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Indonesia vs. Papua New Guinea

Introduction

IndonesiaPapua New Guinea
BackgroundThe Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted "Guided Democracy." After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was gradually eased from power. From 1967 until 1988, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his "New Order" government. After rioting toppled Suharto in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance in Papua by the separatist Free Papua Movement.The eastern half of the island of New Guinea - second largest in the world - was divided between Germany (north) and the UK (south) in 1885. The latter area was transferred to Australia in 1902, which occupied the northern portion during World War I and continued to administer the combined areas until independence in 1975. A nine-year secessionist revolt on the island of Bougainville ended in 1997 after claiming some 20,000 lives.

Geography

IndonesiaPapua New Guinea
LocationSoutheastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific OceanOceania, group of islands including the eastern half of the island of New Guinea between the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean, east of Indonesia
Geographic coordinates5 00 S, 120 00 E6 00 S, 147 00 E
Map referencesSoutheast AsiaOceania
Areatotal: 1,904,569 sq km
land: 1,811,569 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km
total: 462,840 sq km
land: 452,860 sq km
water: 9,980 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than three times the size of Texasslightly larger than California
Land boundariestotal: 2,830 km
border countries: Timor-Leste 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
total: 820 km
border countries: Indonesia 820 km
Coastline54,716 km5,152 km
Maritime claimsmeasured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climatetropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlandstropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation
Terrainmostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountainsmostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills
Elevation extremeslowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Wilhelm 4,509 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silvergold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil, fisheries
Land usearable land: 12.34%
permanent crops: 10.5%
other: 77.16% (2011)
arable land: 0.65%
permanent crops: 1.51%
other: 97.84% (2011)
Irrigated land67,220 sq km (2005)0 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardsoccasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires
volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, western Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (elev. 2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a "Decade Volcano" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora
active volcanism; situated along the Pacific "Ring of Fire"; the country is subject to frequent and sometimes severe earthquakes; mud slides; tsunamis
volcanism: severe volcanic activity; Ulawun (elev. 2,334 m), one of Papua New Guinea's potentially most dangerous volcanoes, has been deemed a "Decade Volcano" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Rabaul (elev. 688 m) destroyed the city of Rabaul in 1937 and 1994; Lamington erupted in 1951 killing 3,000 people; Manam's 2004 eruption forced the island's abandonment; other historically active volcanoes include Bam, Bagana, Garbuna, Karkar, Langila, Lolobau, Long Island, Pago, St. Andrew Strait, Victory, and Waiowa
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest firesrain forest subject to deforestation as a result of growing commercial demand for tropical timber; pollution from mining projects; severe drought
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notearchipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Oceanshares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast
Total renewable water resources2,019 cu km (2011)801 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 113.3 cu km/yr (11%/19%/71%)
per capita: 517.3 cu m/yr (2005)
total: 0.39 cu km/yr (57%/43%/0%)
per capita: 61.3 cu m/yr (2005)

Demographics

IndonesiaPapua New Guinea
Population251,160,124 (July 2013 est.)6,431,902 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 26.6% (male 34,049,541/female 32,844,509)
15-24 years: 17.1% (male 21,883,499/female 21,117,498)
25-54 years: 42.2% (male 53,766,202/female 52,325,932)
55-64 years: 7.6% (male 8,879,503/female 10,164,470)
65 years and over: 6.4% (male 7,038,904/female 9,090,066) (2013 est.)
0-14 years: 35.5% (male 1,160,586/female 1,120,258)
15-24 years: 19.5% (male 636,602/female 619,885)
25-54 years: 36% (male 1,198,799/female 1,117,510)
55-64 years: 5.2% (male 167,625/female 164,018)
65 years and over: 3.8% (male 129,852/female 116,767) (2013 est.)
Median agetotal: 28.9 years
male: 28.4 years
female: 29.5 years (2013 est.)
total: 22.2 years
male: 22.4 years
female: 21.9 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate0.99% (2013 est.)1.89% (2013 est.)
Birth rate17.38 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)25.4 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate6.31 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)6.54 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate-1.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.14 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 26.06 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 30.47 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 21.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
total: 40.84 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 44.53 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 36.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 71.9 years
male: 69.33 years
female: 74.59 years (2013 est.)
total population: 66.66 years
male: 64.44 years
female: 69 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate2.2 children born/woman (2013 est.)3.31 children born/woman (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.2% (2009 est.)0.9% (2009 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
noun: Papua New Guinean(s)
adjective: Papua New Guinean
Ethnic groupsJavanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS310,000 (2009 est.)34,000 (2009 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)Roman Catholic 27%, Protestant 69.4% (Evangelical Lutheran 19.5%, United Church 11.5%, Seventh-Day Adventist 10%, Pentecostal 8.6%, Evangelical Alliance 5.2%, Anglican 3.2%, Baptist 2.5%, other Protestant 8.9%), Baha'i 0.3%, indigenous beliefs and other 3.3% (2000 census)
HIV/AIDS - deaths8,300 (2009 est.)1,300 (2009 est.)
LanguagesBahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)Tok Pisin (official), English (official), Hiri Motu (official), some 836 indigenous languages spoken (about 12% of the world's total); most languages have fewer than 1,000 speakers
note: Tok Pisin, a creole language, is widely used and understood; English is spoken by 1%-2%; Hiri Motu is spoken by less than 2%
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.8%
male: 95.6%
female: 90.1% (2011 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 62.4%
male: 65.4%
female: 59.4% (2011 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2013)
Education expenditures3% of GDP (2010)NA
Urbanizationurban population: 50.7% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.45% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 13% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 2.9% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 92% of population
rural: 74% of population
total: 82% of population
unimproved:
urban: 8% of population
rural: 26% of population
total: 18% of population (2010 est.)
improved:
urban: 87% of population
rural: 33% of population
total: 40% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13% of population
rural: 67% of population
total: 60% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 73% of population
rural: 39% of population
total: 54% of population
unimproved:
urban: 27% of population
rural: 61% of population
total: 46% of population (2010 est.)
improved:
urban: 71% of population
rural: 41% of population
total: 45% of population
unimproved:
urban: 29% of population
rural: 59% of population
total: 55% of population (2010 est.)
Major cities - populationJAKARTA (capital) 9.121 million; Surabaya 2.509 million; Bandung 2.412 million; Medan 2.131 million; Semarang 1.296 million (2009)PORT MORESBY (capital) 314,000 (2009)
Maternal mortality rate220 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)230 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight19.6% (2007)18.1% (2005)
Health expenditures2.7% of GDP (2011)4.3% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density0.204 physicians/1,000 population (2012)0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate4.8% (2008)16.2% (2008)
Contraceptive prevalence rate61.9% (2012)32.4% (2007)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 51.8 %
youth dependency ratio: 43.8 %
elderly dependency ratio: 7.9 %
potential support ratio: 12.6 (2013)
total dependency ratio: 69.3 %
youth dependency ratio: 64.3 %
elderly dependency ratio: 4.9 %
potential support ratio: 20.3 (2013)

Government

IndonesiaPapua New Guinea
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies
conventional long form: Independent State of Papua New Guinea
conventional short form: Papua New Guinea
local short form: Papuaniugini
former: Territory of Papua and New Guinea
abbreviation: PNG
Government typerepublicconstitutional parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm
Capitalname: Jakarta
geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: Indonesia is divided into three time zones
name: Port Moresby
geographic coordinates: 9 27 S, 147 11 E
time difference: UTC+10 (15 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions31 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 1 autonomous province*, 1 special region** (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 national capital district*** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya***, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Utara (North Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta**
note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
20 provinces, 1 autonomous region*, and 1 district**; Bougainville*, Central, Chimbu, Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Hela, Jiwaka, Madang, Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital**, New Ireland, Northern, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New Britain, West Sepik
Independence17 August 1945 (declared)16 September 1975 (from the Australian-administered UN trusteeship)
National holidayIndependence Day, 17 August (1945)Independence Day, 16 September (1975)
ConstitutionAugust 1945; abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959; series of amendments concluded in 200216 September 1975
Legal systemcivil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary lawmixed legal system of English common law and customary law
Suffrage17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; presidential election last held on 8 July 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president; percent of vote - Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO 60.8%, MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri 26.8%, Jusuf KALLA 12.4%
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Michael OGIO (since 25 February 2011)
head of government: Prime Minister Peter Paire O'NEILL (since 2 August 2011); Deputy Prime Minister Leo DION (since 9 August 2012)
cabinet: National Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; the governor general nominated by parliament and appointed by the chief of state; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general acting in accordance with a decision of the parliament; Peter Paire O'NEILL elected prime minister by parliament on 3 August 2012 by a vote of 94 to 12
Legislative branchPeople's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) is the upper house; it consists of members of the DPR and DPD and has role in inaugurating and impeaching the president and in amending the constitution but does not formulate national policy; House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (560 seats, members elected to serve five-year terms), formulates and passes legislation at the national level; House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions (132 members, four from each of Indonesia's origianal 30 provinces, two special regions, and one special capital city district)
elections: last held on 9 April 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: percent of vote by party - PD 20.9%, GOLKAR 14.5%, PDI-P 14.0%, PKS 7.9%, PAN 6.0%, PPP 5.3%, PKB 4.9%, GERINDRA 4.5%, HANURA 3.8%, others 18.2%; seats by party - PD 148, GOLKAR 107, PDI-P 94, PKS 57, PAN 46, PPP 37, PKB 28, GERINDRA 26, HANURA 17
note: 29 other parties received less than 2.5% of the vote so did not obtain any seats; because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties
unicameral National Parliament (111 seats, 89 filled from open electorates and 20 from provinces and national capital district; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); constitution allows up to 126 seats
elections: last held from 23 June 2012 to 27 July 2012 (next to be held in June 2017)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - People's National Congress Party 27, Triumph Heritage Empowerment Party 12, PNG Party 8, National Alliance Party 7, United Resources Party 7, People's Party 6, People's Progess Party 6, other parties 22, independents 16
note: 14 other parties won 3 or fewer seats; association with political parties is fluid
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (51 judges divided into 8 chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by Judicial Commission, appointed by president with concurrence of parliament; judges serve until retirement age; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by president, 3 by Supreme Court, and 3 by parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: High Courts of Appeal, district courts, religious courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, deputy chief justice, and 28 other judges); National Courts (10 courts located in the province capitals, with a total of 16 resident judges )
judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the governor-general upon advice of the National Executive Council (cabinet) after consultation with the National Justice Administration Minister; deputy chief justice and other justices appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission, a 5-member body to include the Supreme Court chief and deputy chief justices, the chief ombudsman, and a member of the National Parliament; citizen judges appointed for 10-year renewable terms; non-citizen judges appointed for 3-year renewable terms; appointment and tenure of National Court resident judges NA
subordinate courts: district, village, and juvenile courts
Political parties and leadersDemocrat Party or PD [Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO]
Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Aburizal BAKRIE]
Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [SUHARDI]
Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]
National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]
National Mandate Party or PAN [Hatta RAJASA]
People's Conscience Party or HANURA [WIRANTO]
Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Anis MATTA]
United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI]
National Alliance Party or NA [Patrick PRUAITCHI]
Papua New Guinea Party or PNGP [Beldan NEMAH]
People's National Congress Party or PNC [Peter Paire O'NEILL]
People's Party or PP
People's Progress Party or PPP
Triumph Heritage Empowerment Party or THE [Don POYLE]
United Resources Party or URP [William DUMA]

note: as of 13 March 2012, 41 political parties were registered
Political pressure groups and leadersCommission for the "Disappeared" and Victims of Violence or KontraS
Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW
Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI
Centre for Environment Law and Community Rights or Celcor [Damien ASE]
Community Coalition Against Corruption
National Council of Women
Transparency International PNG
International organization participationADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTOACP, ADB, AOSIS, APEC, ARF, ASEAN (observer), C, CD, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Budi BOWOLEKSONO (nominated)
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Elias Rahuromo WOHENGU
chancery: 1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 805, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 745-3680
FAX: [1] (202) 745-3679
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kristen F. BAUER (since 18 July 2013)
embassy: Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 386-2259
consulate general: Surabaya
presence post: Medan
consular agent: Bali
chief of mission: Ambassador Walter E. NORTH (since 7 November 2012)
embassy: Douglas Street, Port Moresby, N.C.D.
mailing address: 4240 Port Moresby PI, US Department of State, Washington DC 20521-4240
telephone: [675] 321-1455
FAX: [675] 321-3423
Flag descriptiontwo equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity
note: similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red
divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower triangle is black with five, white, five-pointed stars of the Southern Cross constellation centered; red, black, and yellow are traditional colors of Papua New Guinea; the bird of paradise - endemic to the island of New Guinea - is an emblem of regional tribal culture and represents the emergence of Papua New Guinea as a nation; the Southern Cross, visible in the night sky, symbolizes Papua New Guinea's connection with Australia and several other countries in the South Pacific
National anthemname: "Indonesia Raya" (Great Indonesia)
lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN
note: adopted 1945
name: "O Arise All You Sons"
lyrics/music: Thomas SHACKLADY
note: adopted 1975
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCthas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Economy

IndonesiaPapua New Guinea
Economy - overviewIndonesia, a vast polyglot nation, grew more than 6% annually in 2010-12. The government made economic advances under the first administration of President YUDHOYONO (2004-09), introducing significant reforms in the financial sector, including tax and customs reforms, the use of Treasury bills, and capital market development and supervision. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth in 2009. The government has promoted fiscally conservative policies, resulting in a debt-to-GDP ratio of less than 25%, a fiscal deficit below 3%, and historically low rates of inflation. Fitch and Moody's upgraded Indonesia's credit rating to investment grade in December 2011. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. The government in 2013 faces the ongoing challenge of improving Indonesia''s insufficient infrastructure to remove impediments to economic growth, labor unrest over wages, and reducing its fuel subsidy program in the face of high oil prices.Papua New Guinea (PNG) is richly endowed with natural resources, but exploitation has been hampered by rugged terrain, land tenure issues, and the high cost of developing infrastructure. The economy has a small formal sector, focused mainly on the export of those natural resources, and an informal sector, employing the majority of the population. Agriculture provides a subsistence livelihood for 85% of the people. Mineral deposits, including copper, gold, and oil, account for nearly two-thirds of export earnings. Natural gas reserves amount to an estimated 155 billion cubic meters. A consortium led by a major American oil company is constructing a liquefied natural gas (LNG) production facility that could begin exporting in 2014. As the largest investment project in the country's history, it has the potential to double GDP in the near-term and triple Papua New Guinea's export revenue. An American-owned firm also opened PNG's first oil refinery in 2004 and is building a second LNG production facility. The government faces the challenge of ensuring transparency and accountability for revenues flowing from this and other large LNG projects. In 2011 and 2012, the National Parliament passed legislation that created an offshore Sovereign Wealth Fund (SWF) to manage government surpluses from mineral, oil, and natural gas projects. In recent years, the government has opened up markets in telecommunications and air transport, making both more affordable to the people. Numerous challenges still face the government of Peter O'NEILL, including providing physical security for foreign investors, regaining investor confidence, restoring integrity to state institutions, promoting economic efficiency by privatizing moribund state institutions, and maintaining good relations with Australia, its former colonial ruler. Other socio-cultural challenges could upend the economy including chronic law and order and land tenure issues. The global financial crisis had little impact because of continued foreign demand for PNG's commodities.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$1.237 trillion (2012 est.)
$1.164 trillion (2011 est.)
$1.093 trillion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
$19.41 billion (2012 est.)
$17.79 billion (2011 est.)
$16.02 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP - real growth rate6.2% (2012 est.)
6.5% (2011 est.)
6.2% (2010 est.)
9.1% (2012 est.)
11.1% (2011 est.)
7.6% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$5,100 (2012 est.)
$4,800 (2011 est.)
$4,600 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
$2,800 (2012 est.)
$2,700 (2011 est.)
$2,500 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 14.4%
industry: 47%
services: 38.6% (2012 est.)
agriculture: 28%
industry: 38.6%
services: 33.4% (2012 est.)
Population below poverty line11.7% (2012 est.)37% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 29.9% (2009)
lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 40.5% (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)4.3% (2012 est.)
5.4% (2011 est.)
2.2% (2012 est.)
8.4% (2011 est.)
Labor force118.1 million (2012 est.)3.986 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 38.9%
industry: 22.2%
services: 47.9% (2012 est.)
agriculture: 85%
industry: NA%
services: NA% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate6.1% (2012 est.)
6.6% (2011 est.)
1.9% (2008 est.)
1.8% (2004)
Distribution of family income - Gini index36.8 (2009)
39.4 (2005)
50.9 (1996)
Budgetrevenues: $164 billion
expenditures: $180.9 billion (2012 est.)
revenues: $4.532 billion
expenditures: $4.769 billion (2012 est.)
Industriespetroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instuments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourismcopra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood chip production; mining (gold, silver, and copper); crude oil production, petroleum refining; construction, tourism
Industrial production growth rate5.2% (2012 est.)13% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - productsrubber and similar products, palm oil, poultry, beef, forest products, shrimp, cocoa, coffee, medicinal herbs, essential oil, fish and its similar products, and spicescoffee, cocoa, copra, palm kernels, tea, sugar, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables, vanilla; poultry, pork; shellfish
Exports$187 billion (2012 est.)
$191.1 billion (2011 est.)
$5.604 billion (2012 est.)
$6.791 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commoditiesoil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubberoil, gold, copper ore, logs, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, crayfish, prawns
Exports - partnersJapan 15.9%, China 11.4%, Singapore 9%, South Korea 7.9%, US 7.8%, India 6.6%, Malaysia 5.9% (2012)Australia 29%, Japan 9.6%, China 4.8% (2012)
Imports$178.5 billion (2012 est.)
$157.3 billion (2011 est.)
$4.412 billion (2012 est.)
$4.24 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffsmachinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, fuels, chemicals
Imports - partnersChina 15.3%, Singapore 13.6%, Japan 11.9%, Malaysia 6.4%, South Korea 6.2%, US 6.1%, Thailand 6% (2012)Australia 36.3%, Singapore 13.8%, Malaysia 8.4%, China 7.9%, Japan 5.8%, US 4.8% (2012)
Debt - external$251.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$225.4 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$13.25 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$12.44 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Exchange ratesIndonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar -
9,386.6 (2012 est.)
8,770.43 (2011 est.)
9,090.4 (2010 est.)
10,389.9 (2009)
9,698.9 (2008)
kina (PGK) per US dollar -
2.0837 (2012 est.)
2.371 (2011 est.)
2.7193 (2010 est.)
2.7551 (2009)
2.6956 (2008)
Fiscal yearcalendar yearcalendar year
Investment (gross fixed)33.2% of GDP (2012 est.)20.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt23% of GDP (2012 est.)
22.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
14.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
12.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$112.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$110.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$4.001 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.323 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Current Account Balance-$20.73 billion (2012 est.)
$2.069 billion (2011 est.)
-$4.381 billion (2012 est.)
-$48.5 million (2011 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$878.2 billion (2012 est.)$15.79 billion (2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$192.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$173.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$14.93 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$9.502 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares$426.8 billion (31 December 2012)
$390.1 billion (31 December 2011)
$360.4 billion (31 December 2010)
$8.999 billion (31 December 2011)
$9.742 billion (31 December 2010)
$12.21 billion (31 December 2009)
Central bank discount rate6.37% (31 December 2010)
6.46% (31 December 2009)
note: this figure represents the 3-month SBI rate; the Bank of Indonesia has not employed the one-month SBI since September 2010
14% (31 December 2010 est.)
6.92% (31 December 2009 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate11.8% (31 December 2012 est.)
12.4% (31 December 2011 est.)
note: these figures represent the average annualized rate on working capital loans
10.82% (31 December 2012 est.)
10.81% (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$350 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$307.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$4.342 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$3.093 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of narrow money$87.04 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$79.73 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$5.301 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.488 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of broad money$355.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$317.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$8.624 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$7.134 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Taxes and other revenues18.7% of GDP (2012 est.)28.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1.9% of GDP (2012 est.)-1.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 54.6%
government consumption: 8.9%
investment in fixed capital: 33.2%
investment in inventories: 2.2%
exports of goods and services: 24.3%
imports of goods and services: -25.8%
(2012 est.)
household consumption: 46.4%
government consumption: 17%
investment in fixed capital: 20.7%
investment in inventories: 0.9%
exports of goods and services: 69.8%
imports of goods and services: -54.8%
(2012 est.)
Gross national saving32.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
33.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
33% of GDP (2010 est.)
7.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
18.3% of GDP (2011 est.)
10.2% of GDP (2010 est.)

Energy

IndonesiaPapua New Guinea
Electricity - production183.4 billion kWh (2011 est.)3.331 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - consumption158 billion kWh (2011 est.)3.098 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2011 est.)0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports2.542 billion kWh (2011 est.)0 kWh (2010 est.)
Oil - production912,100 bbl/day (2011 est.)30,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Oil - imports265,400 bbl/day (2011 est.)15,100 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil - exports371,400 bbl/day (2011 est.)0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil - proved reserves4 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)170 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves3.994 trillion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)155.3 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Natural gas - production82.8 billion cu m (2010 est.)110 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption41.35 billion cu m (2010 est.)110 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports41.25 billion cu m (2010 est.)0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2010 est.)0 cu m (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity39.9 million kW (2011 est.)700,000 kW (2009 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production935,300 bbl/day (2011 est.)16,080 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption1.322 million bbl/day (2011 est.)36,320 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports142,400 bbl/day (2008 est.)3,536 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports407,700 bbl/day (2011 est.)7,201 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy402.1 million Mt (2011 est.)5.306 million Mt (2010 est.)

Telecommunications

IndonesiaPapua New Guinea
Telephones - main lines in use37.983 million (2012)139,000 (2012)
Telephones - mobile cellular281.96 million (2012)2.709 million (2012)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good
domestic: coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly
international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2011)
general assessment: services are minimal; facilities provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and international radio communication services
domestic: access to telephone services is not widely available although combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to roughly 40 per 100 persons
international: country code - 675; submarine cables to Australia and Guam; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); international radio communication service (2009)
Internet country code.id.pg
Internet users20 million (2009)125,000 (2009)
Internet hosts1.344 million (2012)5,006 (2012)
Broadcast mediamixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 2 public broadcasters, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately operated (2008)2 TV stations, 1 commercial station operating since the late 1980s and 1 state-run station launched in 2008; satellite and cable TV services are available; state-run National Broadcasting Corporation operates 3 radio networks with multiple repeaters and about 20 provincial stations; several commercial radio stations with multiple transmission points as well as several community stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are accessible (2009)

Transportation

IndonesiaPapua New Guinea
Roadwaystotal: 496,607 km
paved: 283,102 km
unpaved: 213,505 km (2011)
total: 9,349 km
paved: 3,000 km
unpaved: 6,349 km (2011)
Waterways21,579 km (2011)11,000 km (2011)
Pipelinescondensate 1,064 km; condensate/gas 150 km; gas 11,702 km; liquid petroleum gas 119 km; oil 7,767 km; oil/gas/water 77 km; refined products 728 km; unknown 53 km; water 44 km (2013)oil 264 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsBanjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung PriokKimbe, Lae, Madang, Rabaul, Wewak
Merchant marinetotal: 1,340
by type: bulk carrier 105, cargo 618, chemical tanker 69, container 120, liquefied gas 28, passenger 49, passenger/cargo 77, petroleum tanker 244, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 11
foreign-owned: 69 (China 1, France 1, Greece 1, Japan 8, Jordan 1, Malaysia 1, Norway 3, Singapore 46, South Korea 2, Taiwan 1, UK 2, US 2)
registered in other countries: 95 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, China 2, Hong Kong 10, Liberia 4, Marshall Islands 1, Mongolia 2, Panama 10, Singapore 60, Tuvalu 1, unknown 1) (2010)
total: 31
by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 22, petroleum tanker 2
foreign-owned: 8 (Germany 1, Malaysia 1, UAE 6) (2010)
Airports673 (2013)561 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 186
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
914 to 1,523 m: 72
under 914 m: 37 (2013)
total: 21
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 487
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m:
460 (2013)
total: 540
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m:
476 (2013)
Heliports76 (2013)2 (2013)

Military

IndonesiaPapua New Guinea
Military branchesIndonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes marines (Korps Marinir, KorMar), naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2013)Papua New Guinea Defense Force (PNGDF; includes Maritime Operations Element, Air Operations Element) (2013)
Military service age and obligation18-45 years of age for voluntary military service, with selective conscription authorized; 2-year service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2012)16 years of age for voluntary military service (with parental consent); no conscription; graduation from grade 12 required (2013)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 65,847,171
females age 16-49: 63,228,017 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 1,568,210
females age 16-49: 1,478,965 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 54,264,299
females age 16-49: 53,274,361 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 1,130,951
females age 16-49: 1,137,753 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 2,263,892
female: 2,191,267 (2010 est.)
male: 67,781
female: 65,820 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.9% of GDP (2012)0.5% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

IndonesiaPapua New Guinea
Disputes - internationalIndonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundaries have been established between the countries; many refugees from Timor-Leste who left in 2003 still reside in Indonesia and refuse repatriation; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches; land and maritime negotiations with Malaysia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; EEZ negotiations with Vietnam are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundaryrelies on assistance from Australia to keep out illegal cross-border activities from primarily Indonesia, including goods smuggling, illegal narcotics trafficking, and squatters and secessionists
Illicit drugsillicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasymajor consumer of cannabis
Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 180,000 (government offensives against rebels in Aceh; most IDPs in Aceh, Central Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi Provinces, and Maluku) (2011)refugees (country of origin): 9,368 (Indonesia) (2012)

Source: CIA Factbook