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Hungary vs. Slovakia

Introduction

HungarySlovakia
Background"Hungary became a Christian kingdom in A.D. 1000 and for many centuries served as a bulwark against Ottoman Turkish expansion in Europe. The kingdom eventually became part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and an announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called ""Goulash Communism."" Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU five years later.
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"Slovakia traces its roots to the 9th century state of Great Moravia. Subsequently, the Slovaks became part of the Hungarian Kingdom, where they remained for the next 1,000 years. Following the formation of the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1867, language and education policies favoring the use of Hungarian (Magyarization) resulted in a strengthening of Slovak nationalism and a cultivation of cultural ties with the closely related Czechs, who were under Austrian rule. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I, the Slovaks joined the Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar period, Slovak nationalist leaders pushed for autonomy within Czechoslovakia, and in 1939 Slovakia became an independent state allied with Nazi Germany. Following World War II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and came under communist rule within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize communist rule and create ""socialism with a human face,"" ushering in a period of repression known as ""normalization."" The peaceful ""Velvet Revolution"" swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a nonviolent ""velvet divorce"" into its two national components, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004 and the euro zone on 1 January 2009.
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Geography

HungarySlovakia
LocationCentral Europe, northwest of Romania
Central Europe, south of Poland
Geographic coordinates47 00 N, 20 00 E
48 40 N, 19 30 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 93,028 sq km
land: 89,608 sq km
water: 3,420 sq km
total: 49,035 sq km
land: 48,105 sq km
water: 930 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Virginia; about the same size as Indiana
about one and a half times the size of Maryland; about twice the size of New Hampshire
Land boundariestotal: 2,106 km
border countries (7): Austria 321 km, Croatia 348 km, Romania 424 km, Serbia 164 km, Slovakia 627 km, Slovenia 94 km, Ukraine 128 km
total: 1,611 km
border countries (5): Austria 105 km, Czech Republic 241 km, Hungary 627 km, Poland 541 km, Ukraine 97 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatetemperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrainmostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 143 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
mean elevation: 458 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m
highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m
Natural resourcesbauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
lignite, small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land
Land useagricultural land: 58.9%
arable land 48.5%; permanent crops 2%; permanent pasture 8.4%
forest: 22.5%
other: 18.6% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 40.1%
arable land 28.9%; permanent crops 0.4%; permanent pasture 10.8%
forest: 40.2%
other: 19.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,721 sq km (2012)
869 sq km (2012)
Environment - current issuesthe upgrading of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution to meet EU requirements will require large investments
air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions
landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys
Population distributiona fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations
a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country; slightly larger concentration in the west in proximity to the Czech border

Demographics

HungarySlovakia
Population9,874,784 (July 2016 est.)
5,445,802 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 14.76% (male 750,516/female 706,780)
15-24 years: 11.19% (male 570,097/female 534,856)
25-54 years: 41.74% (male 2,071,865/female 2,049,939)
55-64 years: 13.66% (male 620,362/female 728,387)
65 years and over: 18.65% (male 693,609/female 1,148,373) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 15.14% (male 422,797/female 401,718)
15-24 years: 11.32% (male 317,775/female 298,954)
25-54 years: 45.13% (male 1,241,212/female 1,216,596)
55-64 years: 13.52% (male 349,089/female 387,394)
65 years and over: 14.88% (male 312,042/female 498,225) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 41.8 years
male: 39.9 years
female: 44.1 years (2016 est.)
total: 40.1 years
male: 38.4 years
female: 41.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate-0.24% (2016 est.)
0.01% (2016 est.)
Birth rate9.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate12.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75.9 years
male: 72.2 years
female: 79.8 years (2016 est.)
total population: 77.1 years
male: 73.5 years
female: 80.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.44 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.4 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
0.02% (2014 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian
noun: Slovak(s)
adjective: Slovak
Ethnic groupsHungarian 85.6%, Romani 3.2%, German 1.9%, other 2.6%, unspecified 14.1% (2011 est.)
note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic group; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–10% of Hungary's population
Slovak 80.7%, Hungarian 8.5%, Romani 2%, other and unspecified 8.8% (2011 est.)
note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 7–11% of Slovakia's population
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
NA
ReligionsRoman Catholic 37.2%, Calvinist 11.6%, Lutheran 2.2%, Greek Catholic 1.8%, other 1.9%, none 18.2%, unspecified 27.2% (2011 est.)
Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 8.2%, Greek Catholic 3.8%, other or unspecified 12.5%, none 13.4% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths100 (2013 est.)
less than 100 (2014 est.)
LanguagesHungarian (official) 99.6%, English 16%, German 11.2%, Russian 1.6%, Romanian 1.3%, French 1.2%, other 4.2%
note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Hungarian is the mother tongue of 98.9% of Hungarian speakers (2011 est.)
Slovak (official) 78.6%, Hungarian 9.4%, Roma 2.3%, Ruthenian 1%, other or unspecified 8.8% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2015)
total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 16 years (2014)
Education expenditures4.2% of GDP (2013)
4.1% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 71.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.47% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 53.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.31% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 97.8% of population
rural: 98.6% of population
total: 98% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.2% of population
rural: 1.4% of population
total: 2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 98.2% of population
total: 98.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 1.8% of population
total: 1.2% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationBUDAPEST (capital) 1.714 million (2015)
BRATISLAVA (capital) 401,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate17 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
6 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures7.4% of GDP (2014)
8.1% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3.32 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
3.39 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density7.2 beds/1,000 population (2011)
6 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate26% (2014)
27.4% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth28.2 years (2013 est.)
27.4 years (2013 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 47.9
youth dependency ratio: 21.5
elderly dependency ratio: 26.3
potential support ratio: 3.8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 40.8
youth dependency ratio: 21.3
elderly dependency ratio: 19.5
potential support ratio: 5.1 (2015 est.)

Government

HungarySlovakia
Country name"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Hungary
local long form: none
local short form: Magyarorszag
etymology: the Byzantine Greeks refered to the tribes that arrived on the steppes of Eastern Europe in the 9th century as the ""Oungroi,"" a name that was later Latinized to ""Ungri"" and which became ""Hungari""; the name originally meant an ""[alliance of] ten tribes""; the Hungarian name ""Magyarorszag"" means ""Country of the Magyars""; the term may derive from the most prominent of the Hungarian tribes, the Megyer
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"conventional long form: Slovak Republic
conventional short form: Slovakia
local long form: Slovenska republika
local short form: Slovensko
etymology: related to the Slavic autonym (self-designation) ""Slovenin,"" a derivation from ""slovo"" (word), denoting ""people who speak (the same language)"" (i.e., people who understand each other)
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Government typeparliamentary republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Budapest
geographic coordinates: 47 30 N, 19 05 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Bratislava
geographic coordinates: 48 09 N, 17 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC,. during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 23 cities with county rights (megyei jogu varosok, singular - megyei jogu varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)
counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala
cities with county rights: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Erd, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Salgotarjan, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szekszard, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg
capital city: Budapest
8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky
Independence16 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 25 December 1000 (crowning of King STEPHEN I, traditional founding date); 30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established)
1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
National holidaySaint Stephen's Day, 20 August (1083); note - commemorates his cannonization and the transfer of his remains to Buda (now Budapest) in 1083
Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1949 (heavily amended in 1989 following the collapse of communism); latest approved 18 April 2011, signed 25 April 2011, effective 1 January 2012
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by parliamentary committee, or by Parliament members; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament members and approval by the president; amended several times, last in 2013 (2016)
history: several previous (preindependence); latest passed by the National Council 1 September 1992, signed 3 September 1992, effective 1 October 1992
amendments: proposed by the National Council; passage requires at least three-fifths majority vote of Council members; amended many times, last in 2017 (2017)
Legal systemcivil legal system influenced by the German model
civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; note - legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe
Suffrage18 years of age, 16 if married; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: Janos ADER (since 10 May 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Viktor ORBAN (since 29 May 2010)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly with two-thirds majority vote in first round or simple majority vote in second round for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 March 2017 (next to be held by spring 2022); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
election results: Janos ADER (Fidesz) reelected president; National Assembly vote - 131 to 39; Viktor ORBAN (Fidesz) elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 130 to 57 (in 2014)
chief of state: President Andrej KISKA (since 15 June 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Robert FICO (since 4 April 2012); Deputy Prime Ministers Robert KALINAK (since 4 April 2012), Lucia ZITNANSKA and Peter PELLEGRINI (since 23 March 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held in 2 rounds on 15 and 29 March 2014 (next to be held in March 2019); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Andrej KISKA elected president; percent of vote in second round - Andrej KISKA (independent) 59.4%, Robert FICO (Smer-SD) 40.6%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (199 seats; 106 members directly elected in single-member constituencies by simple majority vote and 93 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 6 April 2014 (next to be held by April 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - Fidesz-KDNP 44.5%, Unity 26%, Jobbik 20.5%, LMP 5.3%, other 3.7%; seats by party - Fidesz-KDNP 133, Unity 38, Jobbik 23, LMP 5
description: unicameral National Council or Narodna Rada (150 seats; members directly elected in a single national constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 5 March 2016 (next to be held in March 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - Smer-SD 28.3%, SaS 12.1%, OLaNO-NOVA 11%, SNS 8.6%, LSNS 8%, Sme-Rodina 6.6%, Most-Hid 6.5%, Siet 5.6%, other 13.3%; seats by party - Smer-SD 49, SaS 21, OLaNO-NOVA 19, SNS 15, LSNS 14, Sme-Rodina 11, Most-Hid 11, Siet 10
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Curia or Supreme Judicial Court (consists of the president, vice president, 5 department heads, and approximately 76 judges and organized into civil, criminal, economic, and administrative-labor departments; Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges including the court president)
judge selection and term of office: Curia president elected from among its members for 9 years by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president of the republic; other Curia judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a separate 15-member administrative body; judge tenure based on interim evaluations until normal retirement age; Constitutional Court judges elected by two-thirds vote of the National Assembly; members serve single renewable 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: 5 regional courts of appeal; 19 regional or county courts (including Budapest Metropolitan Court); 20 administrative and labor courts; 111 district or local courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic (consists of the court president, vice president, and 79 judges organized into criminal, civil, commercial, and administrative divisions with 3- and 5-judge panels); Constitutional Court (consists of 13 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judge candidates proposed by the Judicial Council of the Slovak Republic, an 18-member independent body to include the Supreme Court chief justice and presidential, governmental, parliamentary, and judiciary appointees; judges appointed by the president for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Council of the Republic and appointed by the president; judges appointed for 12-year terms
subordinate courts: regional and district civil courts; Higher Military Court; military district courts; Court of Audit
Political parties and leadersChristian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]
Democratic Coalition or DK [Ferenc GYURCSANY]
Dialogue for Hungary or PM [Javor BENEDEK, Timea SZABO]
Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN]
Hungarian Liberal Party or MLP [Gabor FODOR]
Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Gyula MOLNAR]
Movement for a Better Hungary or Jobbik [Gabor VONA]
Politics Can Be Different or LMP [Bernadett SZEL, Akos HADHAZI]
Together 2014 or Egyutt [Peter JUHASZ, Viktor SZIGETVARI]
parties in the Parliament:
Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]
Bridge or Most-Hid [Bela BUGAR]
Freedom and Solidarity or SaS [Richard SULIK]
Network or Siet [Roman BRECELY]
Ordinary People and Independent Personalities - New Majority or OLaNO-NOVA [Igor MATOVIC]
People's Party - Our Slovakia or LS-NS [Marian KOTLEBA]
Slovak National Party or SNS [Andrej DANKO]
We Are Family or Sme-Rodina [Boris KOLLAR]

selected parties outside the Parliament:
Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Alojz HLINA]
Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Jozsef MENYHART]
Political pressure groups and leaders"Civil Osszefogas Forum (""Civil Unity Forum,"" nominally independent organization that serves as the steering committee for the pro-government mass organization Bekemenet (Peace March), supporting ORBAN government's policies)
Hungarian Civil Liberties Union (Tarsasag a Szabadsagjogokert) or TASZ (freedom of expression, information privacy)
Hungarian Helsinki Committee (asylum seekers' rights, human rights in law enforcement and the judicial system)
MigSzol (Migrant Solidarity Group of Hungary) (independent advocacy group on migration crisis)
MostMi (""Now Us"") [Bori TAKACS, Zsolt VARADY](Facebook group that was a major participant at anti-government demonstrations in late 2014-early 2015; pro-Europe, anti-establishment movement that blames Fidesz for the state of the country, but also blames all established political parties for perceived political and economic failures since the fall of communism)
Okotars (empowerment of civil society in Hungary)

other:
Energy Club (Energia Klub)
Greenpeace Hungary (Greenpeace Magyarorszag)
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Alliance of Companies Employing 500 or More Employees or Klub500
Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS
Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ
Entrepreneurs Association of Slovakia or ZPS
Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic or AZZZ
Medical Trade Association or LOZ
National Union of Employers or RUZ
Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry or SOPK
The Business Alliance of Slovakia or PAS
International organization participationAustralia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Laszlo SZABO designated
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
consulate(s): Boston
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter KMEC (since 17 September 2012)
chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054
FAX: [1] (202) 237-6438
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d’Affaires David KOSTELANCIK (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400
FAX: [36] (1) 475-4248
chief of mission: Ambassador Adam Sterling (since August 2016)
embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava
mailing address: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava
telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338
FAX: [421] (2) 5441-8861
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green; the flag dates to the national movement of the 18th and 19th centuries, and fuses the medieval colors of the Hungarian coat of arms with the revolutionary tricolor form of the French flag; folklore attributes virtues to the colors: red for strength, white for faithfulness, and green for hope; alternatively, the red is seen as being for the blood spilled in defense of the land, white for freedom, and green for the pasturelands that make up so much of the country
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red derive from the Pan-Slav colors; the Slovakian coat of arms (consisting of a red shield bordered in white and bearing a white double-barred cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius surmounting three blue hills) is centered over the bands but offset slightly to the hoist side
note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia
National anthem"name: ""Himnusz"" (Hymn)
lyrics/music: Ferenc KOLCSEY/Ferenc ERKEL
note: adopted 1844
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"name: ""Nad Tatrou sa blyska"" (Lightning Over the Tatras)
lyrics/music: Janko MATUSKA/traditional
note: adopted 1993, in use since 1844; music based on the Slovak folk song ""Kopala studienku""
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International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Holy Crown of Hungary (Crown of Saint Stephen); national colors: red, white, green
double-barred cross (Cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius) surmounting three peaks; national colors: white, blue, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Hungary
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovakia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

HungarySlovakia
Economy - overviewHungary has made the transition from a centrally planned to a liberal market-driven economy with a per capita income nearly two-thirds that of the EU-28 average; however, in recent years the government has become more involved in managing the economy. Budapest has implemented unorthodox economic policies to boost household consumption and has relied on EU-funded development projects to generate growth.

The economy is largely driven by exports, making it vulnerable to external market shocks. Following the fall of communism in 1990, Hungary experienced a drop-off in exports and financial assistance from the former Soviet Union. Hungary embarked on a series of economic reforms, including privatization of state-owned enterprises and reduction of social spending programs, to shift from a centrally planned to a market-driven economy, and to reorient its economy towards trade with the West. These efforts helped to spur growth, attract investment, and reduce Hungary’s debt burden and fiscal deficits. However, living conditions for the average Hungarian initially deteriorated as inflation increased and unemployment reached double digits. Conditions slowly improved over the 1990s as the reforms came to fruition and export growth accelerated. Economic policies instituted during that decade helped position Hungary to join the European Union in 2004; Hungary has yet to join the euro zone, however. Hungary suffered a historic economic contraction as a result of the global economic slowdown in 2008-09 as export demand and domestic consumption dropped, prompting it to take an IMF-EU financial assistance package.

Since 2010, the government has backpedalled on reforms and taken a more nationalist and populist approach towards economic management. The government has favored national industries, and specifically government-linked businesses, through legislation, regulation, and public procurements. In 2010 and 2012, the government increased taxes on foreign-dominated sectors, such as banking and retail, because the move helped to raise revenues and decrease the budget deficit, thereby allowing Hungary to maintain access to EU development funds. The policy deterred private investment, however. In 2011 and 2014, Hungary nationalized private pension funds. The move squeezed financial service providers out of the system, but it also helped Hungary curb its public debt and lower its budget deficit to below 3% of GDP, as subsequent pension contributions have been channeled into the state-managed pension fund. Hungary’s public debt (at 73.9% of GDP) is still high compared to EU peers in Central Europe. Despite these reversals, real GDP growth has remained robust in the past several years because EU cyclical funding increased, EU demand for Hungarian exports rose, and domestic household consumption rebounded. To further boost household consumption ahead of an anticipated 2018 election, the government has announced plans to increase the minimum wage and public sector salaries, to decrease taxes on foodstuffs and services, to decrease personal income tax from 16% to 15%, as well as to introduce a uniform 9% business tax for both small and medium enterprises and large companies. Real GDP growth slowed in 2016 due to a cyclical fallback in EU funds, but is expected to increase to above 3% in 2017 and 2018.

Systemic economic challenges include long-term and youth unemployment, labor shortages, widespread poverty in rural areas, vulnerabilities to changes in demand for exports, and a heavy reliance on Russian energy imports.
Slovakia’s economy suffered from a slow start in the first years after its separation from the Czech Republic in 1993, due to the country’s authoritarian leadership and high levels of corruption, but economic reforms implemented after 1998 have placed Slovakia on a path of strong growth. With a population of 5.4 million, the Slovak Republic has a small, open economy driven mainly by automobile and electronics exports, which account for more than 80% of GDP. Slovakia joined the EU in 2004 and the euro zone in 2009. The country’s banking sector is sound and predominantly foreign owned.

Slovakia has been a regional FDI champion for several years, attractive due to a relatively low-cost yet skilled labor force, and a favorable geographic location in the heart of Central Europe. Among the most pressing domestic issues potentially threatening the attractiveness of the Slovak market are shortages in qualified labor force, persistent corruption issues, and an inadequate judiciary, as well as a lack of innovation. The energy sector in particular is characterized by unpredictable regulatory oversight and high costs, in part driven by government interference in regulated tariffs.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$267.6 billion (2016 est.)
$262.4 billion (2015 est.)
$254.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$168.8 billion (2016 est.)
$163.8 billion (2015 est.)
$157.8 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
3.7% (2014 est.)
3.3% (2016 est.)
3.8% (2015 est.)
2.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$27,200 (2016 est.)
$26,600 (2015 est.)
$25,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$31,200 (2016 est.)
$30,200 (2015 est.)
$29,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 3.5%
industry: 31.8%
services: 64.7% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 3.6%
industry: 31.6%
services: 64.8% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line14.9% (2015 est.)
12.3% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 22.4% (2015)
lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 19.3% (2015 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)0.1% (2016 est.)
-0.1% (2015 est.)
-0.5% (2016 est.)
-0.3% (2015 est.)
Labor force4.564 million (2016 est.)
2.724 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 4.9%
industry: 30.3%
services: 64.5% (2015 est.)
agriculture: 3.9%
industry: 22.7%
services: 73.4% (2015)
Unemployment rate6.6% (2016 est.)
6.8% (2015 est.)
8.8% (2016 est.)
10.6% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index28.2 (2015 est.)
28.6 (2014)
23.7 (2015)
26.1 (2014)
Budgetrevenues: $57.32 billion
expenditures: $60.08 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $34.87 billion
expenditures: $37.04 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesmining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
automobiles; metal and metal products; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals, synthetic fibers, wood and paper products; machinery; earthenware and ceramics; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products; food and beverages; pharmaceutical
Industrial production growth rate3.3% (2016 est.)
4.3% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products
Exports$91.78 billion (2016 est.)
$89.44 billion (2015 est.)
$74.35 billion (2016 est.)
$73.12 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment 53.4%, other manufactures 31.2%, food products 8.4%, raw materials 3.4%, fuels and electricity 3.9% (2012 est.)
vehicles and related parts 27%, machinery and electrical equipment 20%, nuclear reactors and furnaces 12%, iron and steel 4%, mineral oils and fuels 5% (2015 est.)
Exports - partnersGermany 28%, Romania 5.4%, Slovakia 5.1%, Austria 5%, Italy 4.8%, France 4.7%, UK 4%, Czech Republic 4% (2015)
Germany 22.7%, Czech Republic 12.5%, Poland 8.5%, Austria 5.7%, Hungary 5.7%, France 5.6%, UK 5.5%, Italy 4.5% (2015)
Imports$86.61 billion (2016 est.)
$84.7 billion (2015 est.)
$71.47 billion (2016 est.)
$71.09 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment 45.4%, other manufactures 34.3%, fuels and electricity 12.6%, food products 5.3%, raw materials 2.5% (2012)
machinery and electrical equipment 20%, vehicles and related parts 14%, nuclear reactors and furnaces 12%, fuel and mineral oils 9% (2015 est.)
Imports - partnersGermany 25.8%, China 6.7%, Austria 6.6%, Poland 5.5%, Slovakia 5.3%, France 5%, Czech Republic 4.8%, Netherlands 4.6%, Italy 4.5% (2015)
Germany 19.4%, Czech Republic 17.4%, Austria 9.1%, Hungary 6.3%, Poland 6.3%, South Korea 5.5%, Russia 5.2%, China 4.1% (2015)
Debt - external$131.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$127.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$75.04 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$74.19 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesforints (HUF) per US dollar -
287.7 (2016 est.)
279.33 (2015 est.)
279.33 (2014 est.)
232.6 (2013 est.)
225.1 (2012 est.)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt75.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
75.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and government, state government, local government, and social security funds.
52.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
52.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general Government Gross Debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by Government entities, including sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$31.62 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$33.13 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.657 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.892 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$5.434 billion (2016 est.)
$4.121 billion (2015 est.)
$318 million (2016 est.)
$186 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$117.1 billion (2016 est.)
$90.26 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$240.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$236.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$59.81 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$56.31 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$168.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$165.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$12.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$10.71 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$21.59 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.69 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$14.51 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$4.492 billion (30 November 2016 est.)
$4.634 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.732 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate0.9% (31 December 2016)
1.35% (31 December 2015)
0% (31 December 2016 est.)
0.05% (31 December 2015 est.)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks from the euro area; Slovakia became a member of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) on 1 January 2009
Commercial bank prime lending rate2.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.9% (31 December 2015 est.)
2.7% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.78% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$68.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$69.85 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$66.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$67.67 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$48.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$46.14 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$42.43 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$43 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
Stock of broad money$68.87 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$66.91 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$58.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$58.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues49% of GDP (2016 est.)
38.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.4% of GDP
note: Hungary has been under the EU Excessive Deficit Procedure since it joined the EU in 2004; in March 2012 the EU elevated its Excessive Deficit Procedure against Hungary and proposed freezing 30% of the country's Cohesion Funds because 2011 deficit reductions were not achieved in a sustainable manner; in June 2012, the EU lifted the freeze, recognizing that steps had been taken to reduce the deficit; the Hungarian deficit increased above 3% both in 2013 and in 2014 due to sluggish growth and the government's fiscal tightening (2016 est.)
-2.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 20.4%
male: 20%
female: 20.9% (2014 est.)
total: 29.7%
male: 29.5%
female: 30.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 50.3%
government consumption: 20%
investment in fixed capital: 20.4%
investment in inventories: 0.6%
exports of goods and services: 94.3%
imports of goods and services: -85.6% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 55.9%
government consumption: 18.9%
investment in fixed capital: 22.2%
investment in inventories: -0.2%
exports of goods and services: 94.8%
imports of goods and services: -91.6% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving25.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
26.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
21.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

HungarySlovakia
Electricity - production28 billion kWh (2014 est.)
27.19 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption38 billion kWh (2014 est.)
29.55 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports5.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
12.61 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports19 billion kWh (2014 est.)
14.97 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production12,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports134,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
119,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports1,740 bbl/day (2015 est.)
501.5 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves27.19 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
9 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves8.268 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production1.505 billion cu m (2015 est.)
86 million cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption8.46 billion cu m (2015 est.)
4.8 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports226.6 million cu m (2015 est.)
3 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports8.167 billion cu m (2015 est.)
4.704 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity9.289 million kW (2015 est.)
8.095 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels22% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
33.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
31.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels61% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
24% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources6.8% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
11.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production159,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
142,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption154,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
82,620 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports47,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
83,390 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports52,310 bbl/day (2015 est.)
28,870 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy44.2 million Mt (2015 est.)
31.1 million Mt (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

HungarySlovakia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 3,094,228
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 866,630
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 11.786 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (July 2015 est.)
total: 6.676 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 123 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modern telephone system is digital and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay
domestic: competition among mobile-cellular service providers has led to a sharp increase in the use of mobile-cellular phones since 2000 and a decrease in the number of fixed-line connections
international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals (2015)
general assessment: a modern telecommunications system that has expanded dramatically in recent years with the growth of cellular services
domestic: analog system is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; 4 companies provide nationwide cellular services
international: country code - 421; 3 international exchanges (1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services (2017)
Internet country code.hu
.sk
Internet userstotal: 7.209 million
percent of population: 72.8% (July 2015 est.)
total: 4.629 million
percent of population: 85% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediamixed system of state-supported public service broadcast media and private broadcasters; the 5 publicly owned TV channels and the 2 main privately owned TV stations are the major national broadcasters; a large number of special interest channels; highly developed market for satellite and cable TV services with about two-thirds of viewers utilizing their services; 4 state-supported public-service radio networks; a large number of local stations including commercial, public service, nonprofit, and community radio stations; digital transition completed at the end of 2013; government-linked businesses have greatly consolidated ownership in broadcast and print media (2016)
state-owned public broadcaster, Radio and Television of Slovakia (RTVS), operates 2 national TV stations and multiple national and regional radio networks; roughly 50 privately owned TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 40% of households are connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 32 privately owned radio stations (2016)

Transportation

HungarySlovakia
Railwaystotal: 8,049 km
broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,794 km 1.435-m gauge (2,889 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
total: 3,626 km
broad gauge: 99 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 3,477 km 1.435-m gauge (1,587 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 50 km 1.000-m or 0.750-m gauge (2016)
Roadwaystotal: 203,601 km
paved: 77,087 km (includes 1,582 km of expressways)
unpaved: 126,514 km (2014)
total: 54,869 km (includes local roads, national roads, and 420 km of highways) (2012)
Waterways1,622 km (most on Danube River) (2011)
172 km (on Danube River) (2012)
Pipelinesgas (high-pressure transmission system) 5,873 km; gas (low-pressure distribution network) 83,619 km (2015); oil 850 km; refined products 1,200 km (2016)
gas transmission pipelines 2,270 km; high-pressure gas distribution pipelines 6,278 km; mid- and low-pressure gas distribution pipelines 27,023 km (2016); oil 510 km (2015)
Ports and terminalsriver port(s): Baja, Csepel (Budapest), Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Mohacs (Danube)
river port(s): Bratislava, Komarno (Danube)
Airports41 (2013)
35 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 20
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 21
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 11 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 11 (2013)
total: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Heliports3 (2013)
1 (2013)

Military

HungarySlovakia
Military branchesHungarian Defense Forces: Land Forces, Hungarian Air Force (Magyar Legiero, ML) (2011)
Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic (Ozbrojene Sily Slovenskej Republiky): Land Forces (Pozemne Sily), Air Forces (Vzdusne Sily) (2010)
Military service age and obligation18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; 6-month service obligation (2012)
18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription in peacetime suspended in 2006; women are eligible to serve (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.84% of GDP (2015)
0.87% of GDP (2014)
0.95% of GDP (2013)
1.04% of GDP (2012)
1.05% of GDP (2011)
1.16% of GDP (2016)
1.15% of GDP (2015)
1.01% of GDP (2014)
1% of GDP (2013)
1.2% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

HungarySlovakia
Disputes - internationalbilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continue in 2006 with Slovakia over Hungary's failure to complete its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Hungary has implemented the strict Schengen border rules
bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continued between Slovakia and Hungary over Hungary's completion of its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovakia has implemented strict Schengen border rules
Illicit drugstransshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; efforts to counter money laundering, related to organized crime and drug trafficking are improving but remain vulnerable; significant consumer of ecstasy
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market; consumer of ecstasy
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (countries of origin): 5,950 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015)
stateless persons: 135 (2016)
note: 431,286 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - July 2017)
stateless persons: 1,523 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook