Home

Iraq vs. Jordan

Introduction

IraqJordan
Background"Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Iraq was occupied by the United Kingdom during the course of World War I; in 1920, it was declared a League of Nations mandate under UK administration. In stages over the next dozen years, Iraq attained its independence as a kingdom in 1932. A ""republic"" was proclaimed in 1958, but in actuality a series of strongmen ruled the country until 2003. The last was SADDAM Husayn from 1979 to 2003. Territorial disputes with Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-88). In August 1990, Iraq seized Kuwait but was expelled by US-led UN coalition forces during the Gulf War of January-February 1991. Following Kuwait's liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Iraq to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. Continued Iraqi noncompliance with UNSC resolutions over a period of 12 years led to the US-led invasion of Iraq in March 2003 and the ouster of the SADDAM Husayn regime. US forces remained in Iraq under a UNSC mandate through 2009 and under a bilateral security agreement thereafter, helping to provide security and to train and mentor Iraqi security forces.
In October 2005, Iraqis approved a constitution in a national referendum and, pursuant to this document, elected a 275-member Council of Representatives (COR) in December 2005. The COR approved most cabinet ministers in May 2006, marking the transition to Iraq's first constitutional government in nearly a half century. Nearly nine years after the start of the Second Gulf War in Iraq, US military operations there ended in mid-December 2011. In January 2009 and April 2013, Iraq held elections for provincial councils in all governorates except for the three comprising the Kurdistan Regional Government and Kirkuk Governorate. Iraq held a national legislative election in March 2010 - choosing 325 legislators in an expanded COR - and, after nine months of deadlock, the COR approved the new government in December 2010. In April 2014, Iraq held a national legislative election and expanded the COR to 328 legislators. Prime Minister Nuri al-MALIKI dropped his bid for a third term in office, enabling new Prime Minister Haydar al-ABADI, a Shia Muslim from Baghdad, to win legislative approval of his new cabinet in September 2014. Since 2014, Iraq has been engaged in a military campaign against ISIS to recapture territory lost in the western and northern portion of the country.
"
Following World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the League of Nations awarded Britain the mandate to govern much of the Middle East. Britain demarcated a semi-autonomous region of Transjordan from Palestine in the early 1920s. The area gained its independence in 1946 and thereafter became The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The country's long-time ruler, King HUSSEIN (1953-99), successfully navigated competing pressures from the major powers (US, USSR, and UK), various Arab states, Israel, and a large internal Palestinian population. Jordan lost the West Bank to Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War. King HUSSEIN in 1988 permanently relinquished Jordanian claims to the West Bank; in 1994 he signed a peace treaty with Israel. King ABDALLAH II, King HUSSEIN's eldest son, assumed the throne following his father's death in 1999. He has implemented modest political and economic reforms, including the passage of a new electoral law in early 2016 ahead of legislative elections held in September. The Islamic Action Front, which is the political arm of the Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood, returned to parliament with 15 seats after boycotting the previous two elections in 2010 and 2013.

Geography

IraqJordan
LocationMiddle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait
Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia, between Israel (to the west) and Iraq
Geographic coordinates33 00 N, 44 00 E
31 00 N, 36 00 E
Map referencesMiddle East
Middle East
Areatotal: 438,317 sq km
land: 437,367 sq km
water: 950 sq km
total: 89,342 sq km
land: 88,802 sq km
water: 540 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly more than three times the size of New York state
about three-quarters the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundariestotal: 3,809 km
border countries (6): Iran 1,599 km, Jordan 179 km, Kuwait 254 km, Saudi Arabia 811 km, Syria 599 km, Turkey 367 km
total: 1,744 km
border countries (5): Iraq 179 km, Israel 307 km, Saudi Arabia 731 km, Syria 379 km, West Bank 148 km
Coastline58 km
26 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: not specified
territorial sea: 3 nm
Climatemostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq
mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)
Terrainmostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in south with large flooded areas; mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey
mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great Rift Valley separates eastern and western banks of the Jordan River
Elevation extremes"mean elevation: 312 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Cheekha Dar (Kurdish for ""Black Tent"") 3,611 m
"
mean elevation: 812 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
highest point: Jabal Umm ad Dami 1,854 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
phosphates, potash, shale oil
Land useagricultural land: 18.1%
arable land 8.4%; permanent crops 0.5%; permanent pasture 9.2%
forest: 1.9%
other: 80% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 11.4%
arable land 2%; permanent crops 1%; permanent pasture 8.4%
forest: 1.1%
other: 87.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land35,250 sq km (2012)
964 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsdust storms; sandstorms; floods
droughts; periodic earthquakes
Environment - current issuesgovernment water control projects drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Marsh Arabs, who inhabited these areas for thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers system contingent upon agreements with upstream riparian Turkey; air and water pollution; soil degradation (salination) and erosion; desertification
limited natural freshwater resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notestrategic location on Shatt al Arab waterway and at the head of the Persian Gulf
strategic location at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and as the Arab country that shares the longest border with Israel and the occupied West Bank
Population distributionpopulation is concentrated in the north, center, and eastern parts of the country, with many of the larger agglomerations found along extensive parts of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; much of the western and southern areas are either lightly populated or uninhabited
population heavily concentrated in the west, and particularly the northwest, in and around the capital of Amman; a sizeable, but smaller population is located in the southwest along the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba

Demographics

IraqJordan
Population38,146,025 (July 2016 est.)
8,185,384
note: increased estimate reflects revised assumptions about the net migration rate due to the increased flow of Syrian refugees (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 39.88% (male 7,766,832/female 7,445,633)
15-24 years: 19.07% (male 3,703,302/female 3,572,702)
25-54 years: 33.7% (male 6,499,345/female 6,354,506)
55-64 years: 3.96% (male 720,976/female 790,301)
65 years and over: 3.39% (male 574,521/female 717,907) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 35.04% (male 1,470,865/female 1,397,057)
15-24 years: 20.12% (male 842,202/female 804,557)
25-54 years: 36.44% (male 1,491,855/female 1,491,302)
55-64 years: 4.46% (male 177,720/female 187,181)
65 years and over: 3.94% (male 151,071/female 171,574) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 19.9 years
male: 19.6 years
female: 20.2 years (2016 est.)
total: 22.3 years
male: 21.9 years
female: 22.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.87% (2016 est.)
0.83% (2016 est.)
Birth rate30.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
25.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate3.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
3.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-13.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 37.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 40.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 34.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 14.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 15.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 13.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 74.9 years
male: 72.6 years
female: 77.2 years (2016 est.)
total population: 74.6 years
male: 73.2 years
female: 76.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate4.06 children born/woman (2016 est.)
3.18 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
NA
Nationalitynoun: Iraqi(s)
adjective: Iraqi
noun: Jordanian(s)
adjective: Jordanian
Ethnic groupsArab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkmen, Assyrian, Shabak, Yazidi, other 5%
Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
NA
ReligionsMuslim (official) 99% (Shia 55-60%, Sunni 40%), Christian <.1%, Yazidi <.1%, Sabean Mandaean <.1%, Baha'i <.1%, Zoroastrian <.1%, Hindu <0.1%, Buddhist <0.1%, Jewish <0.1%, folk religion <0.1, unafilliated 0.1%, other <0.1%
note: while there has been voluntary relocation of many Christian families to northern Iraq, recent reporting indicates that the overall Christian population may have dropped by as much as 50 percent since the fall of the SADDAM Husayn regime in 2003, with many fleeing to Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon (2010 est.)
Muslim 97.2% (official; predominantly Sunni), Christian 2.2% (majority Greek Orthodox, but some Greek and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant denominations), Buddhist 0.4%, Hindu 0.1%, Jewish <0.1, folk religionist <0.1, unaffiliated <0.1, other <0.1 (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
NA
LanguagesArabic (official), Kurdish (official), Turkmen (a Turkish dialect), Syriac (Neo-Aramaic), and Armenian are official in areas where native speakers of these languages constitute a majority of the population)
Arabic (official), English (widely understood among upper and middle classes)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 79.7%
male: 85.7%
female: 73.7% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.4%
male: 97.7%
female: 92.9% (2015 est.)
Education expendituresNA
NA
Urbanizationurban population: 69.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.01% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 83.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.79% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 93.8% of population
rural: 70.1% of population
total: 86.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.1% of population
rural: 31.5% of population
total: 14.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97.8% of population
rural: 92.3% of population
total: 96.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.2% of population
rural: 7.7% of population
total: 3.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 86.4% of population
rural: 83.8% of population
total: 85.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13.6% of population
rural: 16.2% of population
total: 14.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 98.6% of population
rural: 98.9% of population
total: 98.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.4% of population
rural: 1.1% of population
total: 1.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationBAGHDAD (capital) 6.643 million; Mosul 1.694 million; Erbil 1.166 million; Basra 1.019 million; As Sulaymaniyah 1.004 million; Najaf 889,000 (2015)
AMMAN (capital) 1.155 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate50 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
58 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight8.5% (2011)
3% (2012)
Health expenditures5.5% of GDP (2014)
7.5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.85 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
2.65 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density1.3 beds/1,000 population (2012)
1.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate21.2% (2014)
28.1% (2014)
Contraceptive prevalence rate52.5% (2011)
61.2% (2012)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 78.7
youth dependency ratio: 73.2
elderly dependency ratio: 5.5
potential support ratio: 18.3 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 64.8
youth dependency ratio: 58.5
elderly dependency ratio: 6.2
potential support ratio: 16 (2015 est.)

Government

IraqJordan
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Iraq
conventional short form: Iraq
local long form: Jumhuriyat al-Iraq/Komar-i Eraq
local short form: Al Iraq/Eraq
etymology: the name probably derives from ""Uruk"" (Biblical ""Erech""), the ancient Sumerian and Babylonian city on the Euphrates River
"
conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
conventional short form: Jordan
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah
local short form: Al Urdun
former: Transjordan
etymology: named for the Jordan River, which makes up part of Jordan's northwest border
Government typefederal parliamentary republic
parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capitalname: Baghdad
geographic coordinates: 33 20 N, 44 24 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Amman
geographic coordinates: 31 57 N, 35 56 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in March; ends last Friday in October
Administrative divisions18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah (Arabic); parezgakan, singular - parezga (Kurdish)) and 1 region*; Al Anbar; Al Basrah; Al Muthanna; Al Qadisiyah (Ad Diwaniyah); An Najaf; Arbil (Erbil) (Arabic), Hewler (Kurdish); As Sulaymaniyah (Arabic), Slemani (Kurdish); Babil; Baghdad; Dahuk (Arabic), Dihok (Kurdish); Dhi Qar; Diyala; Karbala'; Kirkuk; Kurdistan Regional Government*; Maysan; Ninawa; Salah ad Din; Wasit
12 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); 'Ajlun, Al 'Aqabah, Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, Al ?Asimah (Amman), At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Jarash, Ma'an, Ma'daba
Independence3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration); note - on 28 June 2004 the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraqi Interim Government
25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
National holidayIndependence Day, 3 October (1932); Republic Day, 14 July (1958)
Independence Day, 25 May (1946)
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted by referendum 15 October 2005
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic and the Council of Minsters collectively, or by one-fifth of the Council of Representatives members; passage requires at least a two-thirds majority vote by the Council of Representatives, approval by referendum, and ratification by the president; passage of amendments to articles on citizen rights and liberties requires a two-thirds majority vote of Council of Representatives members after two successive electoral terms, approval in a referendum, and ratification by the president (2016)
history: previous 1928 (preindependence); latest initially adopted 28 November 1947, revised and ratified 1 January 1952
amendments: proposed by 10 or more members of the Senate or by the House of Representatives followed by referral to the relevant House committee for its review and opinion; if accepted, the proposal is referred to the government for restatement as a draft; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of both the Senate and the House and ratification by the king; amended several times, last in 2016 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of civil and Islamic law
mixed system developed from codes instituted by the Ottoman Empire (based on French law), British common law, and Islamic law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Fuad MASUM (since 24 July 2014); Vice Presidents Ayad ALLAWI (since 9 September 2014), Nuri al-MALIKI (since 8 September 2014), Usama al-NUJAYFI (since 9 September 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Haydar al-ABADI (since 8 September 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, approved by Council of Representatives
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by Council of Representatives (COR) to serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 30 April 2014 (next to be held in April 2018); prime minister nominated by the majority COR bloc and submission of COR minister nominees for full COR approval; disapproval requires designation of a new prime minister candidate
election results: Fuad MASUM elected president; Council of Representatives vote - Fuad MASUM (PUK) 211, Barham SALIH (PUK) 17; Haydar al-ABADI (Da'wa Party) approved as prime minister
chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 February 1999); Crown Prince HUSSEIN (born 28 June 1994), eldest son of King ABDALLAH II
head of government: Prime Minister Hani MULKI (since 1 June 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the monarch
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Council of Representatives or Majlis an-Nuwwab al-Iraqiyy (328 seats; 320 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 8 seats reserved for minorities; members serve 4-year terms); note - Iraq's constitution calls for the establishment of an upper house, the Federation Council, but it has not been instituted
elections: last held on 30 April 2014 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Council of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by coalition/party – State of Law Coalition 95, Ahrar Bloc/Sadrist Trend 34, ISCI/Muwatin 30, KDP 25, United for Reform Coalition/Muttahidun 23, PUK 21, Nationalism Coalition/Wataniyah 19, other Sunni coalitions/parties 15, Al-Arabiyah Coalition 10, Goran 9, other Shia parties/coalitions 9, Fadilah 6, National Reform Trend 6, Iraq Coalition 5, KIU 4, other 17
description: bicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-'Umma consists of the Senate, or the House of Notables or Majlis al-Ayan (65 seats; members appointed by the monarch to serve 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or House of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwaab (130 seats; 115 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by open-list proportional representation vote and 15 seats for women; 12 of the 115 seats reserved for Christian, Chechen, and Circassian candidates; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Deputies - last held on 20 September 2016 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Federal Supreme Court or FSC (consists of 9 judges); note - court jurisdiction limited to constitutional issues and disputes between regions or governorates and the central government; Court of Cassation (consists of a court president, 5 vice-presidents, and at least 24 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Federal Supreme Court and Court of Cassation judges selected by the president of the republic from nominees selected by the Supreme Judicial Council (SJC), a 25-member committee of judicial officials that manage the judiciary and prosecutors; FSC members appointed for life; Court of Cassation judges appointed by the SJC and confirmed by the Council of Representatives to serve until retirement nominally at age 63
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (governorate level); civil courts including first instance, personal status, labor, and customs; criminal courts including felony, misdemeanor, investigative, major crimes, juvenile and traffic; religious courts
highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Supreme Court (consists of 15 judges including the chief justice; 7-judge panels for important cases and 5 judge panels for most appeals cases); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members including the court chairman)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the king; other judges nominated by the Judicial Council, an 11-member judicial policy-making body consisting of high-level judicial officials and judges, and approved by the king; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court members appointed by the king for 6-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Major Felonies Court; Courts of First Instance; Magistrate Courts; religious courts; state security courts
Political parties and leadersAl-Arabiyah Coalition [Salih al-MUTLAQ]
Badr Organization [Hadi al-AMIRI]
Da`wa Party [Vice President Nuri al-MALIKI]
Da`wa Tanzim [Hashim al-MUSAWI]
Fadilah Party [Muhammad al-YAQUBI]
Goran Party [Nawshirwan MUSTAFA]
Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq or ISCI/Muwatin Coalition [Ammar al-HAKIM]
Kurdistan Democratic Party or KDP [Masud BARZANI]
Nationalism Coalition/Wataniyah [Vice President Ayad ALLAWI]
National Reform Trend [Foreign Minister Ibrahim al-JAFARI]
Patriotic Union of Kurdistan or PUK [former President Jalal TALABANI]
Sadrist Trend or Ahrar Bloc [Muqtada al-SADR]
State of Law Coalition [Vice President Nuri al MALIKI]
United for Reform Coalition/Muttahidun Lil Islah [Vice President Usama al-NUJAYFI]
note: numerous smaller local, tribal, and minority parties
Ahl al-Himma
Al-Bayyan
Al-Hayah Jordanian Party [Zahier AMR]
Arab Ba'ath Socialist Party [Akram al-HIMSI]
Ba'ath Arab Progressive Party [Fuad DABBOUR]
Citizenship
Construction
Cooperation
Dawn
Democratic People's Party [Ablah ABU ULBAH]
Democratic Popular Unity Party [Sa'id DIAB]
Dignity
Du'a Party [Muhammed ABU BAKR]
Free Voice
Islamic Action Front or IAF [Hamzah MANSOUR]
Islamic Centrist Party [Muhammad al-HAJ]
Jordanian Communist Party [Munir HAMARNAH]
Jordanian National Party [Muna ABU BAKR]
Jordanian United Front [Amjad al-MAJALI]
Labor and Trade
Muslim Center Party [Haitham ALAMAERAH]
Nation
National Congress Party [Raheeh GHARAYBEH, general secretary]
National Accord Youth Block
National Action
National Constitution Party [Ahmad al-SHUNAQ]
National Current Party [Abd al-Hadi al-MAJALI]
National Movement for Direct Democracy [Muhammad al-QAQ]
National Union
National Unity
Nobel Jerusalem
Risalah Party [Hazem QASHOU]
Salvation
Stronger Jordan
The Direct Democratic Nationalists Movement Party [Nash'at KHALIFAH]
The Homeland (Hizb Al-Watan)
The People
Unified Front
United Front
Voice of the Nation; qtgan
Political pressure groups and leadersSunni militias; Shia militias, some associated with political parties
15 April Movement [Mohammad SUNEID, chairman]
24 March Movement [Mu'az al-KHAWALIDAH, Abdel Rahman HASANEIN, spokespersons]
1952 Constitution Movement
Anti-Normalization Committee [Hamzah MANSOUR, chairman]
Economic and Social Association of Retired Servicemen and Veterans or ESARSV [Abdulsalam al-HASSANAT, chairman]
Group of 36
Higher Coordination Committee of Opposition Parties [Said DIAB]
Higher National Committee for Military Retirees or HNCMR [Ali al-HABASHNEH, chairman]
Hirak
Jordan Bar Association [Saleh al-ARMUTI, chairman]
Jordanian Campaign for Change or Jayin
Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood [Dr. Hamam SAID, controller general]
Jordanian Press Association [Sayf al-SHARIF, president]
National Front for Reform or NFR [Ahmad OBEIDAT, chairman]
Popular Gathering for Reform
Professional Associations Council [Abd al-Hadi al-FALAHAT, chairman]
Sons of Jordan
International organization participationABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CICA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CD, CICA, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Farid YASIN (since 18 January 2017)
chancery: 3421 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 742-1600
FAX: [1] (202) 333-1129
consulate(s) general: Detroit, Los Angeles
chief of mission: Ambassador Dina Khalil Tawiq KAWAR (since 27 June 2016)
chancery: 3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 966-2664
FAX: [1] (202) 966-3110
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Douglas A. SILLIMAN (since 1 September 2016)
embassy: Al-Kindi Street, International Zone, Baghdad
mailing address: APO AE 09316
telephone: 0760-030-3000
FAX: NA
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Henry T. WOOSTER (since 24 March 2017)
embassy: Abdoun, Al-Umawyeen St., Amman
mailing address: P. O. Box 354, Amman 11118 Jordan; Unit 70200, Box 5, DPO AE 09892-0200
telephone: [962] (6) 590-6000
FAX: [962] (6) 592-0163
Flag description"three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the Takbir (Arabic expression meaning ""God is great"") in green Arabic script is centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white); the Council of Representatives approved this flag in 2008 as a compromise temporary replacement for the Ba'thist SADDAM-era flag
note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two stars but no script; Yemen, which has a plain white band; and that of Egypt, which has a golden Eagle of Saladin centered in the white band
"
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), representing the Abbassid Caliphate, white, representing the Ummayyad Caliphate, and green, representing the Fatimid Caliphate; a red isosceles triangle on the hoist side, representing the Great Arab Revolt of 1916, and bearing a small white seven-pointed star symbolizing the seven verses of the opening Sura (Al-Fatiha) of the Holy Koran; the seven points on the star represent faith in One God, humanity, national spirit, humility, social justice, virtue, and aspirations; design is based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I
National anthem"name: ""Mawtini"" (My Homeland)
lyrics/music: Ibrahim TOUQAN/Mohammad FLAYFEL
note: adopted 2004; following the ouster of SADDAM Husayn, Iraq adopted ""Mawtini,"" a popular folk song throughout the Arab world; also serves as an unofficial anthem of the Palestinian people
"
"name: ""As-salam al-malaki al-urdoni"" (Long Live the King of Jordan)
lyrics/music: Abdul-Mone'm al-RIFAI'/Abdul-Qader al-TANEER
note: adopted 1946; the shortened version of the anthem is used most commonly, while the full version is reserved for special occasions
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)golden eagle; national colors: red, white, black
eagle; national colors: black, white, green, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Iraq
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Jordan
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

Economy

IraqJordan
Economy - overviewIraq's GDP grew by more than 10% in 2016, the best performance in the past decade, because of rising oil prices, which are a significant driver of Iraqi GDP. During 2016, security and financial stability throughout Iraq began to improve as Iraqi Security Forces made gains against the ongoing insurgency and oil prices slowly rose. The Iraqi Government entered into a Stand-By Arrangement (SBA) with the IMF in July 2016, which helped stabilize its finances by encouraging improved fiscal management, needed economic reform, and expenditure reduction. Iraq passed its first SBA review in December 2016, and additional progress on the program is critical to its long-term fiscal health. Diversification efforts – a key component to Iraq’s long-term economic development – require a strengthened investment climate to bolster private-sector engagement. Sustained improvements in the overall standard of living depend heavily on global oil prices, the central government passing major policy reforms, and progress in the conflict with ISIL.

Iraq's largely state-run economy is dominated by the oil sector, which provides more than 90% of government revenue and 80% of foreign exchange earnings. Oil exports in 2016 averaged 3.3 million barrels per day from southern Iraq, up from 2015. Moreover, the slow recovery of global oil prices improved export revenues throughout 2016, although monthly revenue remained below 2015 levels. Iraq's contracts with major oil companies have the potential to further expand oil exports and revenues, but Iraq will need to make significant upgrades to its oil processing, pipeline, and export infrastructure to enable these deals to reach their economic potential.

Iraqi oil exports from northern fields are hampered by fundamental disagreements between the Iraqi Government and autonomous Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) in Iraq’s Kurdistan region (IKR) on the roles of federal and regional authorities in the development and export of natural resources. In 2007, the KRG passed an oil law to develop IKR oil and gas reserves independent of the federal government. The KRG has signed about 50 contracts with foreign energy companies to develop its reserves, some of which lie in territories whose status is in dispute between Baghdad and Erbil. Some of the companies have left or returned blocks, citing lack of commercial prospects. In 2014, the KRG began exporting its oil unilaterally through its own pipeline to Turkey, which Baghdad claims is illegal. In the absence of a national hydrocarbons law, the two sides have entered into four provisional oil- and revenue-sharing deals since 2009, all of which collapsed. In September 2016, the two sides began implementing a fifth ad hoc agreement to split oil exports from Baghdad-controlled fields in Kirkuk.

Iraq is making slow progress enacting laws and developing the institutions needed to implement economic policy, and political reforms are still needed to assuage investors' concerns regarding the uncertain business climate. The Government of Iraq is eager to attract additional foreign direct investment, but it faces a number of obstacles, including a tenuous political system and concerns about security and societal stability. Rampant corruption, outdated infrastructure, insufficient essential services, skilled labor shortages, and antiquated commercial laws stifle investment and continue to constrain growth of private, nonoil sectors. Under the Iraqi constitution, some competencies relevant to the overall investment climate are either shared by the federal government and the regions or are devolved entirely to local governments. Investment in the IKR operates within the framework of the Kurdistan Region Investment Law (Law 4 of 2006) and the Kurdistan Board of Investment, which is designed to provide incentives to help economic development in areas under the authority of the KRG.

Inflation has remained under control since 2006. However, Iraqi leaders remain hard-pressed to translate macroeconomic gains into an improved standard of living for the Iraqi populace. Unemployment remains a problem throughout the country despite a bloated public sector. Encouraging private enterprise through deregulation would make it easier for Iraqi citizens and foreign investors to start new businesses. Rooting out corruption and implementing reforms - such as restructuring banks and developing the private sector - would be important steps in this direction.
Jordan's economy is among the smallest in the Middle East, with insufficient supplies of water, oil, and other natural resources, underlying the government's heavy reliance on foreign assistance. Other economic challenges for the government include chronic high rates of poverty, unemployment and underemployment, budget and current account deficits, and government debt.

King ABDALLAH, during the first decade of the 2000s, implemented significant economic reforms, such as expanding foreign trade and privatizing state-owned companies that attracted foreign investment and contributed to average annual economic growth of 8% for 2004 through 2008. The global economic slowdown and regional turmoil contributed to slower growth from 2010 to 2016 - with growth averaging 2.8% per year - and hurt export-oriented sectors, construction, and tourism. Since the onset of the civil war in Syria and resulting refugee crisis, one of Jordan’s most pressing socioeconomic challenges has been managing the influx of 650,000 UN-registered refugees, more than 80% of whom live in Jordan’s urban areas. Jordan’s own official census estimated the refugee number at 1.3 million as of early 2016.

Jordan is nearly completely dependent on imported energy—mostly natural gas—and energy consistently makes up 25-30 percent of Jordan’s imports. To diversify its energy mix, Jordan has secured several contracts for liquefied natural gas and is currently exploring nuclear power generation, exploitation of abundant oil shale reserves and renewable technologies, as well as the import of Israeli offshore gas. In August 2016, Jordan and the IMF agreed to a $723 million Extended Fund Facility that aims to build on the three-year, $2.1 billion IMF program that ended in August 2015 with the goal of helping Jordan correct budgetary and balance of payments imbalances.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$596.7 billion (2016 est.)
$541 billion (2015 est.)
$554.1 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$86.19 billion (2016 est.)
$83.89 billion (2015 est.)
$81.93 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate10.3% (2016 est.)
-2.4% (2015 est.)
-0.4% (2014 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
2.4% (2015 est.)
3.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$16,500 (2016 est.)
$15,400 (2015 est.)
$16,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$11,100 (2016 est.)
$11,000 (2015 est.)
$11,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 5.7%
industry: 45.1%
services: 49.3% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 29.6%
services: 66.2% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line23% (2014 est.)
14.2% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 25.7% (2007 est.)
lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 28.7% (2010 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.4% (2016 est.)
1.4% (2015 est.)
-0.8% (2016 est.)
-0.9% (2015 est.)
Labor force8.9 million (2010 est.)
2.205 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 21.6%
industry: 18.7%
services: 59.8% (2008 est.)
agriculture: 2%
industry: 20%
services: 78% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate16% (2012 est.)
15% (2010 est.)
15.8% (2016 est.)
13.1% (2015 est.)
note: official rate; unofficial rate is approximately 30%
Budgetrevenues: $52.43 billion
expenditures: $77.87 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $8.649 billion
expenditures: $11.22 billion (2016 est.)
Industriespetroleum, chemicals, textiles, leather, construction materials, food processing, fertilizer, metal fabrication/processing
tourism, information technology, clothing, fertilizers, potash, phosphate mining, pharmaceuticals, petroleum refining, cement, inorganic chemicals, light manufacturing
Industrial production growth rate7% (2016 est.)
1.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton; cattle, sheep, poultry
citrus, tomatoes, cucumbers, olives, strawberries, stone fruits; sheep, poultry, dairy
Exports$44.67 billion (2016 est.)
$54.67 billion (2015 est.)
$7.124 billion (2016 est.)
$7.829 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiescrude oil 99%, crude materials excluding fuels, food, live animals
textiles, fertilizers, potash, phosphates, vegetables, pharmaceuticals
Exports - partnersChina 22.8%, India 20.4%, South Korea 11.3%, US 7.8%, Italy 6.7%, Greece 6.1% (2015)
US 21%, Saudi Arabia 16.5%, Iraq 10.3%, India 8.7%, UAE 4.8%, Kuwait 4.4% (2015)
Imports$43.27 billion (2016 est.)
$43.84 billion (2015 est.)
$17.86 billion (2016 est.)
$18.04 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfood, medicine, manufactures
crude oil, refined petroleum products, machinery, transport equipment, iron, cereals
Imports - partnersTurkey 20.3%, Syria 19.2%, China 18.8%, US 4.7%, Russia 4.3% (2015)
Saudi Arabia 15.4%, China 12.8%, US 6.2%, Germany 4.7%, UAE 4.2% (2015)
Debt - external$68.01 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$60.28 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$13.32 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$13.24 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesIraqi dinars (IQD) per US dollar -
1,179.3 (2016 est.)
1,167.63 (2015 est.)
1,167.63 (2014 est.)
1,213.72 (2013 est.)
1,166.17 (2012 est.)
Jordanian dinars (JOD) per US dollar -
0.71 (2016 est.)
0.71 (2015 est.)
0.71 (2014 est.)
0.71 (2013 est.)
0.709 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt79% of GDP (2016 est.)
63.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
90.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
85.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover central government debt, and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$44.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$54.06 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$15.18 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$16.57 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$12.2 billion (2016 est.)
-$11.63 billion (2015 est.)
-$3.65 billion (2016 est.)
-$3.418 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$173 billion (2016 est.)
$39.45 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$26.63 billion (2015 est.)
$23.16 billion (2014 est.)
$31.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$29.96 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$2.109 billion (2015 est.)
$1.956 billion (2014 est.)
$629.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$609.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$4 billion (9 December 2011)
$2.6 billion (31 July 2010)
$2 billion (31 July 2009 est.)
$24.25 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$25.45 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$25.55 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate6% (2016)
6% (2015)
3.75% (31 December 2015)
0.3% (31 December 2010)
Commercial bank prime lending rate4.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
6% (31 December 2015 est.)
8% (31 December 2016 est.)
8.24% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$3.191 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.773 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$41.95 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$39.57 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$54.53 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$55.36 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$14.68 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$13.92 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$74.61 billion (30 August 2016 est.)
$80.83 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$46.78 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$44.52 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues30.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-14.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
-6.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 50.4%
government consumption: 18.8%
investment in fixed capital: 23.5%
investment in inventories: -4.5%
exports of goods and services: 39.7%
imports of goods and services: -27.9% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 81.1%
government consumption: 19.8%
investment in fixed capital: 22.6%
investment in inventories: 3.1%
exports of goods and services: 32.7%
imports of goods and services: -59.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving10.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
28.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
10.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
10.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
14.4% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

IraqJordan
Electricity - production84 billion kWh (2016 est.)
17 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption66 billion kWh (2016 est.)
16 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2016 est.)
64 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports12 billion kWh (2016 est.)
400 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production4.59 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
22 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
62,220 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports3.301 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves143 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
1 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves3.158 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
6.031 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production905 million cu m (2014 est.)
199 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption905 million cu m (2014 est.)
499 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
300 million cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity28 million kW (2017 est.)
4.2 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels87.3% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
99.6% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants6.2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0.3% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
0.1% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production599,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
67,760 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption807,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
146,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports10,240 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports256,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
70,890 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy137 million Mt (2013 est.)
19 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 600,000
electrification - total population: 98%
electrification - urban areas: 99.6%
electrification - rural areas: 95.4% (2013)
population without electricity: 40,926
electrification - total population: 99.5%
electrification - urban areas: 99%
electrification - rural areas: 99.4% (2012)

Telecommunications

IraqJordan
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 1.997 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 368,938
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 33.559 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 91 (July 2015 est.)
total: 13.798 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 170 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the 2003 liberation of Iraq severely disrupted telecommunications throughout Iraq; widespread government efforts to rebuild domestic and international communications have slowed due to the ongoing conflict with ISIS/ISIL
domestic: the mobile cellular market continues to expand (cell phones were banned prior to 2003 under the SADDAM regime); 3G services offered by three major mobile operators in 2015; ongoing conflict has destroyed infrastructure in areas
international: country code - 964; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean, 1 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region, and 1 Arabsat (inoperative)); local microwave radio relay connects border regions to Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey; international terrestrial fiber-optic connections have been established with Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Kuwait, Jordan, and Iran; links to the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) and the Gulf Bridge International (GBI) submarine fiber-optic cables have been established (2017)
general assessment: service has improved recently with increased use of digital switching equipment; microwave radio relay transmission and coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; growing mobile-cellular usage in both urban and rural areas is reducing use of fixed-line services
domestic: 1995 telecommunications law opened all non-fixed-line services to private competition; in 2005, monopoly over fixed-line services terminated and the entire telecommunications sector was opened to competition; currently multiple mobile-cellular providers with subscribership up to 170 per 100 persons
international: country code - 962; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) FEA and FLAG Falcon submarine cable networks; satellite earth stations - 33 (3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals); fiber-optic cable to Saudi Arabia and microwave radio relay link with Egypt and Syria; participant in Medarabtel (2015)
Internet country code.iq
.jo
Internet userstotal: 6.381 million
percent of population: 17.2% (July 2015 est.)
total: 4.335 million
percent of population: 53.4% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediathe number of private radio and TV stations has increased rapidly since 2003; government-owned TV and radio stations are operated by the publicly funded Iraqi Media Network; private broadcast media are mostly linked to political, ethnic, or religious groups; satellite TV is available to an estimated 70% of viewers and many of the broadcasters are based abroad; transmissions of multiple international radio broadcasters are accessible (2015)
radio and TV dominated by the government-owned Jordan Radio and Television Corporation (JRTV) that operates a main network, a sports network, a film network, and a satellite channel; first independent TV broadcaster aired in 2007; international satellite TV and Israeli and Syrian TV broadcasts are available; roughly 30 radio stations with JRTV operating the main government-owned station; transmissions of multiple international radio broadcasters are available (2007)

Transportation

IraqJordan
Railwaystotal: 2,272 km
standard gauge: 2,272 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
total: 509 km
narrow gauge: 509 km 1.050-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 59,623 km
paved: 59,623 km (includes Kurdistan Region) (2012)
total: 7,203 km
paved: 7,203 km (2011)
Pipelinesgas 2,455 km; liquid petroleum gas 913 km; oil 5,432 km; refined products 1,637 km (2013)
gas 473 km; oil 49 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsriver port(s): Al Basrah (Shatt al-'Arab); Khawr az Zubayr, Umm Qasr (Khawr az Zubayr waterway)
major seaport(s): Al 'Aqabah
Merchant marinetotal: 2
by type: petroleum tanker 2
registered in other countries: 2 (Marshall Islands 2) (2010)
total: 12
by type: cargo 4, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 2 (UAE 2)
registered in other countries: 16 (Bahamas 2, Egypt 2, Indonesia 1, Panama 11) (2010)
Airports102 (2013)
18 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 72
over 3,047 m: 20
2,438 to 3,047 m: 34
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 7 (2013)
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 30
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
total: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports16 (2013)
1 (2012)

Military

IraqJordan
Military branchesMinistry of Defense: Iraqi Army (includes Army Aviation Directorate), Iraqi Navy, Iraqi Air Force; Counterterrorism Service (2015)
Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF): Royal Jordanian Land Force (RJLF), Royal Jordanian Navy, Royal Jordanian Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Malakiya al-Urduniya, RJAF), Special Operations Command (Socom); Public Security Directorate (normally falls under Ministry of Interior, but comes under JAF in wartime or crisis) (2013)
Military service age and obligation18-40 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2013)
17 years of age for voluntary male military service; initial service term 2 years, with option to reenlist for 18 years; conscription at age 18 suspended in 1999; women are not conscripted, but can volunteer to serve in noncombat military positions in the Royal Jordanian Arab Army Women's Corps and RJAF (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP7.28% of GDP (2015)
4.16% of GDP (2014)
3.37% of GDP (2013)
2.78% of GDP (2012)
3.18% of GDP (2011)
4.31% of GDP (2015)
4.33% of GDP (2014)
4.3% of GDP (2013)
4.76% of GDP (2012)
5.53% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

IraqJordan
Disputes - internationalIraq's lack of a maritime boundary with Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab in the Persian Gulf; Turkey has expressed concern over the autonomous status of Kurds in Iraq
2004 Agreement settles border dispute with Syria pending demarcation
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 15,692 (Turkey); 7,703 (West Bank and Gaza Strip); 7,545 (Iran) (2016); 242,558 (Syria) (2017)
IDPs: 3,974,162 (since 2006 due to ethno-sectarian violence; includes 3,020,034 displaced in central and northern Iraq since January 2014) (2017)
stateless persons: 48,200 (2016); note - in the 1970s and 1980s under SADDAM Husayn's regime, thousands of Iraq's Faili Kurds, followers of Shia Islam, were stripped of their Iraqi citizenship, had their property seized by the government, and many were deported; some Faili Kurds had their citizenship reinstated under the 2006 Iraqi Nationality Law, but others lack the documentation to prove their Iraqi origins; some Palestinian refugees persecuted by the SADDAM regime remain stateless
note: estimate revised to reflect the reduction of statelessness in line with Law 26 of 2006, which allows stateless persons to apply for nationality in certain circumstances; more accurate studies of statelessness in Iraq are pending (2015)
refugees (country of origin): 2,144,233 (Palestinian refugees) (2016); 661,114 (Syria); 62,658 (Iraq) (2017)

Source: CIA Factbook