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India vs. Pakistan

Demographics

IndiaPakistan
Population1,266,883,598 (July 2016 est.)
201,995,540 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 27.71% (male 186,420,229/female 164,611,755)
15-24 years: 17.99% (male 121,009,850/female 106,916,692)
25-54 years: 40.91% (male 267,203,029/female 251,070,105)
55-64 years: 7.3% (male 46,398,574/female 46,105,489)
65 years and over: 6.09% (male 36,549,003/female 40,598,872) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 31.99% (male 33,195,073/female 31,429,440)
15-24 years: 21.31% (male 22,194,064/female 20,845,816)
25-54 years: 36.87% (male 38,680,978/female 35,794,333)
55-64 years: 5.43% (male 5,498,126/female 5,463,453)
65 years and over: 4.4% (male 4,139,899/female 4,754,358) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 27.6 years
male: 26.9 years
female: 28.3 years (2016 est.)
total: 23.4 years
male: 23.3 years
female: 23.4 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.19% (2016 est.)
1.45% (2016 est.)
Birth rate19.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
22.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-1.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 40.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 39.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 41.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 53.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 57 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 50.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 68.5 years
male: 67.3 years
female: 69.8 years (2016 est.)
total population: 67.7 years
male: 65.8 years
female: 69.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.45 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.68 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.26% (2013 est.)
0.09% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian
noun: Pakistani(s)
adjective: Pakistani
Ethnic groupsIndo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
Punjabi 44.7%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.4%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.4%, Muhajirs 7.6%, Balochi 3.6%, other 6.3%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS2,118,100 (2015 est.)
102,000 (2015 est.)
ReligionsHindu 79.8%, Muslim 14.2%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.7%, other and unspecified 2% (2011 est.)
Muslim (official) 96.4% (Sunni 85-90%, Shia 10-15%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3.6% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths67,600 (2015 est.)
3,600 (2015 est.)
LanguagesHindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9%
note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the most widely spoken language and primary tongue of 41% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2001 census)
Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Saraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashto (alternate name, Pashtu) 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.2%
male: 81.3%
female: 60.6% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.9%
male: 69.5%
female: 45.8% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
water contact disease: leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2014)
total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 7 years (2015)
Education expenditures3.8% of GDP (2013)
2.7% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 32.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.38% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 38.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.81% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 97.1% of population
rural: 92.6% of population
total: 94.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.9% of population
rural: 7.4% of population
total: 5.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 93.9% of population
rural: 89.9% of population
total: 91.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.1% of population
rural: 10.1% of population
total: 8.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 62.6% of population
rural: 28.5% of population
total: 39.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 37.4% of population
rural: 71.5% of population
total: 60.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 83.1% of population
rural: 51.1% of population
total: 63.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 16.9% of population
rural: 48.9% of population
total: 36.5% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationNEW DELHI (capital) 25.703 million; Mumbai 21.043 million; Kolkata 11.766 million; Bangalore 10.087 million; Chennai 9.62 million; Hyderabad 8.944 million (2015)
Karachi 16.618 million; Lahore 8.741 million; Faisalabad 3.567 million; Rawalpindi 2.506 million; Multan 1.921 million; ISLAMABAD (capital) 1.365 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate174 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
178 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures4.7% of GDP (2014)
2.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.73 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
0.81 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.6 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate4.7% (2014)
4.8% (2014)
Contraceptive prevalence rate54.8% (2007/08)
35.4% (2012/13)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 52.4
youth dependency ratio: 43.9
elderly dependency ratio: 8.6
potential support ratio: 11.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 65.3
youth dependency ratio: 57.9
elderly dependency ratio: 7.4
potential support ratio: 13.5 (2015 est.)

Source: CIA Factbook