Home

Israel vs. Egypt

Introduction

IsraelEgypt
Background"Following World War II, Britain withdrew from its mandate of Palestine, and the UN proposed partitioning the area into Arab and Jewish states, an arrangement rejected by the Arabs. Nonetheless, an Israeli state was declared in 1948, and Israel subsequently defeated the Arab armies in a series of wars that did not end deep tensions between the two sides. (The territories Israel has occupied since the 1967 war are not included in the Israel country profile, unless otherwise noted.) On 25 April 1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula pursuant to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. In keeping with the framework established at the Madrid Conference in October 1991, Israel conducted bilateral negotiations with Palestinian representatives and Syria to achieve a permanent settlement with each. Israel and Palestinian officials on 13 September 1993 signed a Declaration of Principles (also known as the ""Oslo Accords""), enshrining the idea of a two-state solution to their conflict and guiding an interim period of Palestinian self-rule. The parties achieved six additional significant interim agreements between 1994 and 1999 aimed at creating the conditions for a two-state solution, but most were never fully realized. Outstanding territorial and other disputes with Jordan were resolved in the 26 October 1994 Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty.
Progress toward a final status agreement with the Palestinians was undermined by Israeli-Palestinian violence between 2001 and February 2005. Israel in 2005 unilaterally disengaged from the Gaza Strip, evacuating settlers and its military while retaining control over most points of entry into the Gaza Strip. The election of HAMAS to head the Palestinian Legislative Council in 2006 temporarily froze relations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (PA). Israel engaged in a 34-day conflict with Hizballah in Lebanon from July-August 2006 and a 23-day conflict with HAMAS in the Gaza Strip from December 2008-January 2009. In November 2012, Israel engaged in a seven-day conflict with HAMAS in the Gaza Strip. Direct talks with the Palestinians most recently launched in July 2013 but were suspended in April 2014. The talks represented the fourth concerted effort to resolve final status issues between the sides since they were first discussed at Camp David in 2000. Three months later HAMAS and other militant groups launched rockets into Israel, which led to a 51-day conflict between Israel and militants in Gaza.
"
The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Completion of the Suez Canal in 1869 elevated Egypt as an important world transportation hub. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty from Britain in 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt's population through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.
Inspired by the 2010 Tunisian revolution, Egyptian opposition groups led demonstrations and labor strikes countrywide, culminating in President Hosni MUBARAK's ouster in 2011. Egypt's military assumed national leadership until a new parliament was in place in early 2012; later that same year, Mohammed MORSI won the presidential election. Following often violent protests throughout the spring of 2013 against MORSI's government and the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian Armed Forces intervened and removed MORSI from power in July 2013 and replaced him with interim president Adly MANSOUR. In January 2014, voters approved a new constitution by referendum and in May 2014 elected Abdelfattah ELSISI president. Egypt elected a new legislature in December 2015, the first parliament since 2012.

Geography

IsraelEgypt
LocationMiddle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula
Geographic coordinates31 30 N, 34 45 E
27 00 N, 30 00 E
Map referencesMiddle East
Africa
Areatotal: 20,770 sq km
land: 20,330 sq km
water: 440 sq km
total: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than New Jersey
more than eight times the size of Ohio; slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundariestotal: 1,068 km
border countries (6): Egypt 208 km, Gaza Strip 59 km, Jordan 307 km, Lebanon 81 km, Syria 83 km, West Bank 330 km
total: 2,612 km
border countries (4): Gaza Strip 13 km, Israel 208 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,276 km
Coastline273 km
2,450 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or the equidistant median line with Cyprus
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climatetemperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas
desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
TerrainNegev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift Valley
vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 508 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
highest point: Har Meron 1,208 m
mean elevation: 321 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m
Natural resourcestimber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc
Land useagricultural land: 23.8%
arable land 13.7%; permanent crops 3.8%; permanent pasture 6.3%
forest: 7.1%
other: 69.1% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 3.6%
arable land 2.8%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 0%
forest: 0.1%
other: 96.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land2,250 sq km (2012)
36,500 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardssandstorms may occur during spring and summer; droughts; periodic earthquakes
periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving windstorms called khamsin occur in spring; dust storms; sandstorms
Environment - current issueslimited arable land and natural freshwater resources pose serious constraints; desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides
agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; limited natural freshwater resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteLake Tiberias (Sea of Galilee) is an important freshwater source; the Dead Sea is the second saltiest body of water in the world (after Lake Assal in Djibouti); in 2014, there were 423 settlements in the Israeli-occupied territories - 42 settlements in the Golan Heights, 381 sites in the occupied Palestinian territories to include 212 settlements and 134 outposts in the West Bank, and 35 settlements in East Jerusalem; there are no Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip because all were evacuated in 2005 (2014 est.)
controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees from Sudan and the Palestinian territories
Population distributionpopulation concentrated in and around Tel-Aviv, as well as around the Sea of Galilee; the south remains sparsely populated with the exception of the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba
approximately 95% of the population lives within 20 km of the Nile River and its delta; vast areas of the country remain sparsely populated or uninhabited

Demographics

IsraelEgypt
Population8,174,527 (includes populations of the Golan Heights of Golan Sub-District and also East Jerusalem, which was annexed by Israel after 1967) (July 2016 est.)
note: approximately 21,000 Israeli settlers live in the Golan Heights (2015); approximately 201,000 Israeli settlers live in East Jerusalem (2014)
94,666,993 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 27.73% (male 1,159,980/female 1,106,946)
15-24 years: 15.52% (male 648,199/female 620,218)
25-54 years: 37.15% (male 1,552,754/female 1,484,059)
55-64 years: 8.51% (male 340,601/female 355,382)
65 years and over: 11.09% (male 405,511/female 500,877) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 33.21% (male 16,268,862/female 15,169,039)
15-24 years: 19.24% (male 9,371,819/female 8,839,999)
25-54 years: 37.47% (male 18,020,332/female 17,448,871)
55-64 years: 5.91% (male 2,771,399/female 2,826,094)
65 years and over: 4.17% (male 1,937,119/female 2,013,459) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 29.7 years
male: 29.1 years
female: 30.4 years (2016 est.)
total: 23.8 years
male: 23.5 years
female: 24.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.53% (2016 est.)
2.51% (2016 est.)
Birth rate18.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
30.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate5.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
4.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 19.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 82.4 years
male: 80.6 years
female: 84.4 years (2016 est.)
total population: 72.7 years
male: 71.4 years
female: 74.2 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.66 children born/woman (2016 est.)
3.53 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
0.02% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Israeli(s)
adjective: Israeli
noun: Egyptian(s)
adjective: Egyptian
Ethnic groupsJewish 74.8% (of which Israel-born 75.6%, Europe/America/Oceania-born 16.6%, Africa-born 4.9%, Asia-born 2.9%), non-Jewish 25.2% (mostly Arab) (2015 est.)
Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4% (2006 census)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
11,500 (2015 est.)
ReligionsJewish 74.8%, Muslim 17.6%, Christian 2%, Druze 1.6%, other 4% (2015 est.)
Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 90%, Christian (majority Coptic Orthodox, other Christians include Armenian Apostolic, Catholic, Maronite, Orthodox, and Anglican) 10% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
300 (2015 est.)
LanguagesHebrew (official), Arabic (used officially for Arab minority), English (most commonly used foreign language)
Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.8%
male: 98.7%
female: 96.8% (2011 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73.8%
male: 82.2%
female: 65.4% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 16 years (2014)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)
Education expenditures5.9% of GDP (2013)
3.8% of GDP (2008)
Urbanizationurban population: 92.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.37% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 43.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.68% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 96.8% of population
rural: 93.1% of population
total: 94.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 6.9% of population
total: 5.3% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationTel Aviv-Yafo 3.608 million; Haifa 1.097 million; JERUSALEM (proclaimed capital) 839,000 (2015)
CAIRO (capital) 18.772 million; Alexandria 4.778 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate5 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
33 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures7.8% of GDP (2014)
5.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3.62 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
0.81 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density3.3 beds/1,000 population (2012)
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate25.8% (2014)
27.7% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth27.3 years (2011 est.)
22.7 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 64.1
youth dependency ratio: 45.7
elderly dependency ratio: 18.4
potential support ratio: 5.4 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 62.3
youth dependency ratio: 53.8
elderly dependency ratio: 8.5
potential support ratio: 11.8 (2015 est.)

Government

IsraelEgypt
Country name"conventional long form: State of Israel
conventional short form: Israel
local long form: Medinat Yisra'el
local short form: Yisra'el
etymology: named after the ancient Kingdom of Israel; according to Biblical tradition, the Jewish patriarch Jacob received the name ""Israel"" (""He who struggles with God"") after he wrestled an entire night with an angel of the Lord; Jacob's 12 sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel, who formed the Kingdom of Israel
"
"conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: Misr
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)
etymology: the English name ""Egypt"" derives from the ancient Greek name for the country ""Aigyptos""; the Arabic name ""Misr"" can be traced to the ancient Akkadian ""misru"" meaning border or frontier
"
Government typeparliamentary democracy
presidential republic
Capitalname: Jerusalem: note - while Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital in 1950, the international community does not recognize it as such; the US, like all other countries, maintains its embassy in Tel Aviv-Yafo
geographic coordinates: 31 46 N, 35 14 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, Friday before the last Sunday in March; ends the last Sunday in October
name: Cairo
geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv
27 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazat); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur (Luxor), Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina' (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina' (North Sinai), Suhaj
Independence14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
28 February 1922 (from UK protectorate status; the revolution that began on 23 July 1952 led to a republic being declared on 18 June 1953 and all British troops withdrawn on 18 June 1956); note - it was ca. 3200 B.C. that the Two Lands of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt were first united politically
National holidayIndependence Day, 14 May (1948); note - Israel declared independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday may occur in April or May
Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)
Constitutionhistory: no formal constitution; some functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the Basic Laws, and the Law of Return (as amended)
amendments: proposed by Government of Israel ministers or by the Knesset; passage requires a majority vote of Knesset members and subject to Supreme Court judicial review; 11 of the 13 Basic Laws have been amended at least once, latest in 2014 (2016)
history: several previous; latest approved by a constitutional committee in December 2013, approved by referendum held on 14-15 January 2014, ratified by interim president on 19 January 2014
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by one-fifth of the House of Representatives members; a decision to accept the proposal requires majority vote by House members; passage of amendment requires a two-thirds majority vote by House members and passage by majority vote in a referendum; articles of reelection of the president and principles of freedom normally not amendable (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religious laws
mixed legal system based on Napoleonic civil and penal law, Islamic religious law, and vestiges of colonial-era laws; judicial review of the constitutionality of laws by the Supreme Constitutional Court
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branchchief of state: President Reuven RIVLIN (since 27 July 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Binyamin NETANYAHU (since 31 March 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by prime minister and approved by the Knesset
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Knesset for a 7-year term (limited to 1 term); election last held on 10 June 2014 (next to be held in 2021 but can be called earlier); following legislative elections, the president, in consultation with party leaders, tasks a Knesset member (usually the member of the largest party) with forming a government
election results: Reuven RIVLIN elected president in second round; Knesset vote - Reuven RIVLIN (Likud) 63, Meir SHEETRIT (The Movement) 53 , other/invalid 4
Chief of state: President Abdelfattah Said ELSISI (since 8 June 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Sherif ISMAIL (since 12 September 2015); note - Prime Minister Ibrahim MEHLAB resigned 12 September 2015
cabinet: Cabinet sworn in 19 September 2015
elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26-28 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2018); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the House of Representatives
election results: Abdelfattah Said ELSISI elected president; percent of vote in 1 round - Abdelfattah Said ELSISI (independent) 96.6%, Hamdeen SABAHI (Egyptian Current Party) 3.4%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Knesset (120 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 17 March 2015 (next to be held in 2019 but can be called earlier)
election results: percent of vote by party - Likud 23.4%, Zionist Camp 18.7%, Joint List 10.6%, Yesh Atid 8.8%, Kulanu 7.5%, The Jewish Home 6.7%, Shas, 5.7%, Yisrael Beitenu 5.1%, UTJ 5.0%, Meretz 3.9%, Yachad 3.0%, other 1.6%; seats by party - Likud 30, Zionist Camp 24, Joint List 13, Yesh Atid 11, Kulanu 10, The Jewish Home 8, Shas 7, Yisrael Beitenu 6, UTJ 6, Meretz 5
description: unicameral House of Representatives (Majlis Al-Nowaab); 596 seats; 448 members directly elected by individual candidacy system, 120 members - with quotas for women, youth, Christians and workers - elected in party-list constituencies by simple majority popular vote, and 28 members selected by the president; member term 5 years; note - inaugural session held on 10 January 2016
elections: multi-phase election completed on 16 December 2015 (next election 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -– Free Egyptians Party 65, Nation’s Future Party 53, New Wafd Party 36, Homeland’s Protector Party 18, Republican People’s Party 13, Congress Party 12, al-Nour Party 11, Conservative Party 6, Democratic Peace Party 5, Egyptian Social Democratic Party 4, Egyptian National Movement 4, Modern Egypt Party 4, Reform and Development Party 3, Freedom Party 3, My Homeland Egypt Party 3, National Progressive Unionist Party 2, Arab Democratic Nasserist Party 1, Revolutionary Guards Party 1, Free Egyptian Building Party 1, independent 351
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 14 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges selected by the Judicial Selection Committee consisting of 3 Supreme Court judges, 2 Cabinet members including the Minister of Justice as chairman, 2 Knesset members, and 2 representatives from the Israel Bar Association; judges can serve up to mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: district and magistrate courts; national and regional labor courts; special and religious courts
"highest court(s): Supreme Constitutional Court or SCC (consists of the court president and 10 justices); the SCC serves as the final court of arbitrator on the constitutionality of laws and conflicts between lower courts regarding jurisdiction and rulings; Court of Cassation (CC) (consists of the court president and 550 judges organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the CC is the highest appeals body for civil and criminal cases, also known as “ordinary justices""; Supreme Administrative Court (SAC) - consists of the court president and organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); the SAC is the highest court of the State Council
judge selection and term of office: under the 2014 constitution, all judges and justices selected by the Supreme Judiciary Council and appointed by the president of the Republic; judges appointed for life
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; courts of limited jurisdiction; Family Court (established in 2004)
"
Political parties and leaders"Balad [Jamal ZAHALKA]
Democratic Front for Peace and Equality (HADASH) [ODEH]
Kulanu [Moshe KAHLON]
Labor [Yitzhak HERZOG]
Likud [Binyamin NETANYAHU]
Meretz [Zehava GALON]
SHAS [Arye DERI]
Tekumah/National Union (Ichud Leumi) [Uri ARIEL]
The Jewish Home (Habayit Hayehudi) [Naftali BENNETT]
The Movement (Hatnuah) [Tzipora ""Tzipi"" LIVNI]
United Arab List-Ta'al [Masud GANAIM]
United Torah Judaism or UTJ [Yaakov LITZMAN] (an alliance of three parties)
Yesh Atid [Yair LAPID]
Yisrael Beiteinu [Avigdor LIEBERMAN]
"
officially recognized: Al-Nour [Yunis MAKHYUN]
Arab Democratic Nasserist Party [Sameh ASHOUR]
Congress Party [Omar Mokhtar SEMEIDA]
Conservative Party [Akmal KOURTAM]
Democratic Peace Party [Ahmed FADALY]
Egyptian National Movement Party [Ibrahim DARWISH]
Egyptian Social Democratic Party [Mervat TALAWAY]
El Tagamu'u Party (National Progressibve Unionist [Sayed Abdel AAL]
Freedom Party [Mamdouh HASSAN]
Free Egyptian Building Party
Free Egyptians Party [Essam KHALIL]
Homeland’s Protector Party [Lt. Gen. (retired) Galal AL-HARIDI]
Modern Egypt Party [Nabil DEIBIS]
Mostaqbal Watan (Nation’s Future) Party [Mohamed Ashraf RASHAD]
My Homeland Egypt Party [Qadry ABU HUSSEIN]
National Progressive Unionist (Tagammu) Party [Sayed Abdel AAL]
Nation's Future Party [Ashraf RASHAD, secretary general]
New Wafd Party [Sayed al-BADAWI]
Reform and Development Party [Mohamad Anwar al-SADAT]
Republican People’s Party [Hazim AMR]
Revolutionary Guards Party [Magdy EL-SHARIF]
Political pressure groups and leadersBreaking the Silence [Yehuda SHAUL, executive director] collects testimonies from soldiers who served in the West Bank and Gaza Strip
B'Tselem [Hagai EL-AD, executive director] monitors human rights abuses
Peace Now [Yariv OPPENHEIMER, secretary general] supports territorial concessions in the West Bank and Gaza Strip
YESHA Council [Avi ROEHD, chairman] promotes settler interests and opposes territorial compromise
NA
International organization participationBIS, BSEC (observer), CE (observer), CERN, CICA, EBRD, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW (signatory), OSCE (partner), Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CD, CICA, COMESA, D-8, EBRD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Ron DERMER (since 3 December 2013)
chancery: 3514 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 364-5500
FAX: [1] (202) 364-5607
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador Yasser REDA (since 19 September 2015)
chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 244-5131
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador David FRIEDMAN (since 23 May 2017)
embassy: 71 HaYarkon Street, Tel Aviv 6343229
telephone: [972] (3) 519-7475
FAX: [972] (3) 516-4390
consular agent: Haifa
chief of mission: Ambassador R. Stephen BEECROFT (since 18 December 2014)
embassy: 5 Tawfik Diab St., Garden City, Cairo
mailing address: Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900; 5 Tawfik Diab Street, Garden City, Cairo
telephone: [20] (2) 2797-3300
FAX: [20] (2) 2797-3200
Flag descriptionwhite with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the Magen David (Star of David or Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag; the basic design resembles a traditional Jewish prayer shawl (tallit), which is white with blue stripes; the hexagram as a Jewish symbol dates back to medieval times
note: the Israeli flag proclamation states that the flag colors are sky blue and white, but the exact shade of blue has never been set and can vary from a light to a dark blue
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white)
note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band, and Yemen, which has a plain white band
National anthem"name: ""Hatikvah"" (The Hope)
lyrics/music: Naftali Herz IMBER/traditional, arranged by Samuel COHEN
note: adopted 2004, unofficial since 1948; used as the anthem of the Zionist movement since 1897; the 1888 arrangement by Samuel COHEN is thought to be based on the Romanian folk song ""Carul cu boi"" (The Ox Driven Cart)
"
"name: ""Bilady, Bilady, Bilady"" (My Homeland, My Homeland, My Homeland)
lyrics/music: Younis-al QADI/Sayed DARWISH
note: adopted 1979; the current anthem, less militaristic than the previous one, was created after the signing of the 1979 peace treaty with Israel; Sayed DARWISH, commonly considered the father of modern Egyptian music, composed the anthem
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; withdrew acceptance of International Criminal Court jurisdiction in 2002
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)Star of David (Magen David), menorah (seven-branched lampstand); national colors: blue, white
golden eagle, white lotus; national colors: red, white, black
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Israel
dual citizenship recognized: yes, but naturalized citizens are not allowed to maintain dual citizenship
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 out of the 5 years preceding the application for naturalization
note: Israeli law (Law of Return, 5 July 1950) provides for the granting of citizenship to any Jew - defined as a person being born to a Jewish mother or having converted to Judaism while renouncing any other religion - who immigrates to and expresses a desire to settle in Israel on the basis of the Right of aliyah; the 1970 amendment of this act extended the right to family members including the spouse of a Jew, any child or grandchild, and the spouses of children and grandchildren
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: if the father was born in Egypt
dual citizenship recognized: only with prior permission from the government
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

IsraelEgypt
Economy - overview"Israel has a technologically advanced free market economy. Cut diamonds, high-technology equipment, and pharmaceuticals are among its leading exports. Its major imports include crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Israel usually posts sizable trade deficits, which are offset by tourism and other service exports, as well as significant foreign investment inflows.

Between 2004 and 2013, growth averaged nearly 5% per year, led by exports. The global financial crisis of 2008-09 spurred a brief recession in Israel, but the country entered the crisis with solid fundamentals, following years of prudent fiscal policy and a resilient banking sector. Israel's economy also weathered the 2011 Arab Spring because strong trade ties outside the Middle East have insulated the economy from spillover effects.

Slowing domestic and international demand and decreased investment resulting from Israel’s uncertain security situation reduced GDP growth to an average of roughly 2.6% per year during 2014-16. Natural gas fields discovered off Israel's coast since 2009 have brightened Israel's energy security outlook. The Tamar and Leviathan fields were some of the world's largest offshore natural gas finds in the last decade. Political and regulatory issues have delayed the development of the massive Leviathan field, but production from Tamar provided a 0.8% boost to Israel's GDP in 2013 and a 0.3% boost in 2014. One of the most carbon intense OECD countries, Israel generates about 57% of its power from coal and only 2.6% from renewable sources.

Income inequality and high housing and commodity prices continue to be a concern for many Israelis. Israel's income inequality and poverty rates are among the highest of OECD countries, and there is a broad perception among the public that a small number of ""tycoons"" have a cartel-like grip over the major parts of the economy. Government officials have called for reforms to boost the housing supply and to increase competition in the banking sector to address these public grievances. Despite calls for reforms, the restricted housing supply continues to impact the well-being of younger Israelis seeking to purchase homes. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers, coupled with guaranteed prices and customs tariffs for farmers kept food prices high in 2016. Private consumption is expected to drive growth through 2017 with consumers benefitting from low inflation and a strong currency.

In the long term, Israel faces structural issues, including low labor participation rates for its fastest growing social segments - the ultraorthodox and Arab-Israeli communities. Also, Israel's progressive, globally competitive, knowledge-based technology sector employs only about 8% of the workforce, with the rest mostly employed in manufacturing and services - sectors which face downward wage pressures from global competition. Expenditures on educational institutions remain low compared to most other OECD countries with similar GDP per capita.
"
Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. Egypt's economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel NASSER but opened up considerably under former Presidents Anwar EL-SADAT and Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK.

Cairo from 2004 to 2008 pursued business climate reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate growth. Poor living conditions and limited job opportunities for the average Egyptian contribute to public discontent, a major factor leading to the January 2011 revolution that ousted MUBARAK. The uncertain political, security, and policy environment since 2011 caused economic growth to slow significantly, hurting tourism, manufacturing, and other sectors and pushing up unemployment, which remains above 10%.

Weak growth and limited foreign exchange earnings have made public finances unsustainable, leaving authorities dependent on expensive borrowing for deficit finance and on Gulf allies to help cover the import bill. In 2015-16, higher levels of foreign investment contributed to a slight rebound in GDP growth after a particularly depressed post-revolution period. In 2016, Cairo enacted a value-added tax, implemented fuel and electricity subsidy cuts, and floated its currency, which led to a sharp depreciation of the pound and corresponding inflation. In November 2016, the IMF approved a $12 billion, three-year loan for Egypt and disbursed the first $2.75 billion tranche.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$297 billion (2016 est.)
$289 billion (2015 est.)
$281.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1.105 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.064 trillion (2015 est.)
$1.021 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.8% (2016 est.)
2.5% (2015 est.)
3.2% (2014 est.)
3.8% (2016 est.)
4.2% (2015 est.)
2.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$34,800 (2016 est.)
$34,500 (2015 est.)
$34,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$12,100 (2016 est.)
$12,000 (2015 est.)
$11,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 2.1%
industry: 27.3%
services: 69% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 11.3%
industry: 35.8%
services: 52.9% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line22%
note: Israel's poverty line is $7.30 per person per day (2014 est.)
25.2% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 31.3% (2010)
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.6% (2008)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)-0.5% (2016 est.)
-0.6% (2015 est.)
12.1% (2016 est.)
10.4% (2015 est.)
Labor force3.927 million (2016 est.)
31.96 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 1.1%
industry: 17.3%
services: 81.6% (2015)
agriculture: 29.2%
industry: 23.5%
services: 47.3% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate5% (2016 est.)
5.3% (2015 est.)
13.1% (2016 est.)
12.8% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index42.8 (2013)
39.2 (2008)
30.8 (2008)
32.1 (2005)
Budgetrevenues: $80.75 billion
expenditures: $88.4 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $60.09 billion
expenditures: $92.37 billion (2016 est.)
Industrieshigh-technology products (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics, fiber optics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, pharmaceuticals, construction, metal products, chemical products, plastics, cut diamonds, textiles, footwear
textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures
Industrial production growth rate2.6% (2016 est.)
0.6% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscitrus, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products
cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats
Exports$51.61 billion (2016 est.)
$56.29 billion (2015 est.)
$14.73 billion (2016 est.)
$19.03 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, software, cut diamonds, agricultural products, chemicals, textiles and apparel
crude oil and petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food
Exports - partnersUS 27.5%, Hong Kong 8%, UK 6.1%, China 4.9% (2015)
Saudi Arabia 9.1%, Italy 7.5%, Turkey 5.8%, UAE 5.1%, US 5.1%, UK 4.4%, India 4.1% (2015)
Imports$57.9 billion (2016 est.)
$59.49 billion (2015 est.)
$50.07 billion (2016 est.)
$57.17 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesraw materials, military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, fuels, grain, consumer goods
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels
Imports - partnersUS 13%, China 9.3%, Switzerland 7.1%, Germany 6.1%, Belgium 5.3%, Italy 4% (2015)
China 13%, Germany 7.7%, US 5.9%, Turkey 4.5%, Russia 4.4%, Italy 4.4%, Saudi Arabia 4.1% (2015)
Debt - external$91.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$89.36 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$50.67 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$44.61 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesnew Israeli shekels (ILS) per US dollar -
3.871 (2016 est.)
3.8869 (2015 est.)
3.8869 (2014 est.)
3.5779 (2013 est.)
3.86 (2012 est.)
Egyptian pounds (EGP) per US dollar -
9.71 (2016 est.)
7.7133 (2015 est.)
7.7133 (2014 est.)
7.08 (2013 est.)
6.06 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
1 July - 30 June
Public debt63.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
63.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
92.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
90.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover central government debt and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$97.22 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$90.58 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$15.06 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.49 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$11.56 billion (2016 est.)
$13.02 billion (2015 est.)
-$18.66 billion (2016 est.)
-$12.18 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$311.7 billion (2016 est.)
$342.8 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$113.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$104.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$94.51 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$89.65 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$95.74 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$89.39 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$8.042 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.362 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$243.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$200.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$203.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$55.19 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$70.08 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$61.63 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate0.1% (15 December 2015)
0.25% (31 December 2014)
9.75% (30 October 2014)
8.75% (5 December 2013)
Commercial bank prime lending rate3.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
3.46% (31 December 2015 est.)
12.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.63% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$233.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$211.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$260.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$297.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$73.05 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$63.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$55.96 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$66.49 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$246 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$155.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$210.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$243.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues25.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-9.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 10.6%
male: 10.1%
female: 11.1% (2014 est.)
total: 34.3%
male: 28.7%
female: 52.2% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 55.6%
government consumption: 22.2%
investment in fixed capital: 19.1%
investment in inventories: 1%
exports of goods and services: 29.1%
imports of goods and services: -27% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 84.4%
government consumption: 12%
investment in fixed capital: 12.1%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 12.7%
imports of goods and services: -21.6% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving22.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
8.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
10.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
13% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

IsraelEgypt
Electricity - production57 billion kWh (2014 est.)
162 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption59.83 billion kWh (2014 est.)
143 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports4.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
500 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
81 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production390 bbl/day (2015 est.)
511,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports285,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
59,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
193,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves13.95 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
4.4 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves199 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
2.186 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production7.9 billion cu m (2014 est.)
48.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption7.98 billion cu m (2014 est.)
48.08 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports2.605 billion cu m (2011 est.)
720 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports80 million cu m (2014 est.)
2.832 billion cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity16.25 million kW (2014 est.)
38 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels97.4% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
87.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
9.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources2.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
2.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production309,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
547,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption224,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
797,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports144,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
45,500 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports68,920 bbl/day (2015 est.)
215,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy62.5 million Mt (2014 est.)
207 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
population without electricity: 300,000
electrification - total population: 99.6%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 99.3% (2013)

Telecommunications

IsraelEgypt
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 3.412 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 6,235,133
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 10.57 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 131 (July 2015 est.)
total: 94.016 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: most highly developed system in the Middle East
domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital; competition among both fixed-line and mobile cellular providers results in good coverage countrywide
international: country code - 972; submarine cables provide links to Europe, Cyprus, and parts of the Middle East; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: Telecom Egypt remains largely state owned; principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
domestic: largest fixed-line system in Africa and the Arab region; multiple mobile-cellular networks with a near 100-percent penetration of the market
international: country code - 20; landing point for Aletar, the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks, Link Around the Globe (FLAG) Falcon and FLAG FEA; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat); tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel (2015)
Internet country code.il
.eg
Internet userstotal: 6.35 million
percent of population: 78.9% (July 2015 est.)
total: 31.767 million
percent of population: 35.9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate broadcasting network, operated by the Israel Broadcasting Authority (IBA), broadcasts on 2 channels, one in Hebrew and the other in Arabic; 5 commercial channels including a channel broadcasting in Russian, a channel broadcasting Knesset proceedings, and a music channel supervised by a public body; multi-channel satellite and cable TV packages provide access to foreign channels; IBA broadcasts on 8 radio networks with multiple repeaters and Israel Defense Forces Radio broadcasts over multiple stations; about 15 privately owned radio stations; overall more than 100 stations and repeater stations (2008)
mix of state-run and private broadcast media; state-run TV operates 2 national and 6 regional terrestrial networks, as well as a few satellite channels; about 20 private satellite channels and a large number of Arabic satellite channels are available via subscription; state-run radio operates about 70 stations belonging to 8 networks; 2 privately owned radio stations operational (2008)

Transportation

IsraelEgypt
Railwaystotal: 1,250 km
standard gauge: 1,250 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
total: 5,085 km
standard gauge: 5,085 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 18,566 km
paved: 18,566 km (includes 449 km of expressways) (2011)
total: 137,430 km
paved: 126,742 km (includes 838 km of expressways)
unpaved: 10,688 km (2010)
Pipelinesgas 763 km; oil 442 km; refined products 261 km (2013)
condensate 486 km; condensate/gas 74 km; gas 7,986 km; liquid petroleum gas 957 km; oil 5,225 km; oil/gas/water 37 km; refined products 895 km; water 65 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Ashdod, Elat (Eilat), Hadera, Haifa
container port(s) (TEUs): Ashdod (1,176,000), Haifa (1,238,000)
major seaport(s): Mediterranean Sea - Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said; Gulf of Suez - Suez
oil terminal(s): Ain Sukhna terminal, Sidi Kerir terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Alexandria (1,108,826), Port Said (East) (2,617,043), Port Said (West) (1,138,753)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Damietta, Idku (Abu Qir Bay)
Merchant marinetotal: 8
by type: cargo 1, container 7
registered in other countries: 48 (Bermuda 3, Georgia 1, Honduras 1, Liberia 34, Malta 3, Moldova 2, Panama 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3) (2010)
total: 67
by type: bulk carrier 16, cargo 20, container 3, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 9
foreign-owned: 13 (Denmark 1, France 1, Greece 8, Jordan 2, Lebanon 1)
registered in other countries: 42 (Cambodia 4, Georgia 7, Honduras 2, Liberia 3, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 5, Panama 11, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Saudi Arabia 1, Sierra Leone 3, unknown 1) (2010)
Airports47 (2013)
83 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 29
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
total: 72
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 18
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
total: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Heliports3 (2013)
7 (2013)

Military

IsraelEgypt
Military branchesIsrael Defense Forces (IDF), Israel Naval Force (IN), Israel Air Force (IAF) (2010)
Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Forces (2015)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for compulsory (Jews, Druze) military service; 17 years of age for voluntary (Christians, Muslims, Circassians) military service; both sexes are obligated to military service; conscript service obligation - 32 months for enlisted men and 24 months for enlisted women (varies based on military occupation), 48 months for officers; pilots commit to 9 years service; reserve obligation to age 41-51 (men), age 24 (women) (2015)
18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation - 18-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation; voluntary enlistment possible from age 15 (2017)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP5.38% of GDP (2015)
5.86% of GDP (2014)
5.75% of GDP (2013)
5.72% of GDP (2012)
5.88% of GDP (2011)
1.73% of GDP (2015)
1.71% of GDP (2014)
1.62% of GDP (2013)
1.67% of GDP (2012)
1.93% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

IsraelEgypt
Disputes - international"West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Israel continues construction of a ""seam line"" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the West Bank; Israel withdrew its settlers and military from the Gaza Strip and from four settlements in the West Bank in August 2005; Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied (Lebanon claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights); since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization headquartered in Jerusalem monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, and assist other UN personnel in the region
"
Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; Egypt no longer shows its administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Sudan on its maps; Gazan breaches in the security wall with Egypt in January 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai border; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir
Illicit drugsincreasingly concerned about ecstasy, cocaine, and heroin abuse; drugs arrive in country from Lebanon and, increasingly, from Jordan; money-laundering center
transit point for cannabis, heroin, and opium moving to Europe, Israel, and North Africa; transit stop for Nigerian drug couriers; concern as money laundering site due to lax enforcement of financial regulations
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 27,812 (Eritrea) (2016)
stateless persons: 42 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 70,027 (West Bank and Gaza Strip); 6,835 (Somalia) (2016); 15,053 (Sudan); 122,228 (Syria) (2017)
IDPs: 78,000 (2016)
stateless persons: 19 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook