effects.

Slowing domestic and international demand and decreased investment resulting from Israel’s uncertain security situation reduced GDP growth to an average of roughly 2.6% per year during 2014-16. Natural gas fields discovered off Israel's coast since 2009 have brightened Israel's energy security outlook. The Tamar and Leviathan fields were some of the world's largest offshore natural gas finds in the last decade. Political and regulatory issues have delayed the development of the massive Leviathan field, but production from Tamar provided a 0.8% boost to Israel's GDP in 2013 and a 0.3% boost in 2014. One of the most carbon intense OECD countries, Israel generates about 57% of its power from coal and only 2.6% from renewable sources.

Income inequality and high housing and commodity prices continue to be a concern for many Israelis. Israel's income inequality and poverty rates are among the highest of OECD countries, and there is a broad perception among the public that a small number of ""tycoons"" have a cartel-like grip over the major parts of the economy. Government officials have called for reforms to boost the housing supply and to increase competition in the banking sector to address these public grievances. Despite calls for reforms, the restricted housing supply continues to impact the well-being of younger Israelis seeking to purchase homes. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers, coupled with guaranteed prices and customs tariffs for farmers kept food prices high in 2016. Private consumption is expected to drive growth through 2017 with consumers benefitting from low inflation and a strong currency.

In the long term, Israel faces structural issues, including low labor participation rates for its fastest growing social segments - the ultraorthodox and Arab-Israeli communities. Also, Israel's progressive, globally competitive, knowledge-based technology sector employs only about 8% of the workforce, with the rest mostly employed in manufacturing and services - sectors which face downward wage pressures from global competition. Expenditures on educational institutions remain low compared to most other OECD countries with similar GDP per capita.
"
Jordan's economy is among the smallest in the Middle East, with insufficient supplies of water, oil, and other natural resources, underlying the government's heavy reliance on foreign assistance. Other economic challenges for the government include chronic high rates of poverty, unemployment and underemployment, budget and current account deficits, and government debt.

King ABDALLAH, during the first decade of the 2000s, implemented significant economic reforms, such as expanding foreign trade and privatizing state-owned companies that attracted foreign investment and contributed to average annual economic growth of 8% for 2004 through 2008. The global economic slowdown and regional turmoil contributed to slower growth from 2010 to 2016 - with growth averaging 2.8% per year - and hurt export-oriented sectors, construction, and tourism. Since the onset of the civil war in Syria and resulting refugee crisis, one of Jordan’s most pressing socioeconomic challenges has been managing the influx of 650,000 UN-registered refugees, more than 80% of whom live in Jordan’s urban areas. Jordan’s own official census estimated the refugee number at 1.3 million as of early 2016.

Jordan is nearly completely dependent on imported energy—mostly natural gas—and energy consistently makes up 25-30 percent of Jordan’s imports. To diversify its energy mix, Jordan has secured several contracts for liquefied natural gas and is currently exploring nuclear power generation, exploitation of abundant oil shale reserves and renewable technologies, as well as the import of Israeli offshore gas. In August 2016, Jordan and the IMF agreed to a $723 million Extended Fund Facility that aims to build on the three-year, $2.1 billion IMF program that ended in August 2015 with the goal of helping Jordan correct budgetary and balance of payments imbalances.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$297 billion (2016 est.)
$289 billion (2015 est.)
$281.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$86.19 billion (2016 est.)
$83.89 billion (2015 est.)
$81.93 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.8% (2016 est.)
2.5% (2015 est.)
3.2% (2014 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
2.4% (2015 est.)
3.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$34,800 (2016 est.)
$34,500 (2015 est.)
$34,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$11,100 (2016 est.)
$11,000 (2015 est.)
$11,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 2.1%
industry: 27.3%
services: 69% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 29.6%
services: 66.2% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line22%
note: Israel's poverty line is $7.30 per person per day (2014 est.)
14.2% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 31.3% (2010)
lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 28.7% (2010 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)-0.5% (2016 est.)
-0.6% (2015 est.)
-0.8% (2016 est.)
-0.9% (2015 est.)
Labor force3.927 million (2016 est.)
2.205 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 1.1%
industry: 17.3%
services: 81.6% (2015)
agriculture: 2%
industry: 20%
services: 78% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate5% (2016 est.)
5.3% (2015 est.)
15.8% (2016 est.)
13.1% (2015 est.)
note: official rate; unofficial rate is approximately 30%
Distribution of family income - Gini index42.8 (2013)
39.2 (2008)
39.7 (2007)
36.4 (1997)
Budgetrevenues: $80.75 billion
expenditures: $88.4 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $8.649 billion
expenditures: $11.22 billion (2016 est.)
Industrieshigh-technology products (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics, fiber optics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, pharmaceuticals, construction, metal products, chemical products, plastics, cut diamonds, textiles, footwear
tourism, information technology, clothing, fertilizers, potash, phosphate mining, pharmaceuticals, petroleum refining, cement, inorganic chemicals, light manufacturing
Industrial production growth rate2.6% (2016 est.)
1.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscitrus, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products
citrus, tomatoes, cucumbers, olives, strawberries, stone fruits; sheep, poultry, dairy
Exports$51.61 billion (2016 est.)
$56.29 billion (2015 est.)
$7.124 billion (2016 est.)
$7.829 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, software, cut diamonds, agricultural products, chemicals, textiles and apparel
textiles, fertilizers, potash, phosphates, vegetables, pharmaceuticals
Exports - partnersUS 27.5%, Hong Kong 8%, UK 6.1%, China 4.9% (2015)
US 21%, Saudi Arabia 16.5%, Iraq 10.3%, India 8.7%, UAE 4.8%, Kuwait 4.4% (2015)
Imports$57.9 billion (2016 est.)
$59.49 billion (2015 est.)
$17.86 billion (2016 est.)
$18.04 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesraw materials, military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, fuels, grain, consumer goods
crude oil, refined petroleum products, machinery, transport equipment, iron, cereals
Imports - partnersUS 13%, China 9.3%, Switzerland 7.1%, Germany 6.1%, Belgium 5.3%, Italy 4% (2015)
Saudi Arabia 15.4%, China 12.8%, US 6.2%, Germany 4.7%, UAE 4.2% (2015)
Debt - external$91.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$89.36 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$13.32 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$13.24 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesnew Israeli shekels (ILS) per US dollar -
3.871 (2016 est.)
3.8869 (2015 est.)
3.8869 (2014 est.)
3.5779 (2013 est.)
3.86 (2012 est.)
Jordanian dinars (JOD) per US dollar -
0.71 (2016 est.)
0.71 (2015 est.)
0.71 (2014 est.)
0.71 (2013 est.)
0.709 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt63.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
63.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
90.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
85.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover central government debt, and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$97.22 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$90.58 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$15.18 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$16.57 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$11.56 billion (2016 est.)
$13.02 billion (2015 est.)
-$3.65 billion (2016 est.)
-$3.418 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$311.7 billion (2016 est.)
$39.45 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$113.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$104.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$31.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$29.96 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$95.74 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$89.39 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$629.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$609.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$243.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$200.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$203.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$24.25 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$25.45 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$25.55 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate0.1% (15 December 2015)
0.25% (31 December 2014)
3.75% (31 December 2015)
0.3% (31 December 2010)
Commercial bank prime lending rate3.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
3.46% (31 December 2015 est.)
8% (31 December 2016 est.)
8.24% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$233.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$211.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$41.95 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$39.57 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$73.05 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$63.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$14.68 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$13.92 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$246 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$155.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$46.78 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$44.52 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues25.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-6.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 10.6%
male: 10.1%
female: 11.1% (2014 est.)
total: 29.3%
male: 25.2%
female: 48.8% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 55.6%
government consumption: 22.2%
investment in fixed capital: 19.1%
investment in inventories: 1%
exports of goods and services: 29.1%
imports of goods and services: -27% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 81.1%
government consumption: 19.8%
investment in fixed capital: 22.6%
investment in inventories: 3.1%
exports of goods and services: 32.7%
imports of goods and services: -59.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving22.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
10.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
10.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
14.4% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

IsraelJordan
Electricity - production57 billion kWh (2014 est.)
17 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption59.83 billion kWh (2014 est.)
16 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports4.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
64 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
400 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production390 bbl/day (2015 est.)
22 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports285,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
62,220 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves13.95 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
1 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves199 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
6.031 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production7.9 billion cu m (2014 est.)
199 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption7.98 billion cu m (2014 est.)
499 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports2.605 billion cu m (2011 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports80 million cu m (2014 est.)
300 million cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity16.25 million kW (2014 est.)
4.2 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels97.4% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
99.6% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
0.3% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources2.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
0.1% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production309,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
67,760 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption224,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
146,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports144,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports68,920 bbl/day (2015 est.)
70,890 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy62.5 million Mt (2014 est.)
19 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
population without electricity: 40,926
electrification - total population: 99.5%
electrification - urban areas: 99%
electrification - rural areas: 99.4% (2012)

Telecommunications

IsraelJordan
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 3.412 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 368,938
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 10.57 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 131 (July 2015 est.)
total: 13.798 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 170 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: most highly developed system in the Middle East
domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital; competition among both fixed-line and mobile cellular providers results in good coverage countrywide
international: country code - 972; submarine cables provide links to Europe, Cyprus, and parts of the Middle East; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: service has improved recently with increased use of digital switching equipment; microwave radio relay transmission and coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; growing mobile-cellular usage in both urban and rural areas is reducing use of fixed-line services
domestic: 1995 telecommunications law opened all non-fixed-line services to private competition; in 2005, monopoly over fixed-line services terminated and the entire telecommunications sector was opened to competition; currently multiple mobile-cellular providers with subscribership up to 170 per 100 persons
international: country code - 962; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) FEA and FLAG Falcon submarine cable networks; satellite earth stations - 33 (3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals); fiber-optic cable to Saudi Arabia and microwave radio relay link with Egypt and Syria; participant in Medarabtel (2015)
Internet country code.il
.jo
Internet userstotal: 6.35 million
percent of population: 78.9% (July 2015 est.)
total: 4.335 million
percent of population: 53.4% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate broadcasting network, operated by the Israel Broadcasting Authority (IBA), broadcasts on 2 channels, one in Hebrew and the other in Arabic; 5 commercial channels including a channel broadcasting in Russian, a channel broadcasting Knesset proceedings, and a music channel supervised by a public body; multi-channel satellite and cable TV packages provide access to foreign channels; IBA broadcasts on 8 radio networks with multiple repeaters and Israel Defense Forces Radio broadcasts over multiple stations; about 15 privately owned radio stations; overall more than 100 stations and repeater stations (2008)
radio and TV dominated by the government-owned Jordan Radio and Television Corporation (JRTV) that operates a main network, a sports network, a film network, and a satellite channel; first independent TV broadcaster aired in 2007; international satellite TV and Israeli and Syrian TV broadcasts are available; roughly 30 radio stations with JRTV operating the main government-owned station; transmissions of multiple international radio broadcasters are available (2007)

Transportation

IsraelJordan
Railwaystotal: 1,250 km
standard gauge: 1,250 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
total: 509 km
narrow gauge: 509 km 1.050-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 18,566 km
paved: 18,566 km (includes 449 km of expressways) (2011)
total: 7,203 km
paved: 7,203 km (2011)
Pipelinesgas 763 km; oil 442 km; refined products 261 km (2013)
gas 473 km; oil 49 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Ashdod, Elat (Eilat), Hadera, Haifa
container port(s) (TEUs): Ashdod (1,176,000), Haifa (1,238,000)
major seaport(s): Al 'Aqabah
Merchant marinetotal: 8
by type: cargo 1, container 7
registered in other countries: 48 (Bermuda 3, Georgia 1, Honduras 1, Liberia 34, Malta 3, Moldova 2, Panama 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3) (2010)
total: 12
by type: cargo 4, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 2 (UAE 2)
registered in other countries: 16 (Bahamas 2, Egypt 2, Indonesia 1, Panama 11) (2010)
Airports47 (2013)
18 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 29
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 18
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
total: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports3 (2013)
1 (2012)

Military

IsraelJordan
Military branchesIsrael Defense Forces (IDF), Israel Naval Force (IN), Israel Air Force (IAF) (2010)
Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF): Royal Jordanian Land Force (RJLF), Royal Jordanian Navy, Royal Jordanian Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Malakiya al-Urduniya, RJAF), Special Operations Command (Socom); Public Security Directorate (normally falls under Ministry of Interior, but comes under JAF in wartime or crisis) (2013)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for compulsory (Jews, Druze) military service; 17 years of age for voluntary (Christians, Muslims, Circassians) military service; both sexes are obligated to military service; conscript service obligation - 32 months for enlisted men and 24 months for enlisted women (varies based on military occupation), 48 months for officers; pilots commit to 9 years service; reserve obligation to age 41-51 (men), age 24 (women) (2015)
17 years of age for voluntary male military service; initial service term 2 years, with option to reenlist for 18 years; conscription at age 18 suspended in 1999; women are not conscripted, but can volunteer to serve in noncombat military positions in the Royal Jordanian Arab Army Women's Corps and RJAF (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP5.38% of GDP (2015)
5.86% of GDP (2014)
5.75% of GDP (2013)
5.72% of GDP (2012)
5.88% of GDP (2011)
4.31% of GDP (2015)
4.33% of GDP (2014)
4.3% of GDP (2013)
4.76% of GDP (2012)
5.53% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

IsraelJordan
Disputes - international"West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Israel continues construction of a ""seam line"" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the West Bank; Israel withdrew its settlers and military from the Gaza Strip and from four settlements in the West Bank in August 2005; Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied (Lebanon claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights); since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization headquartered in Jerusalem monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, and assist other UN personnel in the region
"
2004 Agreement settles border dispute with Syria pending demarcation
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 27,812 (Eritrea) (2016)
stateless persons: 42 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 2,144,233 (Palestinian refugees) (2016); 661,114 (Syria); 62,658 (Iraq) (2017)

Source: CIA Factbook