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India vs. Bhutan

Geography

IndiaBhutan
LocationSouthern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
Southern Asia, between China and India
Geographic coordinates20 00 N, 77 00 E
27 30 N, 90 30 E
Map referencesAsia
Asia
Areatotal: 3,287,263 sq km
land: 2,973,193 sq km
water: 314,070 sq km
total: 38,394 sq km
land: 38,394 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly more than one-third the size of the US
slightly larger than Maryland; about one-half the size of Indiana
Land boundariestotal: 13,888 km
border countries (6): Bangladesh 4,142 km, Bhutan 659 km, Burma 1,468 km, China 2,659 km, Nepal 1,770 km, Pakistan 3,190 km
total: 1,136 km
border countries (2): China 477 km, India 659 km
Coastline7,000 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
none (landlocked)
Climatevaries from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas
Terrainupland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 160 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m
mean elevation: 2,220 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Drangeme Chhu 97 m
highest point: Gangkar Puensum 7,570 m
Natural resourcescoal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbonate
Land useagricultural land: 60.5%
arable land 52.8%; permanent crops 4.2%; permanent pasture 3.5%
forest: 23.1%
other: 16.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 13.6%
arable land 2.6%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 10.7%
forest: 85.5%
other: 0.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land667,000 sq km (2012)
320 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsdroughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes
volcanism: Barren Island (elev. 354 m) in the Andaman Sea has been active in recent years
violent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's Bhutanese name, which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
soil erosion; limited access to potable water
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - notedominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal
landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes

Source: CIA Factbook