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Indonesia vs. Papua New Guinea

Introduction

IndonesiaPapua New Guinea
Background"The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted ""Guided Democracy."" After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was gradually eased from power. From 1967 until 1998, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his ""New Order"" government. After street protests toppled SUHARTO in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance in Papua by the separatist Free Papua Movement.
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The eastern half of the island of New Guinea - second largest in the world - was divided between Germany (north) and the UK (south) in 1885. The latter area was transferred to Australia in 1902, which occupied the northern portion during World War I and continued to administer the combined areas until independence in 1975. A nine-year secessionist revolt on the island of Bougainville ended in 1997 after claiming some 20,000 lives. Since 2001, Bougainville has experienced autonomy. Under the terms of a peace accord, 2015 is the year that a five-year window opens for a referendum on the question of independence.

Geography

IndonesiaPapua New Guinea
LocationSoutheastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Oceania, group of islands including the eastern half of the island of New Guinea between the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean, east of Indonesia
Geographic coordinates5 00 S, 120 00 E
6 00 S, 147 00 E
Map referencesSoutheast Asia
Oceania
Areatotal: 1,904,569 sq km
land: 1,811,569 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km
total: 462,840 sq km
land: 452,860 sq km
water: 9,980 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than three times the size of Texas
slightly larger than California
Land boundariestotal: 2,958 km
border countries (3): Timor-Leste 253 km, Malaysia 1,881 km, Papua New Guinea 824 km
total: 824 km
border countries (1): Indonesia 824 km
Coastline54,716 km
5,152 km
Maritime claimsmeasured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climatetropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation
Terrainmostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 367 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m
mean elevation: 667 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Wilhelm 4,509 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil, fisheries
Land useagricultural land: 31.2%
arable land 13%; permanent crops 12.1%; permanent pasture 6.1%
forest: 51.7%
other: 17.1% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 2.6%
arable land 0.7%; permanent crops 1.5%; permanent pasture 0.4%
forest: 63.1%
other: 34.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land67,220 sq km (2012)
0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsoccasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires
volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (elev. 2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora
"active volcanism; situated along the Pacific ""Ring of Fire""; the country is subject to frequent and sometimes severe earthquakes; mud slides; tsunamis
volcanism: severe volcanic activity; Ulawun (elev. 2,334 m), one of Papua New Guinea's potentially most dangerous volcanoes, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Rabaul (elev. 688 m) destroyed the city of Rabaul in 1937 and 1994; Lamington erupted in 1951 killing 3,000 people; Manam's 2004 eruption forced the island's abandonment; other historically active volcanoes include Bam, Bagana, Garbuna, Karkar, Langila, Lolobau, Long Island, Pago, St. Andrew Strait, Victory, and Waiowa
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Environment - current issuesdeforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
rain forest subject to deforestation as a result of growing commercial demand for tropical timber; pollution from mining projects; severe drought
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteaccording to Indonesia's National Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping, the total number of islands in the archipelago is 13,466, of which 922 are permanently inhabited (Indonesia is the world's largest country comprised solely of islands); the country straddles the equator and occupies a strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean; despite having the fourth largest population in the world, Indonesia is the most heavily forested region on earth after the Amazon
shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; generally east-west trending highlands break up New Guinea into diverse ecoregions; one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast

Demographics

IndonesiaPapua New Guinea
Population258,316,051 (July 2016 est.)
6,791,317 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 25.42% (male 33,435,020/female 32,224,706)
15-24 years: 17.03% (male 22,397,086/female 21,604,985)
25-54 years: 42.35% (male 55,857,415/female 53,543,682)
55-64 years: 8.4% (male 9,918,897/female 11,790,016)
65 years and over: 6.79% (male 7,630,251/female 9,913,993) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 33.93% (male 1,173,034/female 1,131,387)
15-24 years: 19.86% (male 683,474/female 665,245)
25-54 years: 36.65% (male 1,281,641/female 1,207,658)
55-64 years: 5.39% (male 185,846/female 180,255)
65 years and over: 4.16% (male 143,851/female 138,926) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 29.9 years
male: 29.3 years
female: 30.5 years (2016 est.)
total: 22.9 years
male: 23 years
female: 22.8 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.89% (2016 est.)
1.75% (2016 est.)
Birth rate16.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
24 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 23.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 27.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 37.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 40.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 33.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 72.7 years
male: 70.1 years
female: 75.5 years (2016 est.)
total population: 67.2 years
male: 65 years
female: 69.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.13 children born/woman (2016 est.)
3.1 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.48% (2015 est.)
0.79% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
noun: Papua New Guinean(s)
adjective: Papua New Guinean
Ethnic groupsJavanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)
Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS692,800 (2015 est.)
40,100 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 87.2%, Christian 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Roman Catholic 27%, Protestant 69.4% (Evangelical Lutheran 19.5%, United Church 11.5%, Seventh-Day Adventist 10%, Pentecostal 8.6%, Evangelical Alliance 5.2%, Anglican 3.2%, Baptist 2.5%, other Protestant 8.9%), Baha'i 0.3%, indigenous beliefs and other 3.3% (2000 census)
HIV/AIDS - deaths35,300 (2015 est.)
900 (2015 est.)
LanguagesBahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)
note: more than 700 languages are used in Indonesia
Tok Pisin (official), English (official), Hiri Motu (official), some 839 indigenous languages spoken (about 12% of the world's total); many languages have fewer than 1,000 speakers
note: Tok Pisin, a creole language, is widely used and understood; English is spoken by 1%-2%; Hiri Motu is spoken by less than 2%
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.9%
male: 96.3%
female: 91.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 64.2%
male: 65.6%
female: 62.8% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
Education expenditures3.3% of GDP (2014)
NA
Urbanizationurban population: 53.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.69% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 13% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.12% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 94.2% of population
rural: 79.5% of population
total: 87.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5.8% of population
rural: 20.5% of population
total: 12.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 88% of population
rural: 32.8% of population
total: 40% of population
unimproved:
urban: 12% of population
rural: 67.2% of population
total: 60% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 72.3% of population
rural: 47.5% of population
total: 60.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 27.7% of population
rural: 52.5% of population
total: 39.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 56.4% of population
rural: 13.3% of population
total: 18.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 43.6% of population
rural: 86.7% of population
total: 81.1% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationJAKARTA (capital) 10.323 million; Surabaya 2.853 million; Bandung 2.544 million; Medan 2.204 million; Semarang 1.63 million; Makassar 1.489 million (2015)
PORT MORESBY (capital) 345,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate126 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
215 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight19.9% (2013)
27.9% (2011)
Health expenditures2.8% of GDP (2014)
4.3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate5.7% (2014)
25.5% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 49
youth dependency ratio: 41.2
elderly dependency ratio: 7.7
potential support ratio: 13 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 67.1
youth dependency ratio: 62.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5
potential support ratio: 19.9 (2015 est.)

Government

IndonesiaPapua New Guinea
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies
etymology: the name is an 18th-century construct of two Greek words, ""Indos"" (India) and ""nesoi"" (islands), meaning ""Indian islands""
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"conventional long form: Independent State of Papua New Guinea
conventional short form: Papua New Guinea
local short form: Papuaniugini
former: Territory of Papua and New Guinea
abbreviation: PNG
etymology: the word ""papua"" derives from the Malay ""papuah"" describing the frizzy hair of the Melanesians; Spanish explorer Ynigo ORTIZ de RETEZ applied the term ""Nueva Guinea"" to the island of New Guinea in 1545 after noting the resemblance of the locals to the peoples of the Guinea coast of Africa
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Government typepresidential republic
parliamentary democracy (National Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Capitalname: Jakarta
geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note: Indonesia has three time zones
name: Port Moresby
geographic coordinates: 9 27 S, 147 11 E
time difference: UTC+10 (15 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions31 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 1 autonomous province*, 1 special region** (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 national capital district*** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya***, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kalimantan Utara (North Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta**
note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
20 provinces, 1 autonomous region*, and 1 district**; Bougainville*, Central, Chimbu, Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Hela, Jiwaka, Madang, Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital**, New Ireland, Northern, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New Britain, West Sepik
Independence17 August 1945 (declared independence from the Netherlands)
16 September 1975 (from the Australia-administered UN trusteeship)
National holidayIndependence Day, 17 August (1945)
Independence Day, 16 September (1975)
Constitution"drafted July to August 1945, effective 17 August 1945, abrogated by 1949 and 1950 constitutions, 1945 constitution restored 5 July 1959; amended several times, last in 2002; note - an amendment on ""national character building and national consciousness awareness"" was pending parliamentary review in early 2016 (2016)
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adopted 15 August 1975, effective at independence 16 September 1975; amended many times, last in 2013; note - in September 2015, the Supreme Court nullified the 2013 constitutional amendment that increased the grace period on motions of no confidence (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law
mixed legal system of English common law and customary law
Suffrage17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Jusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Jusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 9 July 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: Joko WiDODO elected president; percent of vote - Joko WIDODO (PDI-P) 53.2%, PRABOWO Subianto (GERINDRA) 46.8%
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Bob DADAE (since 28 February 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Peter Paire O'NEILL (since 2 August 2011); Deputy Prime Minister Leo DION (since 9 August 2012)
cabinet: National Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general nominated by the National Parliament and appointed by the chief of state; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general pending the outcome of a National Parliament vote
election results: Peter Paire O'NEILL (PNC) elected prime minister; National Parliament vote - 94 to 12
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral People's Consultative Assembly or Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat consists of the Regional Representative Council or Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (132 seats; non-partisan members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (560 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by single non-transferable vote to serve 5-year terms)
note: 29 other parties received less than the 2.5% vote threshold and failed to win so did not obtain any seats; because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties
elections: last held on 9 April 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDI-P 19%, Golkar 15%, Gerindra 12%, PD 10%, PKB 9%, PAN 8%, PKS 7%, NasDem 7%, PPP 7%, Hanura 5%; seats by party - PDI-P 109, Golkar 91, Gerindra 73, PD 61, PAN 49, PKB 47, PKS 40, NasDem 35, PPP 39, Hanura 16
description: unicameral National Parliament (111 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies - 91 local and 20 provincial - by majority preferential vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - the constitution allows up to 126 seats
note: 14 other parties won 3 or fewer seats; association with political parties is fluid
elections: last held from 23 June 2012 to 27 July 2012 (next to be held in June 2017)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - People's National Congress Party 27, Triumph Heritage Empowerment Party 12, PNG Party 8, National Alliance Party 7, United Resources Party 7, People's Party 6, People's Progress Party 6, other 22, independent 16
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (51 judges divided into 8 chambers); Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by Judicial Commission, appointed by president with concurrence of parliament; judges serve until retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by president, 3 by Supreme Court, and 3 by parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: High Courts of Appeal, district courts, religious courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, deputy chief justice, and 28 judges); National Courts (13 courts located in the province capitals, with a total of 19 resident judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the governor-general upon advice of the National Executive Council (cabinet) after consultation with the National Justice Administration Minister; deputy chief justice and other justices appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission, a 5-member body to include the Supreme Court chief and deputy chief justices, the chief ombudsman, and a member of the National Parliament; full time citizen judges appointed for 10-year renewable terms; non-citizen judges initially appointed for 3-year renewable terms and after first renewal until age 70; appointment and tenure of National Court resident judges NA
subordinate courts: district, village, and juvenile courts
Political parties and leadersDemocrat Party or PD [Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO]
Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Aburizal BAKRIE]
Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo]
Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]
National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]
National Mandate Party or PAN [Hatta RAJASA]
People's Conscience Party or HANURA [WIRANTO]
Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Anis MATTA]
United Development Party or PPP [NA]
National Alliance Party or NA [Patrick PRUAITCHI]
Papua New Guinea Party or PNGP [Beldan NAMAH]
People's National Congress Party or PNC [Peter Paire O'NEILL]
People's Party or PP (merged with PNC)
People's Progress Party or PPP [Sir Julius CHAN]
Triumph Heritage Empowerment Party or THE
United Resources Party or URP [William DUMA]
note: as of 13 March 2012, 41 political parties were registered
Political pressure groups and leaders"Commission for the ""Disappeared"" and Victims of Violence or KontraS
Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW
Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI
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Centre for Environment Law and Community Rights or Celcor [Damien ASE]
Community Coalition Against Corruption
National Council of Women
Transparency International Papau New Guinea or TI PNG (chapter of Transparency International)
International organization participationADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, ADB, AOSIS, APEC, ARF, ASEAN (observer), C, CD, CP, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Budi BOWOLEKSONO (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador Rupa Abraham MALINA (since 10 March 2014)
chancery: 1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 805, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 745-3680
FAX: [1] (202) 745-3679
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Robert O. BLAKE, Jr. (since 30 January 2014)
embassy: Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 386-2259
consulate general: Surabaya
consulate: Medan
chief of mission: Ambassador Catherine EBERT-GRAY (since 23 February 2016); note - also accredited to the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu
embassy: P.O.Box 1492, Port Moresby
mailing address: 4240 Port Moresby Place, US Department of State, Washington DC 20521-4240
telephone: [675] 321-1455
FAX: [675] 321-3423
Flag descriptiontwo equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity
note: similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red
divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower triangle is black with five, white, five-pointed stars of the Southern Cross constellation centered; red, black, and yellow are traditional colors of Papua New Guinea; the bird of paradise - endemic to the island of New Guinea - is an emblem of regional tribal culture and represents the emergence of Papua New Guinea as a nation; the Southern Cross, visible in the night sky, symbolizes Papua New Guinea's connection with Australia and several other countries in the South Pacific
National anthem"name: ""Indonesia Raya"" (Great Indonesia)
lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN
note: adopted 1945
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"name: ""O Arise All You Sons""
lyrics/music: Thomas SHACKLADY
note: adopted 1975
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International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)garuda (mythical bird); national colors: red, white
bird of paradise; national colors: red, black
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Indonesia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 continuous years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Papua New Guinea
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

Economy

IndonesiaPapua New Guinea
Economy - overviewIndonesia, the largest economy in Southeast Asia, has seen a slowdown in growth since 2012, mostly due to the end of the commodities export boom. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth. Indonesia’s annual budget deficit is capped at 3% of GDP, and the Government of Indonesia lowered its debt-to-GDP ratio from a peak of 100% shortly after the Asian financial crisis in 1999 to less than 27 percent today. While Fitch and Moody's Investors upgraded Indonesia's credit rating to investment grade in December 2011, Standard & Poor’s has yet to raise Indonesia’s rating to this status amid several constraints to foreign direct investment in the country, such as a high level of protectionism.

Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among its regions. President Joko WIDODO - elected in July 2014 – seeks to develop Indonesia’s maritime resources and pursue other infrastructure development, including significantly increasing its electrical power generation capacity. Fuel subsidies were significantly reduced in early 2015, a move which has helped the government redirect its spending to development priorities. Indonesia, with the nine other ASEAN members, will continue to move towards participation in the ASEAN Economic Community, though full implementation of economic integration has not yet materialized.
Papua New Guinea (PNG) is richly endowed with natural resources, but exploitation has been hampered by rugged terrain, land tenure issues, and the high cost of developing infrastructure. The economy has a small formal sector, focused mainly on the export of those natural resources, and an informal sector, employing the majority of the population. Agriculture provides a subsistence livelihood for 85% of the people. The global financial crisis had little impact because of continued foreign demand for PNG's commodities.

Mineral deposits, including copper, gold, and oil, account for nearly two-thirds of export earnings. Natural gas reserves amount to an estimated 155 billion cubic meters. Following construction of a $19 billion liquefied natural gas (LNG) project, PNG LNG, a consortium led by ExxonMobil, began exporting liquefied natural gas to Asian markets in May 2014. The project was delivered on time and only slightly above budget. The success of the project has encouraged other companies to look at similar LNG projects. French supermajor Total is expected to begin construction on the Papua LNG project by 2020. Due to lower global commodity prices, resource revenues of all types have fallen dramatically. PNG’s government has recently been forced to adjust spending levels downward.

Numerous challenges still face the government of Peter O'NEILL, including providing physical security for foreign investors, regaining investor confidence, restoring integrity to state institutions, promoting economic efficiency by privatizing moribund state institutions, and maintaining good relations with Australia, its former colonial ruler. Other socio-cultural challenges could upend the economy including chronic law and order and land tenure issues.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$3.033 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.888 trillion (2015 est.)
$2.753 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$28.02 billion (2016 est.)
$27.33 billion (2015 est.)
$25.63 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate5% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
5% (2014 est.)
2.5% (2016 est.)
6.6% (2015 est.)
7.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$11,700 (2016 est.)
$11,300 (2015 est.)
$10,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3,500 (2016 est.)
$3,500 (2015 est.)
$3,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 13.7%
industry: 40.3%
services: 46% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 22.3%
industry: 37.6%
services: 40.1% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line10.9% (2016 est.)
37% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 28.2% (2010)
lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 40.5% (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2015 est.)
6.3% (2016 est.)
6% (2015 est.)
Labor force125 million (2016 est.)
4.365 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 32%
industry: 21%
services: 47% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 85%
industry: NA%
services: NA% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate5.6% (2016 est.)
6.2% (2015 est.)
2.5% (2014 est.)
2.5% (2013 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index36.8 (2009)
39.4 (2005)
50.9 (1996)
Budgetrevenues: $114.8 billion
expenditures: $137.7 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $3.169 billion
expenditures: $4.295 billion (2016 est.)
Industriespetroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instruments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism
copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood chip production; mining (gold, silver, copper); crude oil and petroleum products; construction, tourism
Industrial production growth rate3.5% (2016 est.)
4.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsrubber and similar products, palm oil, poultry, beef, forest products, shrimp, cocoa, coffee, medicinal herbs, essential oil, fish and its similar products, and spices
coffee, cocoa, copra, palm kernels, tea, sugar, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables, vanilla; poultry, pork; shellfish
Exports$144.4 billion (2016 est.)
$148.4 billion (2015 est.)
$7.886 billion (2016 est.)
$8.377 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmineral fuels, animal or vegetable fats (includes palm oil), electrical machinery, rubber, machinery and mechanical appliance parts
oil, gold, copper ore, logs, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, crayfish, prawns
Exports - partnersJapan 12%, US 10.8%, China 10%, Singapore 8.4%, India 7.8%, South Korea 5.1%, Malaysia 5.1% (2015)
Japan 17.4%, Australia 15.9%, China 12.1% (2015)
Imports$129.1 billion (2016 est.)
$135.1 billion (2015 est.)
$1.83 billion (2016 est.)
$2.267 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmineral fuels, boilers, machinery, and mechanical parts, electric machinery, iron and steel, foodstuffs
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, fuels, chemicals
Imports - partnersChina 20.6%, Singapore 12.6%, Japan 9.3%, Malaysia 6%, South Korea 5.9%, Thailand 5.7%, US 5.3% (2015)
Australia 25.9%, China 20%, Singapore 12.6%, Malaysia 7.2%, US 4.2%, Indonesia 4.1%, South Korea 4% (2015)
Debt - external$316.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$302.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$22.04 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$20.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesIndonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar -
13,483 (2016 est.)
13,389.4 (2015 est.)
13,389.4 (2014 est.)
11,865.2 (2013 est.)
9,386.63 (2012 est.)
kina (PGK) per US dollar -
3.156 (2016 est.)
2.7684 (2015 est.)
2.7684 (2014 est.)
2.4614 (2013 est.)
2.08 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt32.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
39.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
36.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$116.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$105.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.629 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.738 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$16.35 billion (2016 est.)
-$17.52 billion (2015 est.)
$3.051 billion (2016 est.)
$4.148 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$941 billion (2016 est.)
$19.92 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$292.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$271.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$42.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$33.32 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares$428.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$353.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$422.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$10.71 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$8.999 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$9.742 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate6.37% (31 December 2010)
6.46% (31 December 2009)
note: this figure represents the 3-month SBI rate; the Bank of Indonesia has not employed the one-month SBI since September 2010
14% (31 December 2010)
6.92% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate12.2% (31 October 2016 est.)
12.9% (31 December 2015 est.)
note: these figures represent the average annualized rate on working capital loans
8.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
8.73% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$324 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$354.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.36 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.118 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$86.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$78.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$5.282 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.936 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$350.9 billion (30 September 2016 est.)
$359.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$8.085 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$7.477 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues12.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
-5.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 56.5%
government consumption: 9.3%
investment in fixed capital: 33%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 17.7%
imports of goods and services: -17.7% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 49.4%
government consumption: 7.8%
investment in fixed capital: 9.9%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 68.7%
imports of goods and services: -36.2% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving32.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
32.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
31.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
38.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
24% of GDP (2015 est.)
-11.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

IndonesiaPapua New Guinea
Electricity - production224.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
3.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption217.8 billion kWh (2016 est.)
3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports100 kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production831,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
52,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports463,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
14,880 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports310,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
25,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves3.7 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
200 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves2.83 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
151.3 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production75 billion cu m (2015 est.)
4.75 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption39.7 billion cu m (2015 est.)
100 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports31.78 billion cu m (2014 est.)
4.65 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports1.8 billion cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity51.92 million kW (2016 est.)
900,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels83.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
61.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants11% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
30.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources5.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production926,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
28,340 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption1.688 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
42,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports81,950 bbl/day (2013 est.)
8,062 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports691,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
21,180 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy442 million Mt (2013 est.)
3.7 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 48,700,000
electrification - total population: 81%
electrification - urban areas: 94%
electrification - rural areas: 66% (2013)
population without electricity: 5,568,879
electrification - total population: 18%
electrification - urban areas: 72%
electrification - rural areas: 10% (2012)

Telecommunications

IndonesiaPapua New Guinea
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 22.386 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 150,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 338.426 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 132 (July 2015 est.)
total: 3.56 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 53 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good
domestic: coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly
international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: services are minimal; facilities provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and international radio communication services
domestic: access to telephone services is not widely available although combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to roughly 55 per 100 persons
international: country code - 675; submarine cables to Australia and Guam; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); international radio communication service (2015)
Internet country code.id
.pg
Internet userstotal: 56.257 million
percent of population: 22% (July 2015 est.)
total: 527,000
percent of population: 7.9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediamixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 2 public broadcasters, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks, as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately operated (2008)
2 TV stations, 1 commercial station operating since the late 1980s, and 1 state-run station launched in 2008; satellite and cable TV services are available; state-run National Broadcasting Corporation operates 3 radio networks with multiple repeaters and about 20 provincial stations; several commercial radio stations with multiple transmission points as well as several community stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are accessible (2009)

Transportation

IndonesiaPapua New Guinea
Roadwaystotal: 496,607 km
paved: 283,102 km
unpaved: 213,505 km (2011)
total: 9,349 km
paved: 3,000 km
unpaved: 6,349 km (2011)
Waterways21,579 km (2011)
11,000 km (2011)
Pipelinescondensate 1,064 km; condensate/gas 150 km; gas 11,702 km; liquid petroleum gas 119 km; oil 7,767 km; oil/gas/water 77 km; refined products 728 km; unknown 53 km; water 44 km (2013)
oil 264 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok
container port(s) (TEUs): Tanjung Priok (5,617,562)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Bontang, Tangguh
LNG terminal(s) (import): Arun, Lampung, West Java
major seaport(s): Kimbe, Lae, Madang, Rabaul, Wewak
LNG terminal(s) (export): Port Moresby
Merchant marinetotal: 1,340
by type: bulk carrier 105, cargo 618, chemical tanker 69, container 120, liquefied gas 28, passenger 49, passenger/cargo 77, petroleum tanker 244, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 11
foreign-owned: 69 (China 1, France 1, Greece 1, Japan 8, Jordan 1, Malaysia 1, Norway 3, Singapore 46, South Korea 2, Taiwan 1, UK 2, US 2)
registered in other countries: 95 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, China 2, Hong Kong 10, Liberia 4, Marshall Islands 1, Mongolia 2, Panama 10, Singapore 60, Tuvalu 1, unknown 1) (2010)
total: 31
by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 22, petroleum tanker 2
foreign-owned: 8 (Germany 1, Malaysia 1, UAE 6) (2010)
Airports673 (2013)
561 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 186
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
914 to 1,523 m: 72
under 914 m: 37 (2013)
total: 21
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 487
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 460 (2013)
total: 540
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 476 (2013)
Heliports76 (2013)
2 (2013)

Military

IndonesiaPapua New Guinea
Military branchesIndonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL), includes marines (Korps Marinir, KorMar), naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2013)
Papua New Guinea Defense Force (PNGDF, includes Maritime Operations Element, Air Operations Element) (2013)
Military service age and obligation18-45 years of age for voluntary military service, with selective conscription authorized; 2-year service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2012)
16 years of age for voluntary military service (with parental consent); no conscription; graduation from grade 12 required (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.89% of GDP (2015)
0.78% of GDP (2014)
0.92% of GDP (2013)
0.71% of GDP (2012)
0.65% of GDP (2011)
0.66% of GDP (2014)
0.68% of GDP (2013)
0.72% of GDP (2012)
0.5% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

IndonesiaPapua New Guinea
Disputes - internationalIndonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundaries have been established between the countries; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches; land and maritime negotiations with Malaysia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; EEZ negotiations with Vietnam are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary
relies on assistance from Australia to keep out illegal cross-border activities from primarily Indonesia, including goods smuggling, illegal narcotics trafficking, and squatters and secessionists
Illicit drugsillicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy; President WIDODO's war on drugs has led to an increase in death sentences and executions, particularly of foreign drug traffickers (2015)
major consumer of cannabis
Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 7,100 (inter-communal, inter-faith, and separatist violence between 1998 and 2004 in Aceh and Papua; religious attacks and land conflicts in 2012 and 2013; most IDPs in Aceh, Maluku, East Nusa Tengarra) (2016) (2011)
refugees (country of origin): 9,368 (Indonesia) (2016)
IDPs: 8,400 (natural disasters, tribal conflict, inter-communal violence, development projects) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook