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Hungary vs. Ukraine

Introduction

HungaryUkraine
Background"Hungary became a Christian kingdom in A.D. 1000 and for many centuries served as a bulwark against Ottoman Turkish expansion in Europe. The kingdom eventually became part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and an announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called ""Goulash Communism."" Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU five years later.
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"Ukraine was the center of the first eastern Slavic state, Kyivan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Weakened by internecine quarrels and Mongol invasions, Kyivan Rus was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The cultural and religious legacy of Kyivan Rus laid the foundation for Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries. A new Ukrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the mid-17th century after an uprising against the Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for well over 100 years. During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire. Following the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine achieved a short-lived period of independence (1917-20), but was reconquered and endured a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two forced famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died. In World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for 7 to 8 million more deaths. Although Ukraine achieved independence in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, democracy and prosperity remained elusive as the legacy of state control and endemic corruption stalled efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties.
A peaceful mass protest referred to as the ""Orange Revolution"" in the closing months of 2004 forced the authorities to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor YUSHCHENKO. Subsequent internal squabbles in the YUSHCHENKO camp allowed his rival Viktor YANUKOVYCH to stage a comeback in parliamentary (Rada) elections, become prime minister in August 2006, and be elected president in February 2010. In October 2012, Ukraine held Rada elections, widely criticized by Western observers as flawed due to use of government resources to favor ruling party candidates, interference with media access, and harassment of opposition candidates. President YANUKOVYCH's backtracking on a trade and cooperation agreement with the EU in November 2013 - in favor of closer economic ties with Russia - and subsequent use of force against students, civil society activists, and other civilians in favor of the agreement led to a three-month protest occupation of Kyiv's central square. The government's use of violence to break up the protest camp in February 2014 led to all out pitched battles, scores of deaths, international condemnation, and the president's abrupt departure for Russia. New elections in the spring allowed pro-West president Petro POROSHENKO to assume office on 7 June 2014.
Shortly after YANUKOVYCH's departure in late February 2014, Russian President PUTIN ordered the invasion of Ukraine's Crimean Peninsula claiming the action was to protect ethnic Russians living there. Two weeks later, a ""referendum"" was held regarding the integration of Crimea into the Russian Federation. The ""referendum"" was condemned as illegitimate by the Ukrainian Government, the EU, the US, and the UN General Assembly (UNGA). In response to Russia's purported annexation of Crimea, 100 members of the UN passed UNGA resolution 68/262, rejecting the ""referendum"" as baseless and invalid and confiming the sovereignty, political independence, unity, and territorial integrity of Ukraine. Russia also continues to supply separatists in two of Ukraine's eastern provinces with manpower, funding, and materiel resulting in an armed conflict with the Ukrainian Government. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, and the unrecognized separatist republics signed the Minsk Protocol and Memorandum in September 2014 to end the conflict. However, this agreement failed to stop the fighting. In a renewed attempt to alleviate ongoing clashes, leaders of Ukraine, Russia, France, and Germany negotiated a follow-on package of measures in February 2015 to implement the Minsk Agreements. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe also meet regularly to facilitate implementation of the peace deal. More than 33,000 civilians have been killed or wounded in the fighting resulting from Russian aggression in eastern Ukraine.
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Geography

HungaryUkraine
LocationCentral Europe, northwest of Romania
Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and Russia in the east
Geographic coordinates47 00 N, 20 00 E
49 00 N, 32 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Asia, Europe
Areatotal: 93,028 sq km
land: 89,608 sq km
water: 3,420 sq km
total: 603,550 sq km
land: 579,330 sq km
water: 24,220 sq km
note: approximately 43,133 sq km, or about 7.1% of Ukraine's area, is Russian occupied
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Virginia; about the same size as Indiana
almost four times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundariestotal: 2,106 km
border countries (7): Austria 321 km, Croatia 348 km, Romania 424 km, Serbia 164 km, Slovakia 627 km, Slovenia 94 km, Ukraine 128 km
total: 5,618 km
border countries (7): Belarus 1,111 km, Hungary 128 km, Moldova 1,202 km, Poland 535 km, Romania 601 km, Russia 1,944 km, Slovakia 97 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
2,782 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m or to the depth of exploitation
Climatetemperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; warm summers across the greater part of the country, hot in the south
Terrainmostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
mostly fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, with mountains found only in the west (the Carpathians) or in the extreme south of the Crimean Peninsula
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 143 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
mean elevation: 175 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m
Natural resourcesbauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 58.9%
arable land 48.5%; permanent crops 2%; permanent pasture 8.4%
forest: 22.5%
other: 18.6% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 71.2%
arable land 56.1%; permanent crops 1.5%; permanent pasture 13.6%
forest: 16.8%
other: 12% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,721 sq km (2012)
21,670 sq km (2012)
Environment - current issuesthe upgrading of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution to meet EU requirements will require large investments
inadequate supplies of potable water; air and water pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination in the northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
Geography - notelandlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions
strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second-largest country in Europe after Russia
Population distributiona fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations
densest settlement in the eastern (Donbas) and western regions; noteable concentrations in and around major urban areas of Kyiv, Kharkiv, Donets'k, Dnipropetrovs'k, and Odesa

Demographics

HungaryUkraine
Population9,874,784 (July 2016 est.)
44,209,733 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 14.76% (male 750,516/female 706,780)
15-24 years: 11.19% (male 570,097/female 534,856)
25-54 years: 41.74% (male 2,071,865/female 2,049,939)
55-64 years: 13.66% (male 620,362/female 728,387)
65 years and over: 18.65% (male 693,609/female 1,148,373) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 15.51% (male 3,528,821/female 3,326,405)
15-24 years: 10.3% (male 2,334,454/female 2,218,718)
25-54 years: 44.47% (male 9,639,404/female 10,020,385)
55-64 years: 13.68% (male 2,587,898/female 3,458,016)
65 years and over: 16.05% (male 2,375,904/female 4,719,728) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 41.8 years
male: 39.9 years
female: 44.1 years (2016 est.)
total: 40.4 years
male: 37.2 years
female: 43.5 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate-0.24% (2016 est.)
-0.39% (2016 est.)
Birth rate9.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
10.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate12.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
14.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75.9 years
male: 72.2 years
female: 79.8 years (2016 est.)
total population: 71.8 years
male: 67.1 years
female: 76.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.44 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.54 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
0.86% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian
noun: Ukrainian(s)
adjective: Ukrainian
Ethnic groupsHungarian 85.6%, Romani 3.2%, German 1.9%, other 2.6%, unspecified 14.1% (2011 est.)
note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic group; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–10% of Hungary's population
Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
219,000 (2015 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 37.2%, Calvinist 11.6%, Lutheran 2.2%, Greek Catholic 1.8%, other 1.9%, none 18.2%, unspecified 27.2% (2011 est.)
Orthodox (includes Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox (UAOC), Ukrainian Orthodox - Kyiv Patriarchate (UOC-KP), Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate (UOC-MP)), Ukrainian Greek Catholic, Roman Catholic, Protestant, Muslim, Jewish
note: Ukraine's population is overwhelmingly Christian; the vast majority - up to two-thirds - identify themselves as Orthodox, but many do not specify a particular branch; the UOC-KP and the UOC-MP each represent less than a quarter of the country's population, the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church accounts for 8-10%, and the UAOC accounts for 1-2%; Muslim and Jewish adherents each compose less than 1% of the total population (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths100 (2013 est.)
7,900 (2015 est.)
LanguagesHungarian (official) 99.6%, English 16%, German 11.2%, Russian 1.6%, Romanian 1.3%, French 1.2%, other 4.2%
note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Hungarian is the mother tongue of 98.9% of Hungarian speakers (2011 est.)
"Ukrainian (official) 67.5%, Russian (regional language) 29.6%, other (includes small Crimean Tatar-, Moldavian-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities) 2.9% (2001 est.)
note: 2012 legislation enables a language spoken by at least 10% of an oblast's population to be given the status of ""regional language,"" allowing for its use in courts, schools, and other government institutions; Ukrainian remains the country's only official nationwide language
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Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.1%
male: 99.1%
female: 99% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2015)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2014)
Education expenditures4.2% of GDP (2013)
6% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 71.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.47% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 69.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.33% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 95.5% of population
rural: 97.8% of population
total: 96.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.5% of population
rural: 2.2% of population
total: 3.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 97.8% of population
rural: 98.6% of population
total: 98% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.2% of population
rural: 1.4% of population
total: 2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97.4% of population
rural: 92.6% of population
total: 95.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.6% of population
rural: 7.4% of population
total: 4.1% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationBUDAPEST (capital) 1.714 million (2015)
KYIV (capital) 2.942 million; Kharkiv 1.441 million; Odesa 1.01 million; Dnipropetrovsk 957,000; Donetsk 934,000; Zaporizhzhya 753,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate17 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
24 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures7.4% of GDP (2014)
7.1% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3.32 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
3 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density7.2 beds/1,000 population (2011)
9 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate26% (2014)
21.7% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth28.2 years (2013 est.)
25 years (2013 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 47.9
youth dependency ratio: 21.5
elderly dependency ratio: 26.3
potential support ratio: 3.8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 43.3
youth dependency ratio: 21.4
elderly dependency ratio: 21.9
potential support ratio: 4.6 (2015 est.)

Government

HungaryUkraine
Country name"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Hungary
local long form: none
local short form: Magyarorszag
etymology: the Byzantine Greeks refered to the tribes that arrived on the steppes of Eastern Europe in the 9th century as the ""Oungroi,"" a name that was later Latinized to ""Ungri"" and which became ""Hungari""; the name originally meant an ""[alliance of] ten tribes""; the Hungarian name ""Magyarorszag"" means ""Country of the Magyars""; the term may derive from the most prominent of the Hungarian tribes, the Megyer
"
"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Ukraine
local long form: none
local short form: Ukrayina
former: Ukrainian National Republic, Ukrainian State, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: name derives from the Old East Slavic word ""ukraina"" meaning ""borderland or march (militarized border region)"" and began to be used extensively in the 19th century; originally Ukrainians referred to themselves as Rusyny (Rusyns, Ruthenians, or Ruthenes), an endonym derived from the medieval Rus state (Kyivan Rus)
"
Government typeparliamentary republic
semi-presidential republic
Capitalname: Budapest
geographic coordinates: 47 30 N, 19 05 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Kyiv (Kiev)
note: pronounced KAY-yiv
geographic coordinates: 50 26 N, 30 31 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 23 cities with county rights (megyei jogu varosok, singular - megyei jogu varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)
counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala
cities with county rights: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Erd, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Salgotarjan, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szekszard, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg
capital city: Budapest
24 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast'), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonomna respublika), and 2 municipalities** (mista, singular - misto) with oblast status; Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Chernivtsi, Crimea or Avtonomna Respublika Krym* (Simferopol'), Dnipropetrovs'k (Dnipro), Donets'k, Ivano-Frankivs'k, Kharkiv, Kherson, Khmel'nyts'kyy, Kirovohrad (Kropyvnyts'kyy), Kyiv**, Kyiv, Luhans'k, L'viv, Mykolayiv, Odesa, Poltava, Rivne, Sevastopol'**, Sumy, Ternopil', Vinnytsya, Volyn' (Luts'k), Zakarpattya (Uzhhorod), Zaporizhzhya, Zhytomyr
note 1: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses); plans include the eventual renaming of Dnipropetrovsk and Kirovohrad oblasts, but because these names are mentioned in the Constitution of Ukraine, the change will require a constitutional amendment
note 2: the US Government does not recognize Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their redesignation as the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol
Independence16 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 25 December 1000 (crowning of King STEPHEN I, traditional founding date); 30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established)
24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: ca. 982 (VOLODYMYR I consolidates Kyivan Rus), 1648 (establishment of the Cossack Hetmanate)
National holidaySaint Stephen's Day, 20 August (1083); note - commemorates his cannonization and the transfer of his remains to Buda (now Budapest) in 1083
Independence Day, 24 August (1991); note - 22 January 1918, the day Ukraine first declared its independence from Soviet Russia, and the date the short-lived Western and Greater (Eastern) Ukrainian republics united (1919), is now celebrated as Unity Day
Constitutionhistory: previous 1949 (heavily amended in 1989 following the collapse of communism); latest approved 18 April 2011, signed 25 April 2011, effective 1 January 2012
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by parliamentary committee, or by Parliament members; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament members and approval by the president; amended several times, last in 2013 (2016)
history: several previous; latest adopted and ratified 28 June 1996
amendments: proposed by the president of Ukraine or by at least one-third of the Supreme Council members; adoption requires simple majority vote by the Council and at least two-thirds majority vote in its next regular session; adoption of proposals relating to general constitutional principles, elections, and amendment procedures requires two-thirds majority vote by the Council and approval in a referendum; constitutional articles on personal rights and freedoms, national independence, and territorial integrity cannot be amended; amended 2004, 2010, 2015 (2016)
Legal systemcivil legal system influenced by the German model
civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage18 years of age, 16 if married; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: Janos ADER (since 10 May 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Viktor ORBAN (since 29 May 2010)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly with two-thirds majority vote in first round or simple majority vote in second round for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 March 2017 (next to be held by spring 2022); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
election results: Janos ADER (Fidesz) reelected president; National Assembly vote - 131 to 39; Viktor ORBAN (Fidesz) elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 130 to 57 (in 2014)
chief of state: President Petro POROSHENKO (since 7 June 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Volodymyr HROYSMAN (since 14 April 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Stepan KUBIV (since 14 April 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, approved by the Verkhovna Rada
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 May 2014 (next to be held in 2019); prime minister nominated by the president, confirmed by the Verkhovna Rada
election results: Petro POROSHENKO elected president; percent of vote - Petro POROSHENKO (independent) 54.5%, Yuliya TYMOSHENKO (Fatherland) 12.9%, Oleh LYASHKO (Radical Party) 8.4%, other 24.2%; Volodymyr HROYSMAN elected prime minister; Verkhovna Rada vote 257-50
note: there is also a National Security and Defense Council or NSDC originally created in 1992 as the National Security Council; the NSDC staff is tasked with developing national security policy on domestic and international matters and advising the president; a presidential administration helps draft presidential edicts and provides policy support to the president
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (199 seats; 106 members directly elected in single-member constituencies by simple majority vote and 93 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 6 April 2014 (next to be held by April 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - Fidesz-KDNP 44.5%, Unity 26%, Jobbik 20.5%, LMP 5.3%, other 3.7%; seats by party - Fidesz-KDNP 133, Unity 38, Jobbik 23, LMP 5
description: unicameral Supreme Council or Verkhovna Rada (450 seats; 225 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 225 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - because of the Russian annexation of Crimea and the partial occupation of two eastern provinces, 27 of the 450 seats remain unfilled
elections: last held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held fall of 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - NF 22.1%, BPP 21.8%, Samopomich 11.0%, OB 9.4%, Radical 7.4%, Batkivshchyna 5.7%, Svoboda 4.7%, CPU 3.9%, other 13.9%; seats by party - BPP 132, NF 82, Samopomich 33, OB 29, Radical 22, Batkivshchyna 19, Svoboda 6, other 4, independent 96, vacant 27; note - voting not held in Crimea and parts of two Russian-occupied eastern oblasts leaving 27 seats vacant; seats as of December 2015 - BPP 139, NF 81, OB 43, Samopomich 26, Vidrozhennya 23, Radical 21, Batkivshchyna 19, VN 20, independent 50, vacant 28
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Curia or Supreme Judicial Court (consists of the president, vice president, 5 department heads, and approximately 76 judges and organized into civil, criminal, economic, and administrative-labor departments; Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges including the court president)
judge selection and term of office: Curia president elected from among its members for 9 years by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president of the republic; other Curia judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a separate 15-member administrative body; judge tenure based on interim evaluations until normal retirement age; Constitutional Court judges elected by two-thirds vote of the National Assembly; members serve single renewable 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: 5 regional courts of appeal; 19 regional or county courts (including Budapest Metropolitan Court); 20 administrative and labor courts; 111 district or local courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Ukraine or SCU (consists of 95 judges organized into civil, criminal, commercial, and administrative chambers, and a military panel); Constitutional Court (consists of 18 justices)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the Supreme Council of Justice or SCJ (a 20-member independent body of judicial officials and other appointees) and appointed by presidential decree; judges initially appointed for 5 years and, if approved by the SCJ, serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court justices appointed - 6 each by the president, by the SCU, and by the Verkhovna Rada; justices appointed for 9-year non-renewable terms
subordinate courts: specialized high courts; Courts of Cassation; Courts of Appeal; regional, district, city, and town courts
Political parties and leadersChristian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]
Democratic Coalition or DK [Ferenc GYURCSANY]
Dialogue for Hungary or PM [Javor BENEDEK, Timea SZABO]
Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN]
Hungarian Liberal Party or MLP [Gabor FODOR]
Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Gyula MOLNAR]
Movement for a Better Hungary or Jobbik [Gabor VONA]
Politics Can Be Different or LMP [Bernadett SZEL, Akos HADHAZI]
Together 2014 or Egyutt [Peter JUHASZ, Viktor SZIGETVARI]
"Batkivshchyna (""Fatherland"") [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO]
Bloc of Petro Poroshenko – Solidarnist or BPP [Vitaliy KLYCHKO] (formed from the merger of Solidarnist and UDAR)
Narodnyy Front (""People's Front"") or NF [Arseniy YATSENIUK]
Opposition Bloc or OB [Yuriy BOYKO]
Radical Party [Oleh LYASHKO]
Samopomich (""Self Reliance"") [Andriy SADOVYY]
Svoboda (""Freedom"") [Oleh TYAHNYBOK]
Ukrainian Association of Patriots or UKROP [Taras BATENKO]
Vidrozhennya (""Revival"") [Vitaliy KHOMUTYNNIK] (parliamentary group)
Volya Narodu (“People's Will”) or VN [Yaroslav MOSKALENKO] (parliamentary group)
"
Political pressure groups and leaders"Civil Osszefogas Forum (""Civil Unity Forum,"" nominally independent organization that serves as the steering committee for the pro-government mass organization Bekemenet (Peace March), supporting ORBAN government's policies)
Hungarian Civil Liberties Union (Tarsasag a Szabadsagjogokert) or TASZ (freedom of expression, information privacy)
Hungarian Helsinki Committee (asylum seekers' rights, human rights in law enforcement and the judicial system)
MigSzol (Migrant Solidarity Group of Hungary) (independent advocacy group on migration crisis)
MostMi (""Now Us"") [Bori TAKACS, Zsolt VARADY](Facebook group that was a major participant at anti-government demonstrations in late 2014-early 2015; pro-Europe, anti-establishment movement that blames Fidesz for the state of the country, but also blames all established political parties for perceived political and economic failures since the fall of communism)
Okotars (empowerment of civil society in Hungary)

other:
Energy Club (Energia Klub)
Greenpeace Hungary (Greenpeace Magyarorszag)
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Centre UA [Oleh RYBACHUK]
OPORA Civic Network [Olha AIVAZOVSKA]
International organization participationAustralia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Australia Group, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CICA (observer), CIS (participating member, has not signed the 1993 CIS charter), EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Laszlo SZABO designated
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
consulate(s): Boston
chief of mission: Ambassador Valeriy CHALYY (since 3 August 2015)
chancery: 3350 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 349-2920
FAX: [1] (202) 333-0817
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d’Affaires David KOSTELANCIK (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400
FAX: [36] (1) 475-4248
chief of mission: Ambassador Marie YOVANOVITCH (since 29 August 2016)
embassy: 4 Igor Sikorsky Street, 04112 Kyiv
mailing address: 5850 Kyiv Place, Washington, DC 20521-5850
telephone: [380] (44) 521-5000
FAX: [380] (44) 521-5155
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green; the flag dates to the national movement of the 18th and 19th centuries, and fuses the medieval colors of the Hungarian coat of arms with the revolutionary tricolor form of the French flag; folklore attributes virtues to the colors: red for strength, white for faithfulness, and green for hope; alternatively, the red is seen as being for the blood spilled in defense of the land, white for freedom, and green for the pasturelands that make up so much of the country
two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow represent grain fields under a blue sky
National anthem"name: ""Himnusz"" (Hymn)
lyrics/music: Ferenc KOLCSEY/Ferenc ERKEL
note: adopted 1844
"
"name: ""Shche ne vmerla Ukraina"" (Ukraine Has Not Yet Perished)
lyrics/music: Paul CHUBYNSKYI/Mikhail VERBYTSKYI
note: music adopted 1991, lyrics adopted 2003; song first performed in 1864 at the Ukraine Theatre in Lviv; the lyrics, originally written in 1862, were revised in 2003
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)Holy Crown of Hungary (Crown of Saint Stephen); national colors: red, white, green
tryzub (trident); national colors: blue, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Hungary
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ukraine
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

HungaryUkraine
Economy - overviewHungary has made the transition from a centrally planned to a liberal market-driven economy with a per capita income nearly two-thirds that of the EU-28 average; however, in recent years the government has become more involved in managing the economy. Budapest has implemented unorthodox economic policies to boost household consumption and has relied on EU-funded development projects to generate growth.

The economy is largely driven by exports, making it vulnerable to external market shocks. Following the fall of communism in 1990, Hungary experienced a drop-off in exports and financial assistance from the former Soviet Union. Hungary embarked on a series of economic reforms, including privatization of state-owned enterprises and reduction of social spending programs, to shift from a centrally planned to a market-driven economy, and to reorient its economy towards trade with the West. These efforts helped to spur growth, attract investment, and reduce Hungary’s debt burden and fiscal deficits. However, living conditions for the average Hungarian initially deteriorated as inflation increased and unemployment reached double digits. Conditions slowly improved over the 1990s as the reforms came to fruition and export growth accelerated. Economic policies instituted during that decade helped position Hungary to join the European Union in 2004; Hungary has yet to join the euro zone, however. Hungary suffered a historic economic contraction as a result of the global economic slowdown in 2008-09 as export demand and domestic consumption dropped, prompting it to take an IMF-EU financial assistance package.

Since 2010, the government has backpedalled on reforms and taken a more nationalist and populist approach towards economic management. The government has favored national industries, and specifically government-linked businesses, through legislation, regulation, and public procurements. In 2010 and 2012, the government increased taxes on foreign-dominated sectors, such as banking and retail, because the move helped to raise revenues and decrease the budget deficit, thereby allowing Hungary to maintain access to EU development funds. The policy deterred private investment, however. In 2011 and 2014, Hungary nationalized private pension funds. The move squeezed financial service providers out of the system, but it also helped Hungary curb its public debt and lower its budget deficit to below 3% of GDP, as subsequent pension contributions have been channeled into the state-managed pension fund. Hungary’s public debt (at 73.9% of GDP) is still high compared to EU peers in Central Europe. Despite these reversals, real GDP growth has remained robust in the past several years because EU cyclical funding increased, EU demand for Hungarian exports rose, and domestic household consumption rebounded. To further boost household consumption ahead of an anticipated 2018 election, the government has announced plans to increase the minimum wage and public sector salaries, to decrease taxes on foodstuffs and services, to decrease personal income tax from 16% to 15%, as well as to introduce a uniform 9% business tax for both small and medium enterprises and large companies. Real GDP growth slowed in 2016 due to a cyclical fallback in EU funds, but is expected to increase to above 3% in 2017 and 2018.

Systemic economic challenges include long-term and youth unemployment, labor shortages, widespread poverty in rural areas, vulnerabilities to changes in demand for exports, and a heavy reliance on Russian energy imports.
After Russia, the Ukrainian republic was the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union, producing about four times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its fertile black soil generated more than one-fourth of Soviet agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its diversified heavy industry supplied unique equipment, such as, large diameter pipes and vertical drilling apparatus, and raw materials to industrial and mining sites in other regions of the former USSR.

Shortly after independence in August 1991, the Ukrainian Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal framework for privatization, but widespread resistance to reform within the government and the legislature soon stalled reform efforts and led to some backtracking. Output by 1999 had fallen to less than 40% of the 1991 level. Outside institutions - particularly the IMF –encouraged Ukraine to quicken the pace and scope of reforms to foster economic growth. Ukrainian Government officials eliminated most tax and customs privileges in a March 2005 budget law, bringing more economic activity out of Ukraine's large shadow economy. From 2000 until mid-2008, Ukraine's economy was buoyant despite political turmoil between the prime minister and president. The economy contracted nearly 15% in 2009, among the worst economic performances in the world. In April 2010, Ukraine negotiated a price discount on Russian gas imports in exchange for extending Russia's lease on its naval base in Crimea.

Ukraine’s oligarch-dominated economy grew slowly from 2010 to 2013. After former President YANUKOVYCH fled the country during the Revolution of Dignity, the international community began efforts to stabilize the Ukrainian economy, including a March 2014 IMF assistance package of $17.5 billion, of which Ukraine has received four disbursements, most recently in April 2017, bringing the total disbursed as of that date to approximately $8.4 billion. Ukraine has made significant progress on reforms designed to make the country prosperous, democratic, and transparent. But more improvements are needed, including fighting corruption, developing capital markets, and improving the legislative framework.

Russia’s occupation of Crimea in March 2014 and on-going aggression in eastern Ukraine have hurt economic growth. With the loss of a major portion of Ukraine’s heavy industry in Donbas and ongoing violence, Ukraine’s economy contracted by 6.6% in 2014 and by 14.3% in 2015, but grew by 2.3% in 2016 as key reforms took hold. After the EU and Ukraine enacted the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area and Russia imposed a series of trade restrictions, the EU replaced Russia as Ukraine’s largest trading partner. Analysts predict approximately 2% growth in 2017, but a new prohibition on commercial trade with separatist-controlled territories will have an uncertain effect on Ukraine’s key industrial sectors.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$267.6 billion (2016 est.)
$262.4 billion (2015 est.)
$254.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$352.6 billion (2016 est.)
$344.6 billion (2015 est.)
$402.1 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
3.7% (2014 est.)
2.3% (2016 est.)
-14.3% (2015 est.)
-6.6% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$27,200 (2016 est.)
$26,600 (2015 est.)
$25,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$8,200 (2016 est.)
$8,100 (2015 est.)
$8,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 3.5%
industry: 31.8%
services: 64.7% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 14.4%
industry: 26.3%
services: 59.3%
(2016 est.)
Population below poverty line14.9% (2015 est.)
24.1% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 22.4% (2015)
lowest 10%: 3.8%
highest 10%: 22.5% (2011 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)0.1% (2016 est.)
-0.1% (2015 est.)
13.5% (2016 est.)
48.7% (2015 est.)
note: Excluding the temporarily occupied territories of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, the city of Sevastopol and part of the anti-terrorist operation zone
Labor force4.564 million (2016 est.)
18.04 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 4.9%
industry: 30.3%
services: 64.5% (2015 est.)
agriculture: 5.8%
industry: 26.5%
services: 67.8%
(2014)
Unemployment rate6.6% (2016 est.)
6.8% (2015 est.)
10% (2016 est.)
9.1% (2015 est.)
note: officially registered workers; large number of unregistered or underemployed workers
Distribution of family income - Gini index28.2 (2015 est.)
28.6 (2014)
24.6 (2013)
28.2 (2009)
Budgetrevenues: $57.32 billion
expenditures: $60.08 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $27.8 billion
expenditures: $30.87 billion
note: this is the planned, consolidated budget (2016 est.)
Industriesmining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food processing
Industrial production growth rate3.3% (2016 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables; beef, milk
Exports$91.78 billion (2016 est.)
$89.44 billion (2015 est.)
$33.97 billion (2016 est.)
$35.5 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment 53.4%, other manufactures 31.2%, food products 8.4%, raw materials 3.4%, fuels and electricity 3.9% (2012 est.)
ferrous and nonferrous metals, fuel and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, foodstuffs
Exports - partnersGermany 28%, Romania 5.4%, Slovakia 5.1%, Austria 5%, Italy 4.8%, France 4.7%, UK 4%, Czech Republic 4% (2015)
Russia 12.7%, Turkey 7.3%, China 6.3%, Egypt 5.5%, Italy 5.2%, Poland 5.2% (2015)
Imports$86.61 billion (2016 est.)
$84.7 billion (2015 est.)
$38.3 billion (2016 est.)
$38.94 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment 45.4%, other manufactures 34.3%, fuels and electricity 12.6%, food products 5.3%, raw materials 2.5% (2012)
energy, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports - partnersGermany 25.8%, China 6.7%, Austria 6.6%, Poland 5.5%, Slovakia 5.3%, France 5%, Czech Republic 4.8%, Netherlands 4.6%, Italy 4.5% (2015)
Russia 20%, Germany 10.4%, China 10.1%, Belarus 6.5%, Poland 6.2%, Hungary 4.2% (2015)
Debt - external$131.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$127.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$127.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$119.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesforints (HUF) per US dollar -
287.7 (2016 est.)
279.33 (2015 est.)
279.33 (2014 est.)
232.6 (2013 est.)
225.1 (2012 est.)
hryvnia (UAH) per US dollar -
25.26 (2016 est.)
21.8447 (2015 est.)
21.8447 (2014 est.)
11.8867 (2013 est.)
7.99 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt75.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
75.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and government, state government, local government, and social security funds.
78.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
79.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: the total public debt of $64.5 billion consists of: domestic public debt ($23.8 billion); external public debt ($26.1 billion); and sovereign guarantees ($14.6 billion)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$31.62 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$33.13 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$16.01 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$13.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$5.434 billion (2016 est.)
$4.121 billion (2015 est.)
-$3.367 billion (2016 est.)
-$251 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$117.1 billion (2016 est.)
$87.2 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$240.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$236.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$65.95 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$60.95 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$168.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$165.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.983 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.183 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$21.59 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.69 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$14.51 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$20.71 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$25.56 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$39.46 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate0.9% (31 December 2016)
1.35% (31 December 2015)
22% (23 December 2015)
7.5% (31 January 2012)
Commercial bank prime lending rate2.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.9% (31 December 2015 est.)
18.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
21.82% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$68.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$69.85 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$60.72 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$62.77 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$48.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$46.14 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$19.81 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$19.68 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$68.87 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$66.91 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$78.02 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$113.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues49% of GDP (2016 est.)
31.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.4% of GDP
note: Hungary has been under the EU Excessive Deficit Procedure since it joined the EU in 2004; in March 2012 the EU elevated its Excessive Deficit Procedure against Hungary and proposed freezing 30% of the country's Cohesion Funds because 2011 deficit reductions were not achieved in a sustainable manner; in June 2012, the EU lifted the freeze, recognizing that steps had been taken to reduce the deficit; the Hungarian deficit increased above 3% both in 2013 and in 2014 due to sluggish growth and the government's fiscal tightening (2016 est.)
-3.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 20.4%
male: 20%
female: 20.9% (2014 est.)
total: 23.1%
male: 23.7%
female: 22.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 50.3%
government consumption: 20%
investment in fixed capital: 20.4%
investment in inventories: 0.6%
exports of goods and services: 94.3%
imports of goods and services: -85.6% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 69.3%
government consumption: 20.3%
investment in fixed capital: 13.3%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 55.9%
imports of goods and services: -59.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving25.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
26.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
14.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
15% of GDP (2015 est.)
9.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

HungaryUkraine
Electricity - production28 billion kWh (2014 est.)
171 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption38 billion kWh (2014 est.)
143 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports5.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
8.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports19 billion kWh (2014 est.)
89 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production12,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
35,910 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports134,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
24,180 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports1,740 bbl/day (2015 est.)
668.1 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves27.19 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
400 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves8.268 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
1.104 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production1.505 billion cu m (2015 est.)
19.9 billion cu m (2015)
Natural gas - consumption8.46 billion cu m (2015 est.)
33.8 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports226.6 million cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports8.167 billion cu m (2015 est.)
20 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity9.289 million kW (2015 est.)
56 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels22% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
63.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
9.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels61% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
23.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources6.8% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
1.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production159,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
96,210 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption154,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
257,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports47,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
19,250 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports52,310 bbl/day (2015 est.)
153,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy44.2 million Mt (2015 est.)
291 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

HungaryUkraine
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 3,094,228
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 9,113,061
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 21 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 11.786 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (July 2015 est.)
total: 60.72 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 137 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modern telephone system is digital and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay
domestic: competition among mobile-cellular service providers has led to a sharp increase in the use of mobile-cellular phones since 2000 and a decrease in the number of fixed-line connections
international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals (2015)
general assessment: Ukraine's telecommunication development plan emphasizes improving domestic trunk lines, international connections, and the mobile-cellular system
domestic: the country's former sole telephone provider, Ukrtelekom, was successfully privatized 2011 and independent foreign-invested private companies now provide substantial telecommunications services; the mobile-cellular telephone system's expansion has slowed, largely due to saturation of the market that is now over 135 mobile phones per 100 persons
international: country code - 380; 2 new domestic trunk lines are a part of the fiber-optic Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) system and 3 Ukrainian links have been installed in the fiber-optic Trans-European Lines (TEL) project that connects 18 countries; additional international service is provided by the Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable and by an unknown number of earth stations in the Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2015)
Internet country code.hu
.ua
Internet userstotal: 7.209 million
percent of population: 72.8% (July 2015 est.)
total: 21.886 million
percent of population: 49.3% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediamixed system of state-supported public service broadcast media and private broadcasters; the 5 publicly owned TV channels and the 2 main privately owned TV stations are the major national broadcasters; a large number of special interest channels; highly developed market for satellite and cable TV services with about two-thirds of viewers utilizing their services; 4 state-supported public-service radio networks; a large number of local stations including commercial, public service, nonprofit, and community radio stations; digital transition completed at the end of 2013; government-linked businesses have greatly consolidated ownership in broadcast and print media (2016)
state-controlled nationwide TV broadcast channel (UT1) and a number of privately owned TV networks provide basic TV coverage; multi-channel cable and satellite TV services are available; Russian television broadcasts have a small audience nationwide, but larger audiences in the eastern and southern regions; the radio broadcast market, a mix of independent and state-owned networks, is comprised of some 300 stations (2007)

Transportation

HungaryUkraine
Railwaystotal: 8,049 km
broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,794 km 1.435-m gauge (2,889 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
total: 21,733 km
broad gauge: 21,684 km 1.524-m gauge (9,250 km electrified)
standard gauge: 49 km 1.435-m gauge (49 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 203,601 km
paved: 77,087 km (includes 1,582 km of expressways)
unpaved: 126,514 km (2014)
total: 169,694 km
paved: 166,095 km (includes 17 km of expressways)
unpaved: 3,599 km (2012)
Waterways1,622 km (most on Danube River) (2011)
1,672 km (most on Dnieper River) (2012)
Pipelinesgas (high-pressure transmission system) 5,873 km; gas (low-pressure distribution network) 83,619 km (2015); oil 850 km; refined products 1,200 km (2016)
gas 36,720 km; oil 4,514 km; refined products 4,363 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsriver port(s): Baja, Csepel (Budapest), Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Mohacs (Danube)
major seaport(s): Feodosiya (Theodosia), Illichivsk, Mariupol', Mykolayiv, Odesa, Yuzhnyy
Airports41 (2013)
187 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 20
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 108
over 3,047 m: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 42
1,524 to 2,437 m: 22
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 28 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 11 (2013)
total: 79
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 69 (2013)
Heliports3 (2013)
9 (2013)

Military

HungaryUkraine
Military branchesHungarian Defense Forces: Land Forces, Hungarian Air Force (Magyar Legiero, ML) (2011)
Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air Forces (2013)
Military service age and obligation18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; 6-month service obligation (2012)
20-27 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 18 months (2015)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.84% of GDP (2015)
0.87% of GDP (2014)
0.95% of GDP (2013)
1.04% of GDP (2012)
1.05% of GDP (2011)
3.8% of GDP (2016)
4% of GDP (2015)
3.02% of GDP (2014)
2.39% of GDP (2013)
2.35% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

HungaryUkraine
Disputes - internationalbilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continue in 2006 with Slovakia over Hungary's failure to complete its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Hungary has implemented the strict Schengen border rules
1997 boundary delimitation treaty with Belarus remains unratified due to unresolved financial claims, stalling demarcation and reducing border security; delimitation of land boundary with Russia is complete and demarcation began in 2012; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by Russia; Ukraine and Moldova signed an agreement officially delimiting their border in 1999, but the border has not been demarcated due to Moldova's difficulties with the break-away region of Transnistria; Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor transit of people and commodities through Moldova's Transnistria Region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops; the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea
Illicit drugstransshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; efforts to counter money laundering, related to organized crime and drug trafficking are improving but remain vulnerable; significant consumer of ecstasy
limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; some synthetic drug production for export to the West; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Africa, Latin America, and Turkey to Europe and Russia; Ukraine has improved anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in February 2004; Ukraine's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (countries of origin): 5,950 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015)
stateless persons: 135 (2016)
note: 431,286 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - July 2017)
IDPs: 1,641,895 (Russian-sponsored separatist violence in Crimea and eastern Ukraine) (2017)
stateless persons: 35,363 (2016); note - citizens of the former USSR who were permanently resident in Ukraine were granted citizenship upon Ukraine's independence in 1991, but some missed this window of opportunity; people arriving after 1991, Crimean Tatars, ethnic Koreans, people with expired Soviet passports, and people with no documents have difficulty acquiring Ukrainian citizenship; following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1989, thousands of Crimean Tatars and their descendants deported from Ukraine under the STALIN regime returned to their homeland, some being stateless and others holding the citizenship of Uzbekistan or other former Soviet republics; a 1998 bilateral agreement between Ukraine and Uzbekistan simplified the process of renouncing Uzbek citizenship and obtaining Ukrainian citizenship

Source: CIA Factbook