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India vs. Sri Lanka

Geography

IndiaSri Lanka
LocationSouthern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
Southern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of India
Geographic coordinates20 00 N, 77 00 E
7 00 N, 81 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Asia
Areatotal: 3,287,263 sq km
land: 2,973,193 sq km
water: 314,070 sq km
total: 65,610 sq km
land: 64,630 sq km
water: 980 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly more than one-third the size of the US
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundariestotal: 13,888 km
border countries (6): Bangladesh 4,142 km, Bhutan 659 km, Burma 1,468 km, China 2,659 km, Nepal 1,770 km, Pakistan 3,190 km
0 km
Coastline7,000 km
1,340 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatevaries from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest monsoon (June to October)
Terrainupland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central interior
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 160 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m
mean elevation: 228 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pidurutalagala 2,524 m
Natural resourcescoal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, phosphates, clay, hydropower, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 60.5%
arable land 52.8%; permanent crops 4.2%; permanent pasture 3.5%
forest: 23.1%
other: 16.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 43.5%
arable land 20.7%; permanent crops 15.8%; permanent pasture 7%
forest: 29.4%
other: 27.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land667,000 sq km (2012)
5,700 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsdroughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes
volcanism: Barren Island (elev. 354 m) in the Andaman Sea has been active in recent years
occasional cyclones and tornadoes
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by poaching and urbanization; coastal degradation from mining activities and increased pollution; freshwater resources being polluted by industrial wastes and sewage runoff; waste disposal; air pollution in Colombo
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - notedominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal
strategic location near major Indian Ocean sea lanes
Population distributionwith the notable exception of the deserts in the northwest, including the Thar Desert, and the mountain fringe in the north, a very high population density exists throughout most of the country; the core of the population is in the north along the banks of the Ganges, with other river valleys and southern coastal areas also having large population concentrations
the population is primarily concentrated within a broad wet zone in the southwest, urban centers along the eastern coast, and on the Jaffna Peninsula in the north

Source: CIA Factbook