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Hungary vs. Romania

Introduction

HungaryRomania
Background"Hungary became a Christian kingdom in A.D. 1000 and for many centuries served as a bulwark against Ottoman Turkish expansion in Europe. The kingdom eventually became part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and an announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called ""Goulash Communism."" Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU five years later.
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"The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist ""people's republic"" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
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Geography

HungaryRomania
LocationCentral Europe, northwest of Romania
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Geographic coordinates47 00 N, 20 00 E
46 00 N, 25 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 93,028 sq km
land: 89,608 sq km
water: 3,420 sq km
total: 238,391 sq km
land: 229,891 sq km
water: 8,500 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Virginia; about the same size as Indiana
twice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundariestotal: 2,106 km
border countries (7): Austria 321 km, Croatia 348 km, Romania 424 km, Serbia 164 km, Slovakia 627 km, Slovenia 94 km, Ukraine 128 km
total: 2,844 km
border countries (5): Bulgaria 605 km, Hungary 424 km, Moldova 683 km, Serbia 531 km, Ukraine 601 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
225 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatetemperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Terrainmostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 143 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
mean elevation: 414 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
Natural resourcesbauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 58.9%
arable land 48.5%; permanent crops 2%; permanent pasture 8.4%
forest: 22.5%
other: 18.6% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 60.7%
arable land 39.1%; permanent crops 1.9%; permanent pasture 19.7%
forest: 28.7%
other: 10.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,721 sq km (2012)
31,490 sq km (2012)
Environment - current issuesthe upgrading of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution to meet EU requirements will require large investments
soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions
controls the most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine; the Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of the country, while the Danube River forms much of the southern boundary with Serbia and Bulgaria
Population distributiona fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations
urbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania

Demographics

HungaryRomania
Population9,874,784 (July 2016 est.)
21,599,736 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 14.76% (male 750,516/female 706,780)
15-24 years: 11.19% (male 570,097/female 534,856)
25-54 years: 41.74% (male 2,071,865/female 2,049,939)
55-64 years: 13.66% (male 620,362/female 728,387)
65 years and over: 18.65% (male 693,609/female 1,148,373) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 14.4% (male 1,597,470/female 1,512,701)
15-24 years: 10.76% (male 1,192,310/female 1,131,655)
25-54 years: 45.97% (male 5,023,060/female 4,905,559)
55-64 years: 12.8% (male 1,293,423/female 1,471,480)
65 years and over: 16.07% (male 1,403,211/female 2,068,867) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 41.8 years
male: 39.9 years
female: 44.1 years (2016 est.)
total: 40.7 years
male: 39.3 years
female: 42.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate-0.24% (2016 est.)
-0.32% (2016 est.)
Birth rate9.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate12.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
11.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 11 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75.9 years
male: 72.2 years
female: 79.8 years (2016 est.)
total population: 75.1 years
male: 71.7 years
female: 78.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.44 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.34 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
0.11% (2013 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian
noun: Romanian(s)
adjective: Romanian
Ethnic groupsHungarian 85.6%, Romani 3.2%, German 1.9%, other 2.6%, unspecified 14.1% (2011 est.)
note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic group; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–10% of Hungary's population
Romanian 83.4%, Hungarian 6.1%, Romani 3.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.2%, other 0.7%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–11% of Romania's population
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
16,200 (2013 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 37.2%, Calvinist 11.6%, Lutheran 2.2%, Greek Catholic 1.8%, other 1.9%, none 18.2%, unspecified 27.2% (2011 est.)
Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths100 (2013 est.)
500 (2013 est.)
LanguagesHungarian (official) 99.6%, English 16%, German 11.2%, Russian 1.6%, Romanian 1.3%, French 1.2%, other 4.2%
note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Hungarian is the mother tongue of 98.9% of Hungarian speakers (2011 est.)
Romanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romani 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.1%
male: 99.1%
female: 99% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.8%
male: 99.1%
female: 98.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2015)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2015)
Education expenditures4.2% of GDP (2013)
2.9% of GDP (2012)
Urbanizationurban population: 71.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.47% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 54.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.01% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 97.8% of population
rural: 98.6% of population
total: 98% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.2% of population
rural: 1.4% of population
total: 2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 92.2% of population
rural: 63.3% of population
total: 79.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.8% of population
rural: 36.7% of population
total: 20.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationBUDAPEST (capital) 1.714 million (2015)
BUCHAREST (capital) 1.868 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate17 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
31 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures7.4% of GDP (2014)
5.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3.32 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
2.67 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density7.2 beds/1,000 population (2011)
6.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate26% (2014)
23.4% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth28.2 years (2013 est.)
22 years (2013 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 47.9
youth dependency ratio: 21.5
elderly dependency ratio: 26.3
potential support ratio: 3.8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 48.9
youth dependency ratio: 23.1
elderly dependency ratio: 25.8
potential support ratio: 3.9 (2015 est.)

Government

HungaryRomania
Country name"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Hungary
local long form: none
local short form: Magyarorszag
etymology: the Byzantine Greeks refered to the tribes that arrived on the steppes of Eastern Europe in the 9th century as the ""Oungroi,"" a name that was later Latinized to ""Ungri"" and which became ""Hungari""; the name originally meant an ""[alliance of] ten tribes""; the Hungarian name ""Magyarorszag"" means ""Country of the Magyars""; the term may derive from the most prominent of the Hungarian tribes, the Megyer
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"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Romania
local long form: none
local short form: Romania
etymology: the name derives from the Latin ""Romanus"" meaning ""citizen of Rome"" and was used to stress the common ancient heritage of Romania's three main regions - Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia - during their gradual unification between the mid-19th century and early 20th century
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Government typeparliamentary republic
semi-presidential republic
Capitalname: Budapest
geographic coordinates: 47 30 N, 19 05 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Bucharest
geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 23 cities with county rights (megyei jogu varosok, singular - megyei jogu varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)
counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala
cities with county rights: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Erd, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Salgotarjan, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szekszard, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg
capital city: Budapest
41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea
Independence16 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 25 December 1000 (crowning of King STEPHEN I, traditional founding date); 30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established)
9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; 13 July 1878 independence recognized by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
National holidaySaint Stephen's Day, 20 August (1083); note - commemorates his cannonization and the transfer of his remains to Buda (now Budapest) in 1083
Unification Day (unification of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1949 (heavily amended in 1989 following the collapse of communism); latest approved 18 April 2011, signed 25 April 2011, effective 1 January 2012
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by parliamentary committee, or by Parliament members; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament members and approval by the president; amended several times, last in 2013 (2016)
history: several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991
amendments: initiated by the president of Romania through a proposal by the government, by at least one-fourth of deputies or senators in Parliament, or by petition of eligible voters representing at least one-half of Romania’s counties; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by both chambers or – if mediation is required - by three-fourths majority vote in a joint session, followed by approval in a referendum; articles including those on national sovereignty, form of government, political pluralism, and fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended 2003 (2016)
Legal systemcivil legal system influenced by the German model
civil law system
Suffrage18 years of age, 16 if married; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: Janos ADER (since 10 May 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Viktor ORBAN (since 29 May 2010)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly with two-thirds majority vote in first round or simple majority vote in second round for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 March 2017 (next to be held by spring 2022); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
election results: Janos ADER (Fidesz) reelected president; National Assembly vote - 131 to 39; Viktor ORBAN (Fidesz) elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 130 to 57 (in 2014)
chief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Mihai TUDOSE (since 29 June 2017); Deputy Prime Minister Sevil SHHAIDEH and Deputy Premier Gratiela GAVRILESCU (since 3 April 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 November 2014 with a runoff on 16 November 2014 (next to be held around 16 November 2019); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of Parliament
election results: Klaus IOHANNIS elected president; percent of vote in runoff - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 54.4%, Victor PONTA (PSD) 45.6%; Mihai TUDOSE approved as prime minister 275-102
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (199 seats; 106 members directly elected in single-member constituencies by simple majority vote and 93 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 6 April 2014 (next to be held by April 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - Fidesz-KDNP 44.5%, Unity 26%, Jobbik 20.5%, LMP 5.3%, other 3.7%; seats by party - Fidesz-KDNP 133, Unity 38, Jobbik 23, LMP 5
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (136 seats, 2 reserved for the diaspora; members serve 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (329 seats, 17 reserved for non-Hungarian national minorities and 4 for the diaspora; members serve 4-year terms); in 2016, the elections returned to a party list vote-proportional representation voting system
elections: Senate - last held on 11 December 2016 (next to be held by December 2020); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 11 December 2016 (next to be held by December 2020)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PSD 45.7%, PNL 20.4%, USR 8.9%, UDMR 6.2%, ALDE 6%, PMP 5.7%, other 7.1%; seats by party - PSD 67, PNL 30, USR 13, UDMR 9, ALDE 9, PMP 8; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSD 45.5%, PNL 20%, USR 8.9%, UDMR 6.2%, ALDE 5.6%, PMP 5.3%, other 8.5%; seats by party - PSD 154, PNL 69, USR 30, UDMR 21, ALDE 20, PMP 18, minorities 17
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Curia or Supreme Judicial Court (consists of the president, vice president, 5 department heads, and approximately 76 judges and organized into civil, criminal, economic, and administrative-labor departments; Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges including the court president)
judge selection and term of office: Curia president elected from among its members for 9 years by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president of the republic; other Curia judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a separate 15-member administrative body; judge tenure based on interim evaluations until normal retirement age; Constitutional Court judges elected by two-thirds vote of the National Assembly; members serve single renewable 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: 5 regional courts of appeal; 19 regional or county courts (including Budapest Metropolitan Court); 20 administrative and labor courts; 111 district or local courts
highest court(s): High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts
Political parties and leadersChristian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]
Democratic Coalition or DK [Ferenc GYURCSANY]
Dialogue for Hungary or PM [Javor BENEDEK, Timea SZABO]
Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN]
Hungarian Liberal Party or MLP [Gabor FODOR]
Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Gyula MOLNAR]
Movement for a Better Hungary or Jobbik [Gabor VONA]
Politics Can Be Different or LMP [Bernadett SZEL, Akos HADHAZI]
Together 2014 or Egyutt [Peter JUHASZ, Viktor SZIGETVARI]
Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
Ecologist Party of Romania [Danut POP]
Greater Romania Party [Adrian POPESCU]
M10 Party [Monica MACOVEI]
National Liberal Party or PNL [Raluca TURCAN]
New Republic Party or NR [Alin Ioan BOTA]
Our Romania Alliance [Marian MUNTEANU]
Popular Movement Party or PMP [Traian BASESCU]
Party of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats or ALDE [Calin POPESCU TARICEANU, Daniel CONSTANTIN]
Romanian Social Party or PSRo [Mircea GEOANA]
Save Romania Union Party or USR [Nicusor DAN]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Liviu DRAGNEA]
United Romania Party or PRU [vacant, previously Bogdan DIACONU]
Political pressure groups and leaders"Civil Osszefogas Forum (""Civil Unity Forum,"" nominally independent organization that serves as the steering committee for the pro-government mass organization Bekemenet (Peace March), supporting ORBAN government's policies)
Hungarian Civil Liberties Union (Tarsasag a Szabadsagjogokert) or TASZ (freedom of expression, information privacy)
Hungarian Helsinki Committee (asylum seekers' rights, human rights in law enforcement and the judicial system)
MigSzol (Migrant Solidarity Group of Hungary) (independent advocacy group on migration crisis)
MostMi (""Now Us"") [Bori TAKACS, Zsolt VARADY](Facebook group that was a major participant at anti-government demonstrations in late 2014-early 2015; pro-Europe, anti-establishment movement that blames Fidesz for the state of the country, but also blames all established political parties for perceived political and economic failures since the fall of communism)
Okotars (empowerment of civil society in Hungary)

other:
Energy Club (Energia Klub)
Greenpeace Hungary (Greenpeace Magyarorszag)
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other: various human rights and professional associations
International organization participationAustralia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Laszlo SZABO designated
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
consulate(s): Boston
chief of mission: Ambassador George Cristian MAIOR (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d’Affaires David KOSTELANCIK (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400
FAX: [36] (1) 475-4248
chief of mission: Ambassador Hans G. KLEMM (since 21 September 2015)
embassy: 4-6, Dr. Liviu Librescu Blvd., District 1, Bucharest, 015118
mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300
FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green; the flag dates to the national movement of the 18th and 19th centuries, and fuses the medieval colors of the Hungarian coat of arms with the revolutionary tricolor form of the French flag; folklore attributes virtues to the colors: red for strength, white for faithfulness, and green for hope; alternatively, the red is seen as being for the blood spilled in defense of the land, white for freedom, and green for the pasturelands that make up so much of the country
three equal vertical bands of cobalt blue (hoist side), chrome yellow, and vermilion red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed
note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova
National anthem"name: ""Himnusz"" (Hymn)
lyrics/music: Ferenc KOLCSEY/Ferenc ERKEL
note: adopted 1844
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"name: ""Desteapta-te romane!"" (Wake up, Romanian!)
lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN
note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution
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International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Holy Crown of Hungary (Crown of Saint Stephen); national colors: red, white, green
golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Hungary
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Romania
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

HungaryRomania
Economy - overviewHungary has made the transition from a centrally planned to a liberal market-driven economy with a per capita income nearly two-thirds that of the EU-28 average; however, in recent years the government has become more involved in managing the economy. Budapest has implemented unorthodox economic policies to boost household consumption and has relied on EU-funded development projects to generate growth.

The economy is largely driven by exports, making it vulnerable to external market shocks. Following the fall of communism in 1990, Hungary experienced a drop-off in exports and financial assistance from the former Soviet Union. Hungary embarked on a series of economic reforms, including privatization of state-owned enterprises and reduction of social spending programs, to shift from a centrally planned to a market-driven economy, and to reorient its economy towards trade with the West. These efforts helped to spur growth, attract investment, and reduce Hungary’s debt burden and fiscal deficits. However, living conditions for the average Hungarian initially deteriorated as inflation increased and unemployment reached double digits. Conditions slowly improved over the 1990s as the reforms came to fruition and export growth accelerated. Economic policies instituted during that decade helped position Hungary to join the European Union in 2004; Hungary has yet to join the euro zone, however. Hungary suffered a historic economic contraction as a result of the global economic slowdown in 2008-09 as export demand and domestic consumption dropped, prompting it to take an IMF-EU financial assistance package.

Since 2010, the government has backpedalled on reforms and taken a more nationalist and populist approach towards economic management. The government has favored national industries, and specifically government-linked businesses, through legislation, regulation, and public procurements. In 2010 and 2012, the government increased taxes on foreign-dominated sectors, such as banking and retail, because the move helped to raise revenues and decrease the budget deficit, thereby allowing Hungary to maintain access to EU development funds. The policy deterred private investment, however. In 2011 and 2014, Hungary nationalized private pension funds. The move squeezed financial service providers out of the system, but it also helped Hungary curb its public debt and lower its budget deficit to below 3% of GDP, as subsequent pension contributions have been channeled into the state-managed pension fund. Hungary’s public debt (at 73.9% of GDP) is still high compared to EU peers in Central Europe. Despite these reversals, real GDP growth has remained robust in the past several years because EU cyclical funding increased, EU demand for Hungarian exports rose, and domestic household consumption rebounded. To further boost household consumption ahead of an anticipated 2018 election, the government has announced plans to increase the minimum wage and public sector salaries, to decrease taxes on foodstuffs and services, to decrease personal income tax from 16% to 15%, as well as to introduce a uniform 9% business tax for both small and medium enterprises and large companies. Real GDP growth slowed in 2016 due to a cyclical fallback in EU funds, but is expected to increase to above 3% in 2017 and 2018.

Systemic economic challenges include long-term and youth unemployment, labor shortages, widespread poverty in rural areas, vulnerabilities to changes in demand for exports, and a heavy reliance on Russian energy imports.
Romania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment.

In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Romania signed a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders, but GDP contracted until 2011. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary standby agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability; no funds were drawn. In September 2013, Romanian authorities and the IMF/EU agreed to a follow-on standby agreement, worth $5.4 billion, to continue with reforms. This agreement expired in September 2015, and no funds were drawn. Progress on structural reforms has been uneven, and the economy still is vulnerable to external shocks.

Economic growth rebounded in 2013-16, driven by strong industrial exports and excellent agricultural harvests, and the fiscal deficit was reduced substantially. Industry outperformed other sectors of the economy in 2016. Exports remained an engine of economic growth, led by trade with the EU, which accounts for roughly 70% of Romania trade. Domestic demand was a second driver, due to the mid-2015 cut, from 24% to 9%, of the VAT levied upon foodstuffs. In 2015, the government of Romania succeeded in meeting its annual target for the budget deficit, the external deficit remained low, even if it rose due to increasing imports. For the first time since 1989, inflation turned into deflation, allowing for a gradual loosening of monetary policy throughout the period.

An aging population, significant tax evasion, insufficient health care, and an aggressive loosening of the fiscal package jeopardize the low fiscal deficit and public debt and are the economy's top vulnerabilities.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$267.6 billion (2016 est.)
$262.4 billion (2015 est.)
$254.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$441 billion (2016 est.)
$420.2 billion (2015 est.)
$405 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
3.7% (2014 est.)
5% (2016 est.)
3.8% (2015 est.)
3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$27,200 (2016 est.)
$26,600 (2015 est.)
$25,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$22,300 (2016 est.)
$21,100 (2015 est.)
$20,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 3.5%
industry: 31.8%
services: 64.7% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 3.3%
industry: 35.4%
services: 61.3% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line14.9% (2015 est.)
22.4% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 22.4% (2015)
lowest 10%: 15.3%
highest 10%: 7.6% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)0.1% (2016 est.)
-0.1% (2015 est.)
-1.1% (2016 est.)
-0.6% (2015 est.)
Labor force4.564 million (2016 est.)
9.133 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 4.9%
industry: 30.3%
services: 64.5% (2015 est.)
agriculture: 28.3%
industry: 28.9%
services: 42.8% (2014)
Unemployment rate6.6% (2016 est.)
6.8% (2015 est.)
6.7% (2016 est.)
6.8% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index28.2 (2015 est.)
28.6 (2014)
27.3 (2012)
28.2 (2010)
Budgetrevenues: $57.32 billion
expenditures: $60.08 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $56.84 billion
expenditures: $62.14 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesmining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
electric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials
Industrial production growth rate3.3% (2016 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
Exports$91.78 billion (2016 est.)
$89.44 billion (2015 est.)
$56.03 billion (2016 est.)
$54.52 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment 53.4%, other manufactures 31.2%, food products 8.4%, raw materials 3.4%, fuels and electricity 3.9% (2012 est.)
machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, agricultural products and foodstuffs, metals and metal products, chemicals, minerals and fuels, raw materials
Exports - partnersGermany 28%, Romania 5.4%, Slovakia 5.1%, Austria 5%, Italy 4.8%, France 4.7%, UK 4%, Czech Republic 4% (2015)
Germany 19.8%, Italy 12.5%, France 6.8%, Hungary 5.4%, UK 4.4% (2015)
Imports$86.61 billion (2016 est.)
$84.7 billion (2015 est.)
$66.45 billion (2016 est.)
$63.12 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment 45.4%, other manufactures 34.3%, fuels and electricity 12.6%, food products 5.3%, raw materials 2.5% (2012)
machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, chemicals, agricultural products and foodstuffs, fuels and minerals, metals and metal products, raw materials
Imports - partnersGermany 25.8%, China 6.7%, Austria 6.6%, Poland 5.5%, Slovakia 5.3%, France 5%, Czech Republic 4.8%, Netherlands 4.6%, Italy 4.5% (2015)
Germany 19.8%, Italy 10.9%, Hungary 8%, France 5.6%, Poland 4.9%, China 4.6%, Netherlands 4% (2015)
Debt - external$131.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$127.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$101.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$102.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesforints (HUF) per US dollar -
287.7 (2016 est.)
279.33 (2015 est.)
279.33 (2014 est.)
232.6 (2013 est.)
225.1 (2012 est.)
lei (RON) per US dollar -
4.15 (2016 est.)
4.0057 (2015 est.)
4.0057 (2014 est.)
3.3492 (2013 est.)
3.47 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt75.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
75.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and government, state government, local government, and social security funds.
39.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
38.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$31.62 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$33.13 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$39.86 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$38.71 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$5.434 billion (2016 est.)
$4.121 billion (2015 est.)
-$4.56 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.157 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$117.1 billion (2016 est.)
$186.5 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$240.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$236.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$76.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$72.21 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$168.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$165.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.018 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.618 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$21.59 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.69 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$14.51 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$36.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$41.04 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$42.59 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate0.9% (31 December 2016)
1.35% (31 December 2015)
1.75% (31 December 2015)
2.75% (31 December 2014)
Commercial bank prime lending rate2.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.9% (31 December 2015 est.)
6% (31 December 2016 est.)
6.77% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$68.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$69.85 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$65.93 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$64.47 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$48.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$46.14 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$30.67 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$36.06 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$68.87 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$66.91 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$71.58 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$78.18 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues49% of GDP (2016 est.)
30.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.4% of GDP
note: Hungary has been under the EU Excessive Deficit Procedure since it joined the EU in 2004; in March 2012 the EU elevated its Excessive Deficit Procedure against Hungary and proposed freezing 30% of the country's Cohesion Funds because 2011 deficit reductions were not achieved in a sustainable manner; in June 2012, the EU lifted the freeze, recognizing that steps had been taken to reduce the deficit; the Hungarian deficit increased above 3% both in 2013 and in 2014 due to sluggish growth and the government's fiscal tightening (2016 est.)
-2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 20.4%
male: 20%
female: 20.9% (2014 est.)
total: 24%
male: 23.6%
female: 24.7% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 50.3%
government consumption: 20%
investment in fixed capital: 20.4%
investment in inventories: 0.6%
exports of goods and services: 94.3%
imports of goods and services: -85.6% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 69.4%
government consumption: 6.7%
investment in fixed capital: 25.2%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 40.9%
imports of goods and services: -42.5% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving25.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
26.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
23% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

HungaryRomania
Electricity - production28 billion kWh (2014 est.)
62 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption38 billion kWh (2014 est.)
48 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports5.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
9.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports19 billion kWh (2014 est.)
2.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production12,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
82,650 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports134,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
111,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports1,740 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1,234 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves27.19 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
600 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves8.268 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
105.5 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production1.505 billion cu m (2015 est.)
11.26 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption8.46 billion cu m (2015 est.)
11.54 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports226.6 million cu m (2015 est.)
1.078 million cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports8.167 billion cu m (2015 est.)
277.1 million cu m (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity9.289 million kW (2015 est.)
24 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels22% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
44.3% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
30% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels61% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
6.1% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources6.8% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
19.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production159,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
216,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption154,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
192,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports47,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
79,250 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports52,310 bbl/day (2015 est.)
50,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy44.2 million Mt (2015 est.)
76 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

HungaryRomania
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 3,094,228
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 4.27 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 11.786 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (July 2015 est.)
total: 23.12 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 107 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modern telephone system is digital and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay
domestic: competition among mobile-cellular service providers has led to a sharp increase in the use of mobile-cellular phones since 2000 and a decrease in the number of fixed-line connections
international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals (2015)
general assessment: the telecommunications sector is being expanded and modernized; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services
domestic: more than 90% of telephone network is automatic; fixed-line teledensity is about 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity over 100 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber-Optic Cable System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turkey; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2014)
Internet country code.hu
.ro
Internet userstotal: 7.209 million
percent of population: 72.8% (July 2015 est.)
total: 12.082 million
percent of population: 55.8% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediamixed system of state-supported public service broadcast media and private broadcasters; the 5 publicly owned TV channels and the 2 main privately owned TV stations are the major national broadcasters; a large number of special interest channels; highly developed market for satellite and cable TV services with about two-thirds of viewers utilizing their services; 4 state-supported public-service radio networks; a large number of local stations including commercial, public service, nonprofit, and community radio stations; digital transition completed at the end of 2013; government-linked businesses have greatly consolidated ownership in broadcast and print media (2016)
a mixture of public and private TV stations; there are 7 public TV stations (2 national, 5 regional) using terrestrial broadcasting and 187 private TV stations (out of which 171 offer local coverage) using terrestrial broadcasting, plus 11 public TV stations using satellite broadcasting and 86 private TV stations using satellite broadcasting; state-owned public radio broadcaster operates 4 national networks and regional and local stations, having in total 20 public radio stations by terrestrial broadcasting plus 4 public radio stations by satellite broadcasting; there are 502 operational private radio stations using terrestrial broadcasting and 26 private radio stations using satellite broadcasting (2014)

Transportation

HungaryRomania
Railwaystotal: 8,049 km
broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,794 km 1.435-m gauge (2,889 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
total: 11,268 km
broad gauge: 60 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 10,781 km 1.435-m gauge (3,292 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 203,601 km
paved: 77,087 km (includes 1,582 km of expressways)
unpaved: 126,514 km (2014)
total: 84,185 km
paved: 49,873 km (includes 337 km of expressways)
unpaved: 34,312 km (2012)
Waterways1,622 km (most on Danube River) (2011)
1,731 km (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals) (2010)
Pipelinesgas (high-pressure transmission system) 5,873 km; gas (low-pressure distribution network) 83,619 km (2015); oil 850 km; refined products 1,200 km (2016)
gas 3,726 km; oil 2,451 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsriver port(s): Baja, Csepel (Budapest), Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Mohacs (Danube)
major seaport(s): Constanta, Midia
river port(s): Braila, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Tulcea (Danube River)
Airports41 (2013)
45 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 20
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 26
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 11 (2013)
total: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
Heliports3 (2013)
2 (2013)

Military

HungaryRomania
Military branchesHungarian Defense Forces: Land Forces, Hungarian Air Force (Magyar Legiero, ML) (2011)
Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force (2016)
Military service age and obligation18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; 6-month service obligation (2012)
conscription ended 2006; 18 years of age for male and female voluntary service; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36 (2015)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.84% of GDP (2015)
0.87% of GDP (2014)
0.95% of GDP (2013)
1.04% of GDP (2012)
1.05% of GDP (2011)
1.42% of GDP (2016)
1.45% of GDP (2015)
1.35% of GDP (2014)
1.28% of GDP (2013)
1.22% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

HungaryRomania
Disputes - internationalbilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continue in 2006 with Slovakia over Hungary's failure to complete its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Hungary has implemented the strict Schengen border rules
the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea
Illicit drugstransshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; efforts to counter money laundering, related to organized crime and drug trafficking are improving but remain vulnerable; significant consumer of ecstasy
major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (countries of origin): 5,950 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015)
stateless persons: 135 (2016)
note: 431,286 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - July 2017)
stateless persons: 249 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook