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Hungary vs. Austria

Introduction

HungaryAustria
Background"Hungary became a Christian kingdom in A.D. 1000 and for many centuries served as a bulwark against Ottoman Turkish expansion in Europe. The kingdom eventually became part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and an announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called ""Goulash Communism."" Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU five years later.
"
"Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's ""perpetual neutrality"" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. The Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the EU in 1995 have altered the meaning of this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the EU Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.
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Geography

HungaryAustria
LocationCentral Europe, northwest of Romania
Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia
Geographic coordinates47 00 N, 20 00 E
47 20 N, 13 20 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 93,028 sq km
land: 89,608 sq km
water: 3,420 sq km
total: 83,871 sq km
land: 82,445 sq km
water: 1,426 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Virginia; about the same size as Indiana
about the size of South Carolina; slightly more than two-thirds the size of Pennsylvania
Land boundariestotal: 2,106 km
border countries (7): Austria 321 km, Croatia 348 km, Romania 424 km, Serbia 164 km, Slovakia 627 km, Slovenia 94 km, Ukraine 128 km
total: 2,524 km
border countries (8): Czech Republic 402 km, Germany 801 km, Hungary 321 km, Italy 404 km, Liechtenstein 34 km, Slovakia 105 km, Slovenia 299 km, Switzerland 158 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
Climatetemperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers
Terrainmostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
mostly mountains (Alps) in the west and south; mostly flat or gently sloping along the eastern and northern margins
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 143 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
mean elevation: 910 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m
Natural resourcesbauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 58.9%
arable land 48.5%; permanent crops 2%; permanent pasture 8.4%
forest: 22.5%
other: 18.6% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 38.4%
arable land 16.5%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 21.1%
forest: 47.2%
other: 14.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,721 sq km (2012)
1,170 sq km (2012)
Environment - current issuesthe upgrading of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution to meet EU requirements will require large investments
some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions
landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
Population distributiona fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations
the northern and eastern portions of the country are more densely populated; nearly two-thirds of the populace lives in urban areas

Demographics

HungaryAustria
Population9,874,784 (July 2016 est.)
8,711,770 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 14.76% (male 750,516/female 706,780)
15-24 years: 11.19% (male 570,097/female 534,856)
25-54 years: 41.74% (male 2,071,865/female 2,049,939)
55-64 years: 13.66% (male 620,362/female 728,387)
65 years and over: 18.65% (male 693,609/female 1,148,373) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 14.02% (male 625,391/female 596,310)
15-24 years: 11.33% (male 503,333/female 483,748)
25-54 years: 42.71% (male 1,859,985/female 1,860,641)
55-64 years: 12.85% (male 554,191/female 565,189)
65 years and over: 19.09% (male 719,012/female 943,970) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 41.8 years
male: 39.9 years
female: 44.1 years (2016 est.)
total: 43.8 years
male: 42.7 years
female: 44.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate-0.24% (2016 est.)
0.51% (2016 est.)
Birth rate9.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate12.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
5.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75.9 years
male: 72.2 years
female: 79.8 years (2016 est.)
total population: 81.5 years
male: 78.9 years
female: 84.3 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.44 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.47 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
NA
Nationalitynoun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian
noun: Austrian(s)
adjective: Austrian
Ethnic groupsHungarian 85.6%, Romani 3.2%, German 1.9%, other 2.6%, unspecified 14.1% (2011 est.)
note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic group; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–10% of Hungary's population
Austrians 91.1%, former Yugoslavs 4% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Serbs, and Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, Germans 0.9%, other or unspecified 2.4% (2001 census)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
NA
ReligionsRoman Catholic 37.2%, Calvinist 11.6%, Lutheran 2.2%, Greek Catholic 1.8%, other 1.9%, none 18.2%, unspecified 27.2% (2011 est.)
Catholic 73.8% (includes Roman Catholic 73.6%, other Catholic 0.2%), Protestant 4.9%, Muslim 4.2%, Orthodox 2.2%, other 0.8% (includes other Christian), none 12%, unspecified 2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths100 (2013 est.)
NA
LanguagesHungarian (official) 99.6%, English 16%, German 11.2%, Russian 1.6%, Romanian 1.3%, French 1.2%, other 4.2%
note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Hungarian is the mother tongue of 98.9% of Hungarian speakers (2011 est.)
German (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene, official in South Carinthia, and Hungarian, official in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2015)
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 16 years (2015)
Education expenditures4.2% of GDP (2013)
5.6% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 71.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.47% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 66% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 97.8% of population
rural: 98.6% of population
total: 98% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.2% of population
rural: 1.4% of population
total: 2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationBUDAPEST (capital) 1.714 million (2015)
VIENNA (capital) 1.753 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate17 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures7.4% of GDP (2014)
11.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3.32 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
5.15 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density7.2 beds/1,000 population (2011)
7.6 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate26% (2014)
20.1% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth28.2 years (2013 est.)
28.5 years (2011 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 47.9
youth dependency ratio: 21.5
elderly dependency ratio: 26.3
potential support ratio: 3.8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 49.2
youth dependency ratio: 21.2
elderly dependency ratio: 28
potential support ratio: 3.6 (2015 est.)

Government

HungaryAustria
Country name"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Hungary
local long form: none
local short form: Magyarorszag
etymology: the Byzantine Greeks refered to the tribes that arrived on the steppes of Eastern Europe in the 9th century as the ""Oungroi,"" a name that was later Latinized to ""Ungri"" and which became ""Hungari""; the name originally meant an ""[alliance of] ten tribes""; the Hungarian name ""Magyarorszag"" means ""Country of the Magyars""; the term may derive from the most prominent of the Hungarian tribes, the Megyer
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Austria
conventional short form: Austria
local long form: Republik Oesterreich
local short form: Oesterreich
etymology: the name Oesterreich means ""eastern realm"" or ""eastern march"" and dates to the 10th century; the designation refers to the fact that Austria was the easternmost extension of Bavaria, and in fact of all the Germans; the word Austria is a Latinization of the German name
"
Government typeparliamentary republic
federal parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Budapest
geographic coordinates: 47 30 N, 19 05 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Vienna
geographic coordinates: 48 12 N, 16 22 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 23 cities with county rights (megyei jogu varosok, singular - megyei jogu varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)
counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala
cities with county rights: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Erd, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Salgotarjan, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szekszard, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg
capital city: Budapest
9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich (Lower Austria), Oberoesterreich (Upper Austria), Salzburg, Steiermark (Styria), Tirol (Tyrol), Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)
Independence16 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 25 December 1000 (crowning of King STEPHEN I, traditional founding date); 30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established)
12 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 976 (Margravate of Austria established); 17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed)
National holidaySaint Stephen's Day, 20 August (1083); note - commemorates his cannonization and the transfer of his remains to Buda (now Budapest) in 1083
National Day (commemorates passage of the law on permanent neutrality), 26 October (1955)
Constitutionhistory: previous 1949 (heavily amended in 1989 following the collapse of communism); latest approved 18 April 2011, signed 25 April 2011, effective 1 January 2012
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by parliamentary committee, or by Parliament members; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament members and approval by the president; amended several times, last in 2013 (2016)
history: several previous; latest adopted 1 October 1920, revised 1929, replaced May 1934 (authoritarian corporate state), replaced by German Weimar constitution in 1938 following German annexation, reinstated 1 May 1945
amendments: proposed through laws designated “constitutional laws” or through the constitutional process if the amendment is part of another law; approval required by at least a two-thirds majority vote by the National Assembly if one-half of the members are present; a referendum is required only if requested by one-third of the National Council or Federal Council membership; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote; amended many times, last in 2014 (2016)
Legal systemcivil legal system influenced by the German model
civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court
Suffrage18 years of age, 16 if married; universal
16 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: Janos ADER (since 10 May 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Viktor ORBAN (since 29 May 2010)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly with two-thirds majority vote in first round or simple majority vote in second round for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 March 2017 (next to be held by spring 2022); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
election results: Janos ADER (Fidesz) reelected president; National Assembly vote - 131 to 39; Viktor ORBAN (Fidesz) elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 130 to 57 (in 2014)
chief of state: Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (since 26 January 2017)
head of government: Chancellor Christian KERN (since 17 May 2016); Vice Chancellor Wolfgang BRANDSTETTER (since 17 May 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 24 April 2016 (first round), 22 May 2016 (second round, which was annulled), and 4 December 2016 (second round re-vote); next presidential elections to be held in April 2022; chancellor appointed by the president but determined by the majority coalition parties in the Federal Assembly; vice chancellor appointed by the president on the advice of the chancellor
election results: percent of vote: first-round results - Norbet HOFER (FPOe) 35.1%, Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (independent, allied with the Greens) 21.3%, Irmgard GRISS (independent) 18.9%, Rudolf HUNDSTORFER (SPOe) 11.3%, Andreas KHOL (OeVP) 11.1%, Richard LUGNER (independent) 2.3%; second round results - Alexander VAN DER BELLEN 53.8%, Norbet HOFER 46.2%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (199 seats; 106 members directly elected in single-member constituencies by simple majority vote and 93 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 6 April 2014 (next to be held by April 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - Fidesz-KDNP 44.5%, Unity 26%, Jobbik 20.5%, LMP 5.3%, other 3.7%; seats by party - Fidesz-KDNP 133, Unity 38, Jobbik 23, LMP 5
description: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of the Federal Council or Bundesrat (62 seats; members appointed by state parliaments with each state receiving 3 to 12 seats in proportion to its population; members serve 5- or 6-year terms) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: National Council - last held on 29 September 2013 (next to be held on 15 October 2017)
election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - SPOe 26.8%, OeVP 24.0%, FPOe 20.5%, Greens 12.4%, Team Stronach 5.7%, NEOS 5.0%, other 5.6%; seats by party - SPOe 52, OeVP 47, FPOe 40, Greens 24, Team Stronach 11, NEOS 9; note - currently: SPOe 52, OeVP 50, FPOe 38, Greens 24, NEOS 9, Team Stronach 6, without faction 4
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Curia or Supreme Judicial Court (consists of the president, vice president, 5 department heads, and approximately 76 judges and organized into civil, criminal, economic, and administrative-labor departments; Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges including the court president)
judge selection and term of office: Curia president elected from among its members for 9 years by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president of the republic; other Curia judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a separate 15-member administrative body; judge tenure based on interim evaluations until normal retirement age; Constitutional Court judges elected by two-thirds vote of the National Assembly; members serve single renewable 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: 5 regional courts of appeal; 19 regional or county courts (including Budapest Metropolitan Court); 20 administrative and labor courts; 111 district or local courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Oberster Gerichtshof (consists of 85 judges organized into 17 senates or panels of 5 judges each); Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof (consists of 20 judges including 6 substitutes; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof - 2 judges plus other members depending on the importance of the case)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; judges serve for life; Constitutional Court judges nominated by several executive branch departments and approved by the president; judges serve for life; Administrative Court judges recommended by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; terms of judges and members determined by the president
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (4); Regional Courts (20); district courts (120); county courts
Political parties and leadersChristian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]
Democratic Coalition or DK [Ferenc GYURCSANY]
Dialogue for Hungary or PM [Javor BENEDEK, Timea SZABO]
Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN]
Hungarian Liberal Party or MLP [Gabor FODOR]
Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Gyula MOLNAR]
Movement for a Better Hungary or Jobbik [Gabor VONA]
Politics Can Be Different or LMP [Bernadett SZEL, Akos HADHAZI]
Together 2014 or Egyutt [Peter JUHASZ, Viktor SZIGETVARI]
"Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Sebastian KURZ]
Communist Party of Austria or KPOe [Mirko MESSNER]
Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz-Christian STRACHE]
The Greens [Eva GLAWISCHNIG]
NEOS - The New Austria [Matthias STROLZ]
Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Christian KERN]
""Team Stronach"" [Frank STRONACH]
"
Political pressure groups and leaders"Civil Osszefogas Forum (""Civil Unity Forum,"" nominally independent organization that serves as the steering committee for the pro-government mass organization Bekemenet (Peace March), supporting ORBAN government's policies)
Hungarian Civil Liberties Union (Tarsasag a Szabadsagjogokert) or TASZ (freedom of expression, information privacy)
Hungarian Helsinki Committee (asylum seekers' rights, human rights in law enforcement and the judicial system)
MigSzol (Migrant Solidarity Group of Hungary) (independent advocacy group on migration crisis)
MostMi (""Now Us"") [Bori TAKACS, Zsolt VARADY](Facebook group that was a major participant at anti-government demonstrations in late 2014-early 2015; pro-Europe, anti-establishment movement that blames Fidesz for the state of the country, but also blames all established political parties for perceived political and economic failures since the fall of communism)
Okotars (empowerment of civil society in Hungary)

other:
Energy Club (Energia Klub)
Greenpeace Hungary (Greenpeace Magyarorszag)
"
Austrian Trade Union Federation or OeGB (nominally independent but primarily Social Democratic)
Federal Agriculture Chamber (OeVP-dominated)
Federal Economic Chamber (OeVP-dominated)
Labor Chamber or AK (Social Democratic-leaning think tank)
OeVP-oriented Association of Austrian Industrialists or IV
Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action
other: three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, farmers, and other nongovernment organizations in the areas of environment and human rights
International organization participationAustralia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Laszlo SZABO designated
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
consulate(s): Boston
chief of mission: Ambassador Wolfgang WALDNER (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
consulate(s): Chicago
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d’Affaires David KOSTELANCIK (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400
FAX: [36] (1) 475-4248
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Eugene YOUNG (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0
FAX: [43] (1) 3100682
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green; the flag dates to the national movement of the 18th and 19th centuries, and fuses the medieval colors of the Hungarian coat of arms with the revolutionary tricolor form of the French flag; folklore attributes virtues to the colors: red for strength, white for faithfulness, and green for hope; alternatively, the red is seen as being for the blood spilled in defense of the land, white for freedom, and green for the pasturelands that make up so much of the country
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red; the flag design is certainly one of the oldest - if not the oldest - national banners in the world; according to tradition, in 1191, following a fierce battle in the Third Crusade, Duke Leopold V of Austria's white tunic became completely blood-spattered; upon removal of his wide belt or sash, a white band was revealed; the red-white-red color combination was subsequently adopted as his banner
National anthem"name: ""Himnusz"" (Hymn)
lyrics/music: Ferenc KOLCSEY/Ferenc ERKEL
note: adopted 1844
"
"name: ""Bundeshymne"" (Federal Hymn)
lyrics/music: Paula von PRERADOVIC/Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART or Johann HOLZER (disputed)
note: adopted 1947; the anthem is also known as ""Land der Berge, Land am Strome"" (Land of the Mountains, Land by the River); Austria adopted a new national anthem after World War II to replace the former imperial anthem composed by Franz Josef HAYDN, which had been appropriated by Germany in 1922 and was thereafter associated with the Nazi regime; a gendered version of the lyrics was adopted by the Austrian Federal Assembly in fall 2011 and became effective 1 January 2012
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Holy Crown of Hungary (Crown of Saint Stephen); national colors: red, white, green
golden eagle, edelweiss, Alpine gentian; national colors: red, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Hungary
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Austria
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

HungaryAustria
Economy - overviewHungary has made the transition from a centrally planned to a liberal market-driven economy with a per capita income nearly two-thirds that of the EU-28 average; however, in recent years the government has become more involved in managing the economy. Budapest has implemented unorthodox economic policies to boost household consumption and has relied on EU-funded development projects to generate growth.

The economy is largely driven by exports, making it vulnerable to external market shocks. Following the fall of communism in 1990, Hungary experienced a drop-off in exports and financial assistance from the former Soviet Union. Hungary embarked on a series of economic reforms, including privatization of state-owned enterprises and reduction of social spending programs, to shift from a centrally planned to a market-driven economy, and to reorient its economy towards trade with the West. These efforts helped to spur growth, attract investment, and reduce Hungary’s debt burden and fiscal deficits. However, living conditions for the average Hungarian initially deteriorated as inflation increased and unemployment reached double digits. Conditions slowly improved over the 1990s as the reforms came to fruition and export growth accelerated. Economic policies instituted during that decade helped position Hungary to join the European Union in 2004; Hungary has yet to join the euro zone, however. Hungary suffered a historic economic contraction as a result of the global economic slowdown in 2008-09 as export demand and domestic consumption dropped, prompting it to take an IMF-EU financial assistance package.

Since 2010, the government has backpedalled on reforms and taken a more nationalist and populist approach towards economic management. The government has favored national industries, and specifically government-linked businesses, through legislation, regulation, and public procurements. In 2010 and 2012, the government increased taxes on foreign-dominated sectors, such as banking and retail, because the move helped to raise revenues and decrease the budget deficit, thereby allowing Hungary to maintain access to EU development funds. The policy deterred private investment, however. In 2011 and 2014, Hungary nationalized private pension funds. The move squeezed financial service providers out of the system, but it also helped Hungary curb its public debt and lower its budget deficit to below 3% of GDP, as subsequent pension contributions have been channeled into the state-managed pension fund. Hungary’s public debt (at 73.9% of GDP) is still high compared to EU peers in Central Europe. Despite these reversals, real GDP growth has remained robust in the past several years because EU cyclical funding increased, EU demand for Hungarian exports rose, and domestic household consumption rebounded. To further boost household consumption ahead of an anticipated 2018 election, the government has announced plans to increase the minimum wage and public sector salaries, to decrease taxes on foodstuffs and services, to decrease personal income tax from 16% to 15%, as well as to introduce a uniform 9% business tax for both small and medium enterprises and large companies. Real GDP growth slowed in 2016 due to a cyclical fallback in EU funds, but is expected to increase to above 3% in 2017 and 2018.

Systemic economic challenges include long-term and youth unemployment, labor shortages, widespread poverty in rural areas, vulnerabilities to changes in demand for exports, and a heavy reliance on Russian energy imports.
Austria, with its well-developed market economy, skilled labor force, and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. Its economy features a large service sector, a relatively sound industrial sector, and a small, but highly developed agricultural sector.

Economic growth has been relatively weak in recent years, approaching 0.9% in 2015, but rising to 1.4% in 2016. Austria's 5.8% unemployment rate, while low by European standards, is at its highest rate since the end of World War II, driven by an increased number of refugees and EU migrants entering the labor market. Without extensive vocational training programs and generous early retirement, the unemployment rate would be even higher.

Although Austria's fiscal position compares favorably with other euro-zone countries, it faces several external risks, such as unexpectedly weak world economic growth threatening the export market, Austrian banks' continued exposure to Central and Eastern Europe, repercussions from the Hypo Alpe Adria bank collapse, political and economic uncertainties caused by the European sovereign debt crisis, the current refugee crisis, and continued unrest in Russia/Ukraine. The budget deficit stood at 1.4% of GDP in 2016 and public debt reached a post-war high of 86.2% of the GDP in 2015.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$267.6 billion (2016 est.)
$262.4 billion (2015 est.)
$254.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$416.6 billion (2016 est.)
$410.4 billion (2015 est.)
$406.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2% (2016 est.)
2.9% (2015 est.)
3.7% (2014 est.)
1.5% (2016 est.)
0.9% (2015 est.)
0.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$27,200 (2016 est.)
$26,600 (2015 est.)
$25,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$47,900 (2016 est.)
$47,600 (2015 est.)
$47,600 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 3.5%
industry: 31.8%
services: 64.7% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 1.3%
industry: 28.1%
services: 70.6% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line14.9% (2015 est.)
4% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 22.4% (2015)
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 23.5% (2012 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)0.1% (2016 est.)
-0.1% (2015 est.)
0.9% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2015 est.)
Labor force4.564 million (2016 est.)
3.944 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 4.9%
industry: 30.3%
services: 64.5% (2015 est.)
agriculture: 0.7%
industry: 25.3%
services: 74% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate6.6% (2016 est.)
6.8% (2015 est.)
6.1% (2016 est.)
5.7% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index28.2 (2015 est.)
28.6 (2014)
29.2 (2013)
26.3 (2007)
Budgetrevenues: $57.32 billion
expenditures: $60.08 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $187.3 billion
expenditures: $192.6 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesmining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism
Industrial production growth rate3.3% (2016 est.)
1.4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
grains, potatoes, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber and other forestry products
Exports$91.78 billion (2016 est.)
$89.44 billion (2015 est.)
$144.3 billion (2016 est.)
$144.7 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment 53.4%, other manufactures 31.2%, food products 8.4%, raw materials 3.4%, fuels and electricity 3.9% (2012 est.)
machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs
Exports - partnersGermany 28%, Romania 5.4%, Slovakia 5.1%, Austria 5%, Italy 4.8%, France 4.7%, UK 4%, Czech Republic 4% (2015)
Germany 30.5%, US 6.6%, Italy 6.4%, Switzerland 5.5%, France 4.1% (2015)
Imports$86.61 billion (2016 est.)
$84.7 billion (2015 est.)
$149.1 billion (2016 est.)
$146.9 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment 45.4%, other manufactures 34.3%, fuels and electricity 12.6%, food products 5.3%, raw materials 2.5% (2012)
machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products, natural gas; foodstuffs
Imports - partnersGermany 25.8%, China 6.7%, Austria 6.6%, Poland 5.5%, Slovakia 5.3%, France 5%, Czech Republic 4.8%, Netherlands 4.6%, Italy 4.5% (2015)
Germany 37.2%, Italy 6.2%, China 5.9%, Switzerland 5.3%, Czech Republic 4.3% (2015)
Debt - external$131.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$127.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$689.1 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$679.3 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesforints (HUF) per US dollar -
287.7 (2016 est.)
279.33 (2015 est.)
279.33 (2014 est.)
232.6 (2013 est.)
225.1 (2012 est.)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt75.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
75.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and government, state government, local government, and social security funds.
83.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
86.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: this is general government gross debt, defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year; it covers the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; as a percentage of GDP, the GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product in current year prices
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$31.62 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$33.13 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$25.22 billion (17 February 2017 est.)
$24.94 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Current Account Balance$5.434 billion (2016 est.)
$4.121 billion (2015 est.)
$9.283 billion (2016 est.)
$6.963 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$117.1 billion (2016 est.)
$387.3 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$240.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$236.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$304.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$294.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$168.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$165.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$363.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$349.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$21.59 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.69 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$14.51 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$96.08 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$96.79 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$117.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate2.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.9% (31 December 2015 est.)
1.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
2% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$68.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$69.85 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$467 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$462.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$48.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$46.14 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$203.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$193.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
Stock of broad money$68.87 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$66.91 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$319.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$317.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues49% of GDP (2016 est.)
48.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.4% of GDP
note: Hungary has been under the EU Excessive Deficit Procedure since it joined the EU in 2004; in March 2012 the EU elevated its Excessive Deficit Procedure against Hungary and proposed freezing 30% of the country's Cohesion Funds because 2011 deficit reductions were not achieved in a sustainable manner; in June 2012, the EU lifted the freeze, recognizing that steps had been taken to reduce the deficit; the Hungarian deficit increased above 3% both in 2013 and in 2014 due to sluggish growth and the government's fiscal tightening (2016 est.)
-1.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 20.4%
male: 20%
female: 20.9% (2014 est.)
total: 10.3%
male: 10.6%
female: 9.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 50.3%
government consumption: 20%
investment in fixed capital: 20.4%
investment in inventories: 0.6%
exports of goods and services: 94.3%
imports of goods and services: -85.6% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 52.7%
government consumption: 20%
investment in fixed capital: 22.8%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 53.1%
imports of goods and services: -49% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving25.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
26.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
25.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
25% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

HungaryAustria
Electricity - production28 billion kWh (2014 est.)
64.95 billion kWh (2015)
Electricity - consumption38 billion kWh (2014 est.)
69.95 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports5.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
19.31 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports19 billion kWh (2014 est.)
29.37 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production12,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
16,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports134,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
165,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports1,740 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves27.19 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
47.5 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves8.268 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
7.9 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production1.505 billion cu m (2015 est.)
1.197 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption8.46 billion cu m (2015 est.)
7.914 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports226.6 million cu m (2015 est.)
2.529 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports8.167 billion cu m (2015 est.)
5.722 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity9.289 million kW (2015 est.)
24.22 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels22% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
29% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
62.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels61% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources6.8% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
8.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production159,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
200,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption154,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
264,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports47,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
50,640 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports52,310 bbl/day (2015 est.)
117,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy44.2 million Mt (2015 est.)
78.9 million Mt (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

HungaryAustria
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 3,094,228
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 3,609,900
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 11.786 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (July 2015 est.)
total: 13.471 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 155 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modern telephone system is digital and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay
domestic: competition among mobile-cellular service providers has led to a sharp increase in the use of mobile-cellular phones since 2000 and a decrease in the number of fixed-line connections
international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals (2015)
general assessment: highly developed and efficient
domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership is over 90% of the population; cable networks are very extensive, the fiber-optic net is being developed; all telephone applications and Internet services are available; broadband is available in all large municipalities
international: country code - 43; earth stations available in the Astra, Intelsat, Eutelsat satellite systems (2016)
Internet country code.hu
.at
Internet userstotal: 7.209 million
percent of population: 72.8% (July 2015 est.)
total: 7.273 million
percent of population: 83.9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediamixed system of state-supported public service broadcast media and private broadcasters; the 5 publicly owned TV channels and the 2 main privately owned TV stations are the major national broadcasters; a large number of special interest channels; highly developed market for satellite and cable TV services with about two-thirds of viewers utilizing their services; 4 state-supported public-service radio networks; a large number of local stations including commercial, public service, nonprofit, and community radio stations; digital transition completed at the end of 2013; government-linked businesses have greatly consolidated ownership in broadcast and print media (2016)
worldwide cable and satellite TV are available; the public incumbent ORF competes with three other major, several regional domestic, and up to 400 international TV stations; TV coverage is in principle 100%, but only 90% use broadcast media; Internet streaming not only complements, but increasingly replaces regular TV stations (2016)

Transportation

HungaryAustria
Railwaystotal: 8,049 km
broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,794 km 1.435-m gauge (2,889 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
total: 5,800 km (2016)
standard gauge: 5,267.7 km 1.435-m gauge (3,556.4 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 203,601 km
paved: 77,087 km (includes 1,582 km of expressways)
unpaved: 126,514 km (2014)
total: 138,696 km
paved: 138,696 km (includes 2,208 km of expressways) (2016)
Waterways1,622 km (most on Danube River) (2011)
358 km (2011)
Pipelinesgas (high-pressure transmission system) 5,873 km; gas (low-pressure distribution network) 83,619 km (2015); oil 850 km; refined products 1,200 km (2016)
gas 1,888 km; oil 594 km; refined products 157 km (2017)
Ports and terminalsriver port(s): Baja, Csepel (Budapest), Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Mohacs (Danube)
river port(s): Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna (Danube)
Airports41 (2013)
52 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 20
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 24
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 13 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 11 (2013)
total: 28
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 24 (2013)
Heliports3 (2013)
1 (2013)

Military

HungaryAustria
Military branchesHungarian Defense Forces: Land Forces, Hungarian Air Force (Magyar Legiero, ML) (2011)
Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK) (2014)
Military service age and obligation18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; 6-month service obligation (2012)
registration requirement at age 17, the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; 18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service (6 months), or optionally, alternative civil/community service (9 months); males 18 to 50 years old in the militia or inactive reserve are subject to compulsory service; in a January 2012 referendum, a majority of Austrians voted in favor of retaining the system of compulsory military service (with the option of alternative/non-military service) instead of switching to a professional army system (2015)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.84% of GDP (2015)
0.87% of GDP (2014)
0.95% of GDP (2013)
1.04% of GDP (2012)
1.05% of GDP (2011)
0.68% of GDP (2016 est.)
0.67% of GDP (2015)
0.75% of GDP (2014)
0.75% of GDP (2013)
0.78% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

HungaryAustria
Disputes - internationalbilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continue in 2006 with Slovakia over Hungary's failure to complete its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Hungary has implemented the strict Schengen border rules
none
Illicit drugstransshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; efforts to counter money laundering, related to organized crime and drug trafficking are improving but remain vulnerable; significant consumer of ecstasy
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; increasing consumption of European-produced synthetic drugs
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (countries of origin): 5,950 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015)
stateless persons: 135 (2016)
note: 431,286 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - July 2017)
refugees (country of origin): 30,958 (Syria); 20,220 (Afghanistan); 13,773 (Russia); 5,555 (Iraq) (2016)
stateless persons: 937 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook