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Haiti vs. Dominican Republic

Introduction

HaitiDominican Republic
BackgroundThe native Taino - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when it was discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 - were virtually annihilated by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola. In 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean but only through the heavy importation of African slaves and considerable environmental degradation. In the late 18th century, Haiti's nearly half million slaves revolted under Toussaint L'OUVERTURE. After a prolonged struggle, Haiti became the first post-colonial black-led nation in the world, declaring its independence in 1804. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti has experienced political instability for most of its history. After an armed rebellion led to the forced resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE in February 2004, an interim government took office to organize new elections under the auspices of the United Nations. Continued instability and technical delays prompted repeated postponements, but Haiti inaugurated a democratically elected president and parliament in May of 2006. This was followed by contested elections in 2010 that resulted in the election of Haiti's current President, Michel MARTELLY. A massive magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti in January 2010 with an epicenter about 25 km (15 mi) west of the capital, Port-au-Prince. Estimates are that over 300,000 people were killed and some 1.5 million left homeless. The earthquake was assessed as the worst in this region over the last 200 years.The Taino - indigenous inhabitants of Hispaniola prior to the arrival of the Europeans - divided the island into five chiefdoms and territories. Christopher COLUMBUS explored and claimed the island on his first voyage in 1492; it became a springboard for Spanish conquest of the Caribbean and the American mainland. In 1697, Spain recognized French dominion over the western third of the island, which in 1804 became Haiti. The remainder of the island, by then known as Santo Domingo, sought to gain its own independence in 1821 but was conquered and ruled by the Haitians for 22 years; it finally attained independence as the Dominican Republic in 1844. In 1861, the Dominicans voluntarily returned to the Spanish Empire, but two years later they launched a war that restored independence in 1865. A legacy of unsettled, mostly non-representative rule followed, capped by the dictatorship of Rafael Leonidas TRUJILLO from 1930 to 1961. Juan BOSCH was elected president in 1962 but was deposed in a military coup in 1963. In 1965, the United States led an intervention in the midst of a civil war sparked by an uprising to restore BOSCH. In 1966, Joaquin BALAGUER defeated BOSCH in an election to become president. BALAGUER maintained a tight grip on power for most of the next 30 years when international reaction to flawed elections forced him to curtail his term in 1996. Since then, regular competitive elections have been held in which opposition candidates have won the presidency. Former President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (first term 1996-2000) won election to a new term in 2004 following a constitutional amendment allowing presidents to serve more than one term, and was later reelected to a second consecutive term. In 2012, Danilo MEDINA Sanchez was elected president.

Geography

HaitiDominican Republic
LocationCaribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican RepublicCaribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti
Geographic coordinates19 00 N, 72 25 W19 00 N, 70 40 W
Map referencesCentral America and the CaribbeanCentral America and the Caribbean
Areatotal: 27,750 sq km
land: 27,560 sq km
water: 190 sq km
total: 48,670 sq km
land: 48,320 sq km
water: 350 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Marylandslightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire
Land boundariestotal: 376 km
border countries: Dominican Republic 376 km
total: 376 km
border countries: Haiti 376 km
Coastline1,771 km1,288 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatetropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade windstropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal variation in rainfall
Terrainmostly rough and mountainousrugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys interspersed
Elevation extremeslowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Chaine de la Selle 2,680 m
lowest point: Lago Enriquillo -46 m
highest point: Pico Duarte 3,175 m
Natural resourcesbauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropowernickel, bauxite, gold, silver
Land usearable land: 36.04%
permanent crops: 10.09%
other: 53.87% (2011)
arable land: 16.44%
permanent crops: 9.25%
other: 74.32% (2011)
Irrigated land970 sq km (2009)3,065 sq km (2009)
Natural hazardslies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughtslies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding; periodic droughts
Environment - current issuesextensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable waterwater shortages; soil eroding into the sea damages coral reefs; deforestation
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - noteshares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti
Total renewable water resources14.03 cu km (2011)21 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 1.2 cu km/yr (17%/3%/80%)
per capita: 134.3 cu m/yr (2009)
total: 5.47 cu km/yr (26%/1%/72%)
per capita: 574.2 cu m/yr (2005)

Demographics

HaitiDominican Republic
Population9,996,731
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)
10,349,741 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 34% (male 1,701,559/female 1,693,236)
15-24 years: 21.6% (male 1,078,994/female 1,081,005)
25-54 years: 35.3% (male 1,755,722/female 1,770,386)
55-64 years: 5% (male 241,174/female 263,369)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 183,627/female 227,659) (2014 est.)
0-14 years: 28% (male 1,474,170/female 1,423,573)
15-24 years: 18.5% (male 974,688/female 937,103)
25-54 years: 39.3% (male 2,078,915/female 1,984,585)
55-64 years: 7.2% (male 376,175/female 371,152)
65 years and over: 7% (male 336,712/female 392,668) (2014 est.)
Median agetotal: 22.2 years
male: 22 years
female: 22.4 years (2014 est.)
total: 27.1 years
male: 26.9 years
female: 27.3 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate1.08%
note: the preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009 (2014 est.)
1.25% (2014 est.)
Birth rate22.83 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)18.97 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate7.91 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)4.5 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate-4.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)-1.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 49.43 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 53.26 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 45.56 deaths/1,000 live births
note: the preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009 (2014 est.)
total: 19.63 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.56 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 63.18 years
male: 61.77 years
female: 64.6 years
note: the preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009 (2014 est.)
total population: 77.8 years
male: 75.6 years
female: 80.08 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate2.79 children born/woman (2014 est.)2.36 children born/woman (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate2.1% (2012 est.)0.7% (2012 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Haitian(s)
adjective: Haitian
noun: Dominican(s)
adjective: Dominican
Ethnic groupsblack 95%, mulatto and white 5%mixed 73%, white 16%, black 11%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS146,000 (2012 est.)45,000 (2012 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3%
note: roughly half of the population practices voodoo
Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%
HIV/AIDS - deaths7,500 (2012 est.)1,900 (2012 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official), Creole (official)Spanish (official)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 48.7%
male: 53.4%
female: 44.6% (2006 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.1%
male: 90%
female: 90.2% (2011 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2013)
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever (2013)
Education expendituresNA2.2% of GDP (2012)
Urbanizationurban population: 53.4% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.68% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 69.7% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.03% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 74.6% of population
rural: 47.5% of population
total: 62.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 25.4% of population
rural: 52.5% of population
total: 37.6% of population (2012 est.)
improved:
urban: 82.5% of population
rural: 77.2% of population
total: 80.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 17.5% of population
rural: 22.8% of population
total: 19.1% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 31% of population
rural: 16.3% of population
total: 24.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 69% of population
rural: 83.7% of population
total: 75.6% of population (2012 est.)
improved:
urban: 85.5% of population
rural: 73.8% of population
total: 82% of population
unimproved:
urban: 14.5% of population
rural: 26.2% of population
total: 18% of population (2012 est.)
Major cities - populationPORT-AU-PRINCE (capital) 2.207 million (2011)SANTO DOMINGO (capital) 2.191 million (2011)
Maternal mortality rate350 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)150 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight18.9% (2006)3.4% (2007)
Health expenditures7.9% of GDP (2011)5.4% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density0.25 physicians/1,000 population (1998)1.88 physicians/1,000 population (2000)
Hospital bed density1.3 beds/1,000 population (2007)1.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate7.9% (2008)21.2% (2008)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 2,587,205
percentage: 21 % (2006 est.)
total number: 180,423
percentage: 10 % (2000 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth22.7
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012)
20.3
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2007 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate34.5% (2012)72.9% (2007)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 64.2 %
youth dependency ratio: 56.7 %
elderly dependency ratio: 7.5 %
potential support ratio: 13.4 (2014 est.)
total dependency ratio: 57.1 %
youth dependency ratio: 47 %
elderly dependency ratio: 10.1 %
potential support ratio: 9.9 (2014 est.)

Government

HaitiDominican Republic
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Haiti
conventional short form: Haiti
local long form: Republique d'Haiti/Repiblik d'Ayiti
local short form: Haiti/Ayiti
conventional long form: Dominican Republic
conventional short form: The Dominican
local long form: Republica Dominicana
local short form: La Dominicana
Government typerepublicdemocratic republic
Capitalname: Port-au-Prince
geographic coordinates: 18 32 N, 72 20 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
name: Santo Domingo
geographic coordinates: 18 28 N, 69 54 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions10 departments (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nippes, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est10 regions (regiones, singular - region); Cibao Nordeste, Cibao Noroeste, Cibao Norte, Cibao Sur, El Valle, Enriquillo, Higuamo, Ozama, Valdesia, Yuma
Independence1 January 1804 (from France)27 February 1844 (from Haiti)
National holidayIndependence Day, 1 January (1804)Independence Day, 27 February (1844)
Constitutionmany previous (23 total); latest adopted 10 March 1987; amended 2012 (2013)many previous (38 total); latest proclaimed 26 January 2010; note - the Dominican Republic Government has a practice of promulgating a "new" constitution whenever an amendment is ratified (2013)
Legal systemcivil law system strongly influenced by Napoleonic Codecivil law system based on the French civil code; Criminal Procedures Code modified in 2004 to include important elements of an accusatory system
Suffrage18 years of age; universal18 years of age, universal and compulsory; married persons regardless of age can vote; note - members of the armed forces and national police by law cannot vote
Executive branchchief of state: President Michel MARTELLY (since 14 May 2011)
head of government: Prime Minister Laurent LAMOTHE (since 16 May 2012)
cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held on 28 November 2010; runoff on 20 March 2011 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president, ratified by the National Assembly
election results: Michel MARTELLY elected president in runoff with 67.6% of the vote against Mirlande MANIGAT with 31.7%
chief of state: President Danilo MEDINA Sanchez (since 16 August 2012); Vice President Margarita CEDENO DE FERNANDEZ (since 16 August 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Danilo MEDINA Sanchez (since 16 August 2012); Vice President Margarita CEDENO DE FERNANDEZ (since 16 August 2012)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held on 20 May 2012 (next to be held in 2016)
election results: Danilo MEDINA Sanchez elected president; percent of vote - Danilo MEDINA Sanchez 51.2%, Hipolito MEJIA 47%, other 1.8%; Margarita CEDENO DE FERNANDEZ elected vice president
Legislative branchbicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale consists of the Senate (30 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies (99 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms);
elections: Senate - last held on 28 November 2010 with run-off elections on 20 March 2011 (next regular election, for one third of seats, scheduled for 2012 but delayed); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 28 November 2010 with run-off elections on 20 March 2011 (next regular election to be held in 2014)
election results: 2010 Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Inite 6, ALTENATIV 4, LAVNI 1; 2010 Chamber of Deputies- percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Inite 32, Altenativ 11, Ansanm Nou Fo 10, AAA 8, LAVNI 7, RASANBLE 4, KONBIT 3, MOCHRENA 3, Platforme Liberation 3, PONT 3, Repons Peyizan 3, Independent 2, MAS 2, MODELH-PRDH 1, PLAPH 1, RESPE 1, Veye Yo 1, vacant 4
bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (32 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Diputados (183 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 16 May 2010 (next to be held in May 2016); House of Representatives - last held on 16 May 2010 (next to be held in May 2016); in order to synchronize presidential, legislative, and local elections for 2016, those members elected in 2010 will actually serve six-year terms
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PLD 31, PRSC 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PLD 105, PRD 75, PRSC 3
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour de Cassation (consists of a chief judge and other judges)
note - Haiti is a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president from candidate lists submitted by the Senate of the National Assembly; note - Article 174 of the Haiti Constitution states "Judges of the Supreme Court.... are appointed for 10 years." whereas Article 177 states "Judges of the Supreme Court..... are appointed for life."
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; magistrates' courts; special courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia (consists of a minimum of 16 magistrates); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 13 judges)
note - the Constitutional Court was established in 2010 by constitutional amendment
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary comprised of the president, the leaders of both chambers of congress, the president of the Supreme Court, and a non-governing party congressional representative; Supreme Court judges appointed for 7- year terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 9-year terms
subordinate courts: courts of appeal; courts of first instance; justices of the peace; special courts for juvenile, labor, and land cases; Contentious Administrative Court for cases filed against the government
Political parties and leadersAssembly of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Mirlande MANIGAT]
Christian and Citizen For Haiti's Reconstruction or ACCRHA [Chavannes JEUNE]
Convention for Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]
Cooperative Action to Rebuild Haiti or KONBA [Jean William JEANTY]
December 16 Platform or Platfom 16 Desanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]
Democratic Alliance or ALYANS [Evans PAUL] (coalition composed of KID and PPRH)
Democratic Centers's National Council or CONACED [Osner FEVRY]
Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Haiti-Revolutionary Party of Haiti or MODELH-PRDH
Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative for the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]
Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE]
For Us All or PONT [Jean-Marie CHERESTAL]
Grouping of Citizens for Hope or RESPE [Charles-Henri BAKER]
Haiti in Action or AAA [Youri LATORTUE]
Haitians for Haiti [Yvon NEPTUNE]
Independent Movement for National Reconstruction or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]
Konbit Pou refe Ayiti or KONBIT
Lavni Organization or LAVNI [Yves CRISTALIN]
Liberal Party of Haiti or PLH [Jean Andre VICTOR]
Liberation Platform or PLATFORME LIBERATION
Love Haiti or Renmen Ayiti [Jean-Henry CEANT and Camille LEBLANC]
Merging of Haitian Social Democratics or FUSION [Edmonde Supplice BEAUZILE] (coalition of Ayiti Capable, Haitian National Revolutionary Party, and National Congress of Democratic Movements)
Mobilization for National Development or MDN [Hubert de RONCERAY]
National Front for the Reconstruction of Haiti or FRN [Guy PHILIPPE]
New Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]
Peasant's Response or Repons Peyizan [Michel MARTELLY]
Platform Alternative for Progress and Democracy or ALTENATIV [Victor BENOIT and Evans PAUL]
Platform of Haitian Patriots or PLAPH [Dejean BELISAIRE and Himmler REBU]
Popular Party for the Renewal of Haiti or PPRH [Claude ROMAIN]
Rally or RASAMBLE
Respect or RESPE
Socialist Action Movement or MAS
Strength in Unity or Ansanm Nou Fo [Leslie VOLTAIRE]
Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Sauveur PIERRE-ETIENNE]
Union [Chavannes JEUNE]
Union of Haitian Citizens for Democracy, Development, and Education or UCADDE [Jeantel JOSEPH]
Union of Nationalist and Progressive Haitians or UNPH [Edouard FRANCISQUE]
Unity or Inite [Levaillant LOUIS-JEUNE] (coalition that includes Front for Hope or L'ESPWA)
Vigilance or Veye Yo [Lavarice GAUDIN]
Youth for People's Power or JPP [Rene CIVIL]
Dominican Liberation Party or PLD [Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna]
Dominican Revolutionary Party or PRD [Miguel VARGAS Maldonado]
National Progressive Front [Vinicio CASTILLO, Pelegrin CASTILLO]
Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Carlos MORALES Troncoso]
Political pressure groups and leadersAutonomous Organizations of Haitian Workers or CATH [Fignole ST-CYR]
Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH
Economic Forum of the Private Sector or EF [Reginald BOULOS]
Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS
General Organization of Independent Haitian Workers [Patrick NUMAS]
Grand-Anse Resistance Committee, or KOREGA
The Haitian Association of Industries or ADIH [Georges SASSINE]
National Popular Assembly or APN
Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP [Chavannes JEAN-BAPTISTE]
Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP
Protestant Federation of Haiti
Roman Catholic Church
Citizen Participation Group (Participacion Ciudadania)
Collective of Popular Organizations or COP
Foundation for Institution-Building and Justice or FINJUS
International organization participationACP, AOSIS, Caricom, CD, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OIF, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTOACP, AOSIS, BCIE, Caricom (observer), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OAS, OIF (observer), OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA (associated member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Paul Getty ALTIDOR (since 17 April 2012)
chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090
FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Orlando (FL)
chief of mission: Ambassador Anibal de Jesus de CASTRO Rodriguez (since 5 July 2011)
chancery: 1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-6280
FAX: [1] (202) 265-8057
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Glendale (CA), Mayaguez (Puerto Rico), Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Pamela A. WHITE (since 18 July 2012)
embassy: Tabarre 41, Route de Tabarre, Port-au-Prince
mailing address: (in Haiti) P.O. Box 1634, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; (from abroad) 3400 Port-au-Prince, State Department, Washington, DC 20521-3400
telephone: [509] 2229-8000
FAX: [509] 229-8028
chief of mission: Ambassador James BREWSTER
embassy: corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo Navarro, Santo Domingo
mailing address: Unit 5500, APO AA 34041-5500
telephone: [1] (809) 221-2171
FAX: [1] (809) 686-7437
Flag descriptiontwo equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength); the colors are taken from the French Tricolor and represent the union of blacks and mulattoesa centered white cross that extends to the edges divides the flag into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist side) and red, and the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of arms featuring a shield supported by a laurel branch (left) and a palm branch (right) is at the center of the cross; above the shield a blue ribbon displays the motto, DIOS, PATRIA, LIBERTAD (God, Fatherland, Liberty), and below the shield, REPUBLICA DOMINICANA appears on a red ribbon; in the shield a bible is opened to a verse that reads "Y la verdad nos hara libre" (And the truth shall set you free); blue stands for liberty, white for salvation, and red for the blood of heroes
National anthemname: "La Dessalinienne" (The Dessalines Song)
lyrics/music: Justin LHERISSON/Nicolas GEFFRARD
note: adopted 1904; the anthem is named for Jean-Jacques DESSALINES, a leader in the Haitian Revolution and first ruler of an independent Haiti
name: "Himno Nacional" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Emilio PRUD"HOMME/Jose REYES
note: adopted 1934; also known as "Quisqueyanos valientes" (Valient Sons of Quisqueye); the anthem never refers to the people as Dominican but rather calls them "Quisqueyanos," a reference to the indigenous name of the island
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCtaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Economy

HaitiDominican Republic
Economy - overviewHaiti is a free market economy that enjoys the advantages of low labor costs and tariff-free access to the US for many of its exports. Poverty, corruption, vulnerability to natural disasters, and low levels of education for much of the population are among Haiti's most serious impediments to economic growth. Haiti's economy suffered a severe setback in January 2010 when a 7.0 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of its capital city, Port-au-Prince, and neighboring areas. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere with 80% of the population living under the poverty line and 54% in abject poverty, the earthquake further inflicted $7.8 billion in damage and caused the country's GDP to contract. In 2011, the Haitian economy began recovering from the earthquake. However, two hurricanes adversely affected agricultural output and the low public capital spending slowed the recovery in 2012. Two-fifths of all Haitians depend on the agricultural sector, mainly small-scale subsistence farming, and remain vulnerable to damage from frequent natural disasters, exacerbated by the country's widespread deforestation. US economic engagement under the Caribbean Basin Trade Preference Agreement (CBTPA) and the 2008 Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement (HOPE II) Act helped increase apparel exports and investment by providing duty-free access to the US. Congress voted in 2010 to extend the CBTPA and HOPE II until 2020 under the Haiti Economic Lift Program (HELP) Act; the apparel sector accounts for about 90% of Haitian exports and nearly one-twentieth of GDP. Remittances are the primary source of foreign exchange, equaling one-fifth of GDP and representing more than five times the earnings from exports in 2012. Haiti suffers from a lack of investment, partly because of weak infrastructure such as access to electricity. Haiti's outstanding external debt was cancelled by donor countries following the 2010 earthquake, but has since risen to $1.1 billion as of December 2013. The government relies on formal international economic assistance for fiscal sustainability, with over half of its annual budget coming from outside sources. The MARTELLY administration in 2011 launched a campaign aimed at drawing foreign investment into Haiti as a means for sustainable development. To that end, the MARTELLY government in 2012 created a Commission for Commercial Code Reform, effected reforms to the justice sector, and inaugurated the Caracol industrial park in Haiti's north coast. In 2012, private investment exceeded donor assistance for the first time since the 2010 earthquake.The Dominican Republic has long been viewed primarily as an exporter of sugar, coffee, and tobacco, but in recent years the service sector has overtaken agriculture as the economy's largest employer, due to growth in telecommunications, tourism, and free trade zones. The economy is highly dependent upon the US, the destination for approximately half of exports. Remittances from the US amount to about 5% of GDP, equivalent to about a third of exports and two-thirds of tourism receipts. The country suffers from marked income inequality; the poorest half of the population receives less than one-fifth of GDP, while the richest 10% enjoys nearly 40% of GDP. High unemployment and underemployment remains an important long-term challenge. The Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) came into force in March 2007, boosting investment and exports and reducing losses to the Asian garment industry. The Dominican Republic's economy rebounded from the global recession in 2010-13, and the fiscal situation is improving. A tax reform package passed in November 2012 and a reduction in government spending helped to narrow the central government budget deficit from 6.6% of GDP in 2012 to below 3% in 2013. A successful government bond placement in 2013 helped finance the deficit.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$13.42 billion (2013 est.)
$12.98 billion (2012 est.)
$12.62 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
$101 billion (2013 est.)
$99.02 billion (2012 est.)
$95.32 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.4% (2013 est.)
2.8% (2012 est.)
5.6% (2011 est.)
2% (2013 est.)
3.9% (2012 est.)
4.5% (2011 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$1,300 (2013 est.)
$1,200 (2012 est.)
$1,200 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
$9,700 (2013 est.)
$9,700 (2012 est.)
$9,500 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 24.1%
industry: 19.9%
services: 56% (2013 est.)
agriculture: 6%
industry: 29.1%
services: 64.9% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line80% (2003 est.)34.4% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 0.7%
highest 10%: 47.7% (2001)
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 36.4% (2010 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)6.3% (2013 est.)
6.3% (2012 est.)
5% (2013 est.)
3.7% (2012 est.)
Labor force4.81 million
note: shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (2010 est.)
4.912 million (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 38.1%
industry: 11.5%
services: 50.4% (2010)
agriculture: 14.6%
industry: 22.3%
services: 63.1% (2005)
Unemployment rate40.6% (2010 est.)
note: widespread unemployment and underemployment; more than two-thirds of the labor force do not have formal jobs
15% (2013 est.)
14.3% (2012 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index59.2 (2001)47.2 (2010 est.)
52 (2000 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $1.989 billion
expenditures: $2.437 billion (2013 est.)
revenues: $9.012 billion
expenditures: $10.79 billion (2013 est.)
Industriestextiles, sugar refining, flour milling, cement, light assembly using imported partstourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining, textiles, cement, tobacco
Industrial production growth rate6% (2013 est.)2.5% (2013 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, mangoes, cocoa, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum; wood, vetiversugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, tobacco, rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products, beef, eggs
Exports$876.8 million (2013 est.)
$785 million (2012 est.)
$9.825 billion (2013 est.)
$9.079 billion (2012 est.)
Exports - commoditiesapparel, manufactures, oils, cocoa, mangoes, coffeeferronickel, sugar, gold, silver, coffee, cocoa, tobacco, meats, consumer goods
Exports - partnersUS 81.7% (2012)US 47%, Haiti 16.1%, China 4.3% (2012)
Imports$2.697 billion (2013 est.)
$2.679 billion (2012 est.)
$16.8 billion (2013 est.)
$17.76 billion (2012 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfood, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, raw materialsfoodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals
Imports - partnersDominican Republic 34.5%, US 26.2%, Netherlands Antilles 9.4%, China 7% (2012)US 43.3%, Venezuela 7.7%, China 6.3%, Mexico 5.3%, Colombia 4.1% (2012)
Debt - external$1.118 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$957.6 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$18.01 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$16.33 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Exchange ratesgourdes (HTG) per US dollar -
43.53 (2013 est.)
41.95 (2012 est.)
39.8 (2010 est.)
42.02 (2009)
39.216 (2008)
Dominican pesos (DOP) per US dollar -
41.8 (2013 est.)
39.336 (2012 est.)
37.307 (2010 est.)
36.03 (2009)
34.775 (2008)
Fiscal year1 October - 30 Septembercalendar year
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$1.335 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.287 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.379 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$3.579 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Current Account Balance-$1.278 billion (2013 est.)
-$1.358 billion (2012 est.)
-$2.33 billion (2013 est.)
-$4.037 billion (2012 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$8.287 billion (2013 est.)$59.27 billion (2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$1.123 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$963.1 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$26.76 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$24.86 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA$NA
Commercial bank prime lending rate9.2% (31 December 2013 est.)
8.93% (31 December 2012 est.)
13.6% (31 December 2013 est.)
15.48% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$1.725 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.515 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$25.09 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$23.71 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.151 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.107 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$4.943 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.738 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money$3.509 billion (31 October 2012 est.)
$3.43 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$15.54 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$14.83 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues24% of GDP (2013 est.)15.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-5.4% of GDP (2013 est.)-3% of GDP (2013 est.)

Energy

HaitiDominican Republic
Electricity - production726 million kWh (2012 est.)13.09 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - consumption208.5 million kWh (2012 est.)13.11 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2012 est.)0 kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2012 est.)0 kWh (2012 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2012 est.)61.1 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2010 est.)27,260 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2010 est.)0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2011 est.)0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2010 est.)820 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2011 est.)0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2011 est.)930 million cu m (2011 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity130,000 kW (2012 est.)5.701 million kW (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2011 est.)28,050 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption14,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)122,300 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2012 est.)0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports15,130 bbl/day (2011 est.)85,490 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy2.103 million Mt (2011 est.)20.64 million Mt (2011 est.)

Telecommunications

HaitiDominican Republic
Telephones - main lines in use50,000 (2012)1.065 million (2012)
Telephones - mobile cellular6.095 million (2012)9.038 million (2012)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is among the least developed in Latin America and the Caribbean; domestic facilities barely adequate; international facilities slightly better
domestic: mobile-cellular telephone services are expanding rapidly due, in part, to the introduction of low-cost GSM phones; mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 40 per 100 persons
international: country code - 509; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)
general assessment: relatively efficient system based on island-wide microwave radio relay network
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 10 per 100 persons; multiple providers of mobile-cellular service with a subscribership of nearly 90 per 100 persons
international: country code - 1-809; landing point for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1), Antillas 1, and the Fibralink submarine cables that provide links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
Internet country code.ht.do
Internet users1 million (2009)2.701 million (2009)
Internet hosts555 (2012)404,500 (2012)
Broadcast mediaseveral TV stations, including 1 government-owned; cable TV subscription service available; government-owned radio network; more than 250 private and community radio stations with about 50 FM stations in Port-au-Prince alone (2007)combination of state-owned and privately owned broadcast media; 1 state-owned TV network and a number of private TV networks; networks operate repeaters to extend signals throughout country; combination of state-owned and privately owned radio stations with more than 300 radio stations operating (2007)

Transportation

HaitiDominican Republic
Roadwaystotal: 4,266 km
paved: 768 km
unpaved: 3,498 km (2009)
total: 19,705 km
paved: 9,872 km
unpaved: 9,833 km (2002)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jacmel, Port-au-Princemajor seaport(s): Puerto Haina, Puerto Plata, Santo Domingo
oil/gas terminal(s): Punta Nizao oil terminal
LNG terminal(s) (import): Andres LNG terminal (Boca Chica)
Airports14 (2013)36 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m:
8 (2013)
total: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m:
18 (2013)

Military

HaitiDominican Republic
Military branchesno regular military forces - small Coast Guard; a Ministry of National Defense established May 2012; the regular Haitian Armed Forces (FAdH) - Army, Navy, and Air Force - have been demobilized but still exist on paper until or unless they are constitutionally abolished (2011)Army (Ejercito Nacional, EN), Navy (Marina de Guerra, MdG; includes naval infantry), Dominican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Dominicana, FAD) (2013)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 2,398,804
females age 16-49: 2,415,039 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 2,580,083
females age 16-49: 2,464,698 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 1,666,324
females age 16-49: 1,704,364 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 2,188,358
females age 16-49: 2,090,180 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 115,246
female: 115,282 (2010 est.)
male: 100,047
female: 96,302 (2010 est.)

Transnational Issues

HaitiDominican Republic
Disputes - internationalsince 2004, peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti have assisted in maintaining civil order in Haiti; the mission currently includes 6,685 military, 2,607 police, and 443 civilian personnel; despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians cross into the Dominican Republic and sail to neighboring countries; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa IslandHaitian migrants cross the porous border into the Dominican Republic to find work; illegal migrants from the Dominican Republic cross the Mona Passage each year to Puerto Rico to find better work
Illicit drugsCaribbean transshipment point for cocaine en route to the US and Europe; substantial bulk cash smuggling activity; Colombian narcotics traffickers favor Haiti for illicit financial transactions; pervasive corruption; significant consumer of cannabistransshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; has become a transshipment point for ecstasy from the Netherlands and Belgium destined for US and Canada; substantial money laundering activity in particular by Colombian narcotics traffickers; significant amphetamine consumption (2008)

Source: CIA Factbook