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Guinea vs. Guinea-Bissau

Introduction

GuineaGuinea-Bissau
BackgroundGuinea has had a history of authoritarian rule since gaining its independence from France in 1958. Lansana CONTE came to power in 1984 when the military seized the government after the death of the first president, Sekou TOURE. Guinea did not hold democratic elections until 1993 when Gen. CONTE (head of the military government) was elected president of the civilian government. He was reelected in 1998 and again in 2003, though all the polls were marred by irregularities. History repeated itself in December 2008 when following President CONTE's death, Capt. Moussa Dadis CAMARA led a military coup, seizing power and suspending the constitution. His unwillingness to yield to domestic and international pressure to step down led to heightened political tensions that culminated in September 2009 when presidential guards opened fire on an opposition rally killing more than 150 people, and in early December 2009 when CAMARA was wounded in an assassination attempt and evacuated to Morocco and subsequently to Burkina Faso. A transitional government led by Gen. Sekouba KONATE held democratic elections in 2010 and Alpha CONDE was elected president in the country's first free and fair elections since independence. CONDE in July 2011 survived an attack on his residence allegedly perpetrated by the military. In October 2012, he announced a cabinet reshuffle that removed three members of the military from their positions, making the current administration Guinea's first all-civilian government.Since independence from Portugal in 1974, Guinea-Bissau has experienced considerable political and military upheaval. In 1980, a military coup established authoritarian dictator Joao Bernardo 'Nino' VIEIRA as president. Despite setting a path to a market economy and multiparty system, VIEIRA's regime was characterized by the suppression of political opposition and the purging of political rivals. Several coup attempts through the 1980s and early 1990s failed to unseat him. In 1994 VIEIRA was elected president in the country's first free elections. A military mutiny and resulting civil war in 1998 eventually led to VIEIRA's ouster in May 1999. In February 2000, a transitional government turned over power to opposition leader Kumba YALA after he was elected president in transparent polling. In September 2003, after only three years in office, YALA was overthrown in a bloodless military coup, and businessman Henrique ROSA was sworn in as interim president. In 2005, former President VIEIRA was re-elected president pledging to pursue economic development and national reconciliation; he was assassinated in March 2009. Malam Bacai SANHA was elected in an emergency election held in June 2009, but he passed away in January 2012 from an existing illness. A military coup in April 2012 prevented Guinea-Bissau's second-round presidential election - to determine SANHA's successor - from taking place.

Geography

GuineaGuinea-Bissau
LocationWestern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Sierra LeoneWestern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Senegal
Geographic coordinates11 00 N, 10 00 W12 00 N, 15 00 W
Map referencesAfricaAfrica
Areatotal: 245,857 sq km
land: 245,717 sq km
water: 140 sq km
total: 36,125 sq km
land: 28,120 sq km
water: 8,005 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Oregonslightly less than three times the size of Connecticut
Land boundariestotal: 3,399 km
border countries: Cote d'Ivoire 610 km, Guinea-Bissau 386 km, Liberia 563 km, Mali 858 km, Senegal 330 km, Sierra Leone 652 km
total: 724 km
border countries: Guinea 386 km, Senegal 338 km
Coastline320 km350 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climategenerally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan windstropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
Terraingenerally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interiormostly low coastal plain rising to savanna in east
Elevation extremeslowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation in the eastern part of the country 300 m
Natural resourcesbauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish, saltfish, timber, phosphates, bauxite, clay, granite, limestone, unexploited deposits of petroleum
Land usearable land: 11.59%
permanent crops: 2.81%
other: 85.6% (2011)
arable land: 8.3%
permanent crops: 6.92%
other: 84.78% (2011)
Irrigated land949.2 sq km (2003)225.6 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardshot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry seasonhot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season; brush fires
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; inadequate supplies of potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing, overpopulation in forest region; poor mining practices have led to environmental damagedeforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; overfishing
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notethe Niger and its important tributary the Milo have their sources in the Guinean highlandsthis small country is swampy along its western coast and low-lying inland
Total renewable water resources226 cu km (2011)31 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 0.55 cu km/yr (39%/10%/51%)
per capita: 64.3 cu m/yr (2005)
total: 0.18 cu km/yr (18%/6%/76%)
per capita: 135.7 cu m/yr (2005)

Demographics

GuineaGuinea-Bissau
Population11,176,026 (July 2013 est.)1,660,870 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 42.2% (male 2,383,432/female 2,333,960)
15-24 years: 19.4% (male 1,096,664/female 1,075,842)
25-54 years: 30.4% (male 1,700,026/female 1,691,910)
55-64 years: 4.4% (male 235,705/female 259,752)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 175,896/female 222,839) (2013 est.)
0-14 years: 40% (male 331,406/female 332,662)
15-24 years: 20.2% (male 166,339/female 168,906)
25-54 years: 31.9% (male 263,190/female 266,963)
55-64 years: 4.7% (male 28,333/female 49,322)
65 years and over: 3.2% (male 20,807/female 32,942) (2013 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.6 years
male: 18.4 years
female: 18.8 years (2013 est.)
total: 19.7 years
male: 19.1 years
female: 20.2 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate2.64% (2013 est.)1.95% (2013 est.)
Birth rate36.3 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)34.28 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate9.94 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)14.77 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.58 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 57.11 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 60.14 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 53.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
total: 92.66 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 102.42 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 82.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 59.11 years
male: 57.6 years
female: 60.66 years (2013 est.)
total population: 49.5 years
male: 47.53 years
female: 51.52 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate4.99 children born/woman (2013 est.)4.37 children born/woman (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate1.3% (2009 est.)2.5% (2009 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Guinean(s)
adjective: Guinean
noun: Bissau-Guinean(s)
adjective: Bissau-Guinean
Ethnic groupsPeuhl 40%, Malinke 30%, Soussou 20%, smaller ethnic groups 10%African 99% (includes Balanta 30%, Fula 20%, Manjaca 14%, Mandinga 13%, Papel 7%), European and mulatto less than 1%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS79,000 (2009 est.)22,000 (2009 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 85%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs 7%Muslim 50%, indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 10%
HIV/AIDS - deaths4,700 (2009 est.)1,200 (2009 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official)
note: each ethnic group has its own language
Portuguese (official), Crioulo, African languages
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 41%
male: 52%
female: 30% (2010 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 55.3%
male: 68.9%
female: 42.1% (2011 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever
animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 10 years
male: 11 years
female: 8 years (2011)
total: 9.5 years (2006)
Education expenditures3.1% of GDP (2011)NA
Urbanizationurban population: 35.4% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.86% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 43.9% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.59% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 90% of population
rural: 65% of population
total: 74% of population
unimproved:
urban: 10% of population
rural: 35% of population
total: 26% of population (2010 est.)
improved:
urban: 91% of population
rural: 53% of population
total: 64% of population
unimproved:
urban: 9% of population
rural: 47% of population
total: 36% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 32% of population
rural: 11% of population
total: 18% of population
unimproved:
urban: 68% of population
rural: 89% of population
total: 82% of population (2010 est.)
improved:
urban: 44% of population
rural: 9% of population
total: 20% of population
unimproved:
urban: 56% of population
rural: 91% of population
total: 80% of population (2010 est.)
Major cities - populationCONAKRY (capital) 1.597 million (2009)BISSAU (capital) 302,000 (2009)
Maternal mortality rate610 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)790 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight20.8% (2008)17.2% (2008)
Health expenditures6% of GDP (2011)6.3% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density0.1 physicians/1,000 population (2005)0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density0.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)1 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate4.4% (2008)4.9% (2008)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 571,774
percentage: 25 % (2003 est.)
total number: 226,316
percentage: 57 % (2010 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate5.6% (2012)14% (2010)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 83.2 %
youth dependency ratio: 77.5 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.7 %
potential support ratio: 17.5 (2013)
total dependency ratio: 79.7 %
youth dependency ratio: 74.5 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.2 %
potential support ratio: 19.3 (2013)

Government

GuineaGuinea-Bissau
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Guinea
conventional short form: Guinea
local long form: Republique de Guinee
local short form: Guinee
former: French Guinea
conventional long form: Republic of Guinea-Bissau
conventional short form: Guinea-Bissau
local long form: Republica da Guine-Bissau
local short form: Guine-Bissau
former: Portuguese Guinea
Government typerepublicrepublic
Capitalname: Conakry
geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 13 42 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
name: Bissau
geographic coordinates: 11 51 N, 15 35 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions7 regions and 1 governate*; Boke, Conakry*, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labe, Mamou, N'Zerekore9 regions (regioes, singular - regiao); Bafata, Biombo, Bissau, Bolama, Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara, Tombali; note - Bolama may have been renamed Bolama-Bijagos
Independence2 October 1958 (from France)24 September 1973 (declared); 10 September 1974 (from Portugal)
National holidayIndependence Day, 2 October (1958)Independence Day, 24 September (1973)
Constitution7 May 2010 (Loi Fundamentale)16 May 1984; amended several times
Legal systemcivil law system based on the French modelmixed legal system of civil law (influenced by the early French Civil Code) and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Alpha CONDE (since 21 December 2010)
head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed Said FOFANA (since 24 December 2010)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); candidate must receive a majority of the votes cast to be elected president; election last held on 27 June 2010 with a runoff election held on 7 November 2010
election results: Alpha CONDE elected president in a runoff election; percent of vote Alpha CONDE 52.5%, Cellou Dalein DIALLO 47.5%
chief of state: [Transitional] President Manuel Serifo NHAMADJO (since 11 May 2012)
note: in the aftermath of the April 2012 coup that deposed the government, an agreement was reached between ECOWAS mediators and the military junta to name NHAMADJO as transitional president with a one-year term; the transitional government has postponed a presidential election for 24 November 2013
head of government: [Transitional] Prime Minister Rui Duarte BARROS (since 16 May 2012)
cabinet: NA
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 18 March 2012 with a runoff between the two leading candidates scheduled for 22 April 2012; prime minister appointed by the president after consultation with party leaders in the legislature
election results: with no candidate receiving a minimum 50% of the vote in the first round, a runoff between the two leading candidates was scheduled for 22 April 2012; percent of vote (first round) - Carlos GOMES Junior 49.0%, Kumba YALA 23.4%, others 27.6%
Legislative branchunicameral People's National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale Populaire (114 seats; members elected by a mixed system of direct popular vote and proportional party lists)
note: the legislature was dissolved by junta leader Moussa Dadis CAMARA in December 2008 and in February 2010, the Transition Government appointed a 155 member National Transition Council (CNT) that has since acted in the legislature's place pending elections finally held on 28 September 2013
elections: last held on 28 September 2013 (next election scheduled for 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPG 53, UFDG 37, UFR 10, others 14
unicameral National People's Assembly or Assembleia Nacional Popular (100 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 16 November 2008 (legislative elections scheduled for 24 November 2013 have been postponed)
election results: percent of vote by party - PAIGC 49.8%, PRS 25.3%, PRID 7.5%, PND 2.4%, AD 1.4%, other parties 13.6%; seats by party - PAIGC 67, PRS 28, PRID 3, PND 1, AD 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Constitutional, Civil, Penal, Commercial, and Administrative Chambers, and Chamber of Accounts; court consists of the first president, chamber presidents, and NA members)
judge selection and term of office: court first president appointed by the national president after consultation with the National Assembly; other members appointed by presidential decree; member tenure NA
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; courts of first instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; labor court; military tribunal; High Court of Justice; justices of the peace
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of 9 judges and organized into Civil, Criminal, and Social and Administrative Disputes Chambers)
note - the Supreme Court has both appellate and constitutional jurisdiction
judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Higher Council of the Magistrate, a major government organ responsible for judge appointments, dismissals, and discipline of the judiciary; judges appointed by the president with tenure for life
subordinate courts: Appeal Court; regional (first instance) courts; military court
Political parties and leadersNational Party for Hope and Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]
Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]
Union for the Progress of Guinea or UPG [Jean Marie DORE]
Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]
Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]

note: listed are the five most popular parties as of December 2012; overall, there are more than 130 registered parties
African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde or PAIGC [Rui Dia de SOUSA]
Democratic Alliance or AD [Victor MANDINGA]
New Democracy Party or PND
Party for Social Renewal or PRS [Sory DJALO]
Republican Party for Independence and Development or PRID [Aristides GOMES]
Political pressure groups and leadersNational Confederation of Guinean Workers-Labor Union of Guinean Workers or CNTG-USTG Alliance (includes National Confederation of Guinean Workers or CNTG and Labor Union of Guinean Workers or USTG); Syndicate of Guinean Teachers and Researchers or SLECGNA
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTOACP, AfDB, AOSIS, AU (suspended), CPLP, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Blaise CHERIF
chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 478-3010
chief of mission: none; note - Guinea-Bissau does not have official representation in Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Alexander Mark LASKARIS
embassy: Koloma, Conakry, east of Hamdallaye Circle
mailing address: B. P. 603, Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry
telephone: [224] 65-10-40-00
FAX: [224] 65-10-42-97
the US Embassy suspended operations on 14 June 1998 in the midst of violent conflict between forces loyal to then President VIEIRA and military-led junta; the US Ambassador to Senegal is accredited to Guinea-Bissau
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; red represents the people's sacrifice for liberation and work; yellow stands for the sun, for the riches of the earth, and for justice; green symbolizes the country's vegetation and unity
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the reverse of those on the flags of neighboring Mali and Senegal
two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical red band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed star centered in the red band; yellow symbolizes the sun; green denotes hope; red represents blood shed during the struggle for independence; the black star stands for African unity
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the flag design was heavily influenced by the Ghanaian flag
National anthemname: "Liberte" (Liberty)
lyrics/music: unknown/Fodeba KEITA
note: adopted 1958
name: "Esta e a Nossa Patria Bem Amada" (This Is Our Beloved Country)
lyrics/music: Amilcar Lopes CABRAL/XIAO He
note: adopted 1974; a delegation from Portuguese Guinea visited China in 1963 and heard music by XIAO He; Amilcar Lopes CABRA, the leader of Guinea-Bissau's independence movement, asked the composer to create a piece that would inspire his people to struggle for independence
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdictionaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt

Economy

GuineaGuinea-Bissau
Economy - overviewGuinea is a poor country that possesses major mineral, hydropower, and agricultural resources. The country has almost half of the world's bauxite reserves and significant iron ore, gold, and diamond reserves. However, Guinea has been unable to profit from this potential, as rampant corruption, dilapidated infrastructure, and political uncertainty have drained investor confidence. In the time since a 2008 coup following the death of long-term President Lansana CONTE, international donors, including the G-8, the IMF, and the World Bank, have significantly curtailed their development programs. Throughout 2009, policies of the ruling military junta severely weakened the economy. The junta leaders spent and printed money at an accelerating rate, driving inflation and debt to perilously high levels. In early 2010, the junta collapsed and was replaced by a transition government, which ceded power in December 2010 to the country's first-ever democratically elected president, Alpha CONDE. International assistance and investment are expected to return to Guinea, but the levels will depend upon the ability of the new government to combat corruption, reform its banking system, improve its business environment, and build infrastructure. IMF and World Bank programs will be especially critical as Guinea attempts to gain debt relief. International investors have expressed keen interest in Guinea's vast iron ore reserves, which could further propel the country's growth. The government put forward a new mining code in September 2011 that includes provisions to combat corruption, protect the environment, and review all existing mining contracts. Longer range plans to deploy broadband Internet throughout the country could spur economic growth as well.One of the poorest countries in the world, Guinea-Bissau's legal economy depends mainly on farming and fishing, but trafficking in narcotics is probably the most lucrative trade. The combination of limited economic prospects, a weak and faction-ridden government, and favorable geography have made this West African country a way station for drugs bound for Europe. Cashew crops have increased remarkably in recent years; low rainfall hindered cereals and other crops in 2011. Guinea-Bissau exports fish and seafood along with small amounts of peanuts, palm kernels, and timber. Rice is the major crop and staple food. However, intermittent fighting between Senegalese-backed government troops and a military junta destroyed much of the country's infrastructure and caused widespread damage to the economy in 1998; the civil war led to a 28% drop in GDP that year, with partial recovery in 1999-2002. In December 2003, the World Bank, IMF, and UNDP were forced to step in to provide emergency budgetary support in the amount of $107 million for 2004, representing over 80% of the total national budget. The government is successfully implementing a three-year $33 million extended credit arrangement with the IMF that runs through 2012. In December 2010 the World Bank and IMF announced support for $1.2 billion worth of debt relief. Guinea-Bissau made progress with debt relief in 2011 when members of the Paris Club opted to write-off much of the country's obligations.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$12.37 billion (2012 est.)
$11.9 billion (2011 est.)
$11.45 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
$1.963 billion (2012 est.)
$1.992 billion (2011 est.)
$1.891 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.9% (2012 est.)
3.9% (2011 est.)
1.9% (2010 est.)
-1.5% (2012 est.)
5.3% (2011 est.)
3.5% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$1,100 (2012 est.)
$1,100 (2011 est.)
$1,100 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
$1,200 (2012 est.)
$1,300 (2011 est.)
$1,200 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 22%
industry: 45%
services: 33% (2012 est.)
agriculture: 55.7%
industry: 13.2%
services: 31% (2012 est.)
Population below poverty line47% (2006 est.)NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 30.3% (2007)
lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 28% (2002)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)15.2% (2012 est.)
21.4% (2011 est.)
2.4% (2012 est.)
5% (2011 est.)
Labor force4.771 million (2012 est.)632,700 (2007)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 76%
industry and services: 24% (2006 est.)
agriculture: 82%
industry and services: 18% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rateNA%NA%
Budgetrevenues: $1.328 billion
expenditures: $1.639 billion (2012 est.)
revenues: $129.1 million
expenditures: $153.4 million (2012 est.)
Industriesbauxite, gold, diamonds, iron; alumina refining; light manufacturing, and agricultural processingagricultural products processing, beer, soft drinks
Industrial production growth rate4.8% (2012 est.)0.2% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - productsrice, coffee, pineapples, palm kernels, cassava (manioc), bananas, sweet potatoes; cattle, sheep, goats; timberrice, corn, beans, cassava (manioc), cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, cotton; timber; fish
Exports$1.348 billion (2012 est.)
$1.428 billion (2011 est.)
$139.8 million (2012 est.)
$244.6 million (2011 est.)
Exports - commoditiesbauxite, alumina, gold, diamonds, coffee, fish, agricultural productsfish, shrimp; cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, sawn lumber
Exports - partnersIndia 10.3%, Spain 9.2%, Chile 9%, US 6.9%, Germany 6.1%, Ireland 6%, Ukraine 5.5%, France 4.8% (2012)India 56%, Nigeria 28.4%, Togo 6.6% (2012)
Imports$2.606 billion (2012 est.)
$2.097 billion (2011 est.)
$237 million (2012 est.)
$327.6 million (2011 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, textiles, grain and other foodstuffsfoodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products
Imports - partnersChina 14%, Netherlands 7.6% (2012)Portugal 27.8%, Senegal 16.8%, US 7.1%, China 4.8%, Cuba 4.2% (2012)
Debt - external$2.584 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$3.139 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.095 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$941.5 million (31 December 2000 est.)
Exchange ratesGuinean francs (GNF) per US dollar -
6,986.1 (2012 est.)
6,658 (2011 est.)
5,726.1 (2010 est.)
5,500 (2009)
5,500 (2008)
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
510.53 (2012 est.)
471.87 (2011 est.)
495.28 (2010 est.)
472.19 (2009)
447.81 (2008)
Fiscal yearcalendar yearcalendar year
Current Account Balance-$1.754 billion (2012 est.)
-$1.215 billion (2011 est.)
-$151.4 million (2012 est.)
-$95.9 million (2011 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$5.632 billion (2012 est.)$870 million (2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA$NA
Central bank discount rateNA% (31 December 2010 est.)
22.25% (31 December 2005)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
4.75% (31 December 2008)
Commercial bank prime lending rate27% (31 December 2012 est.)
28% (31 December 2011 est.)
15% (31 December 2012 est.)
15% (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$1.468 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.533 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$170.2 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$122.4 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.428 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.38 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$266.1 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$308.7 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of broad money$1.915 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.731 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$414.3 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$364.5 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Taxes and other revenues23.6% of GDP (2012 est.)14.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-5.5% of GDP (2012 est.)-2.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 88.6%
government consumption: 14.7%
investment in fixed capital: 17.4%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 26.6%
imports of goods and services: -47.3%
(2012 est.)
household consumption: 86.3%
government consumption: 12.9%
investment in fixed capital: 12.9%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 21.9%
imports of goods and services: -33.9%
(2012 est.)

Energy

GuineaGuinea-Bissau
Electricity - production955 million kWh (2009 est.)65 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - consumption888.2 million kWh (2009 est.)60.45 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2010 est.)0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2010 est.)0 kWh (2010 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2011 est.)0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2009 est.)0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2009 est.)0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2010 est.)0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2010 est.)0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2010 est.)0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2010 est.)0 cu m (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity393,000 kW (2009 est.)21,000 kW (2009 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2008 est.)0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption8,671 bbl/day (2011 est.)2,922 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2008 est.)0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports8,970 bbl/day (2008 est.)2,578 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy1.392 million Mt (2010 est.)461,700 Mt (2010 est.)

Telecommunications

GuineaGuinea-Bissau
Telephones - main lines in use18,000 (2012)5,000 (2012)
Telephones - mobile cellular4.781 million (2012)1.1 million (2012)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: inadequate system of open-wire lines, small radiotelephone communication stations, and new microwave radio relay system
domestic: Conakry reasonably well-served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate and large companies tend to rely on their own systems for nationwide links; fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is expanding and exceeds 40 per 100 persons
international: country code - 224; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
general assessment: small system including a combination of microwave radio relay, open-wire lines, radiotelephone, and mobile-cellular communications
domestic: fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 50 per 100 persons
international: country code - 245 (2011)
Internet country code.gn.gw
Internet users95,000 (2009)37,100 (2009)
Internet hosts15 (2012)90 (2012)
Broadcast mediagovernment maintains marginal control over broadcast media; single state-run TV station; state-run radio broadcast station also operates several stations in rural areas; a steadily increasing number of privately owned radio stations, nearly all in Conakry, and about a dozen community radio stations; foreign TV programming available via satellite and cable subscription services (2011)1 state-owned TV station and a second station, Radio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP) Africa, is operated by Portuguese public broadcaster (RTP); 1 state-owned radio station, several private radio stations, and some community radio stations; multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)

Transportation

GuineaGuinea-Bissau
Roadwaystotal: 44,348 km
paved: 4,342 km
unpaved: 40,006 km (2003)
total: 3,455 km
paved: 965 km
unpaved: 2,490 km (2002)
Waterways1,300 km (navigable by shallow-draft native craft in the northern part of the Niger system) (2011)(rivers are navigable for some distance; many inlets and creeks give shallow-water access to much of interior) (2012)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Conakry, Kamsarmajor seaport(s): Bissau, Buba, Cacheu, Farim
Airports16 (2013)8 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m:
2 (2013)
total: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m:
3 (2013)

Military

GuineaGuinea-Bissau
Military branchesNational Armed Forces: Army, Guinean Navy (Armee de Mer or Marine Guineenne, includes Marines), Guinean Air Force (Force Aerienne de Guinee) (2009)People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP): Army, Navy, National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional); Presidential Guard (2012)
Military service age and obligation18-25 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; 18-month conscript service obligation (2012)18-25 years of age for selective compulsory military service (Air Force service is voluntary); 16 years of age or younger, with parental consent, for voluntary service (2013)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 2,359,203
females age 16-49: 2,329,784 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 370,790
females age 16-49: 372,171 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 1,493,991
females age 16-49: 1,535,418 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 205,460
females age 16-49: 212,277 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 118,443
female: 115,901 (2010 est.)
male: 17,639
female: 17,865 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP3.4% of GDP (2011)4.3% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

GuineaGuinea-Bissau
Disputes - internationalconflicts among rebel groups, warlords, and youth gangs in neighboring states have spilled over into Guinea resulting in domestic instability; Sierra Leone considers Guinea's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona and Moa rivers excessive and protests Guinea's continued occupation of these lands, including the hamlet of Yenga, occupied since 1998in 2006, political instability within Senegal's Casamance region resulted in thousands of Senegalese refugees, cross-border raids, and arms smuggling into Guinea-Bissau
Illicit drugsincreasingly important transit country for South American cocaine en route to Europe; enabling environment for trafficker operations thanks to pervasive corruption; archipelago-like geography around the capital facilitates drug smugglingincreasingly important transit country for South American cocaine en route to Europe; enabling environment for trafficker operations thanks to pervasive corruption; archipelago-like geography around the capital facilitates drug smuggling
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 6,552 (Cote d'Ivoire); 5,400 (Liberia) (2012)refugees (country of origin): 7,700 (Senegal) (2012)
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Guinea is a source, transit, and, to a lesser extent, a destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the majority of trafficking victims are Guinean children; Guinean girls are subjected to domestic servitude and commercial sexual exploitation, while boys are forced to beg, work as street vendors or shoe shiners, or miners; some Guinean children are forced to mine in Senegal, Mali, and possibly other West African countries; Guinean women and girls are subjected to domestic servitude and sex trafficking in Nigeria, Cote d'Ivoire, Benin, Senegal, Greece, and Spain, while Chinese and Vietnamese women are reportedly forced into prostitution in Guinea
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Guinea does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; a new police unit has been created to focus on human trafficking and child labor; the government has initiated five new trafficking investigations but has failed to prosecute or convict any trafficking offenders, which represents a decrease in anti-trafficking law enforcement over the previous year; the government fails to provide victims with protective services and has not supported NGOs that assist victims but continues to refer child victims to NGOs on an ad hoc basis; Guinean law does not prohibit all forms of trafficking, excluding, for example, forced prostitution of adults and debt bondage, which are not criminalized (2013)
current situation: Guinea-Bissau is a country of origin and destination for children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the scope of the problem of trafficking women or men for forced labor or forced prostitution is unknown; boys reportedly are transported to southern Senegal for forced manual and agricultural labor; girls may be subjected to forced domestic service and child prostitution in Senegal and Guinea; both boys and girls are forced to work as street vendors in cities in Guinea-Bissau and Senegal
tier rating: Tier 3 - the government of Guinea-Bissau does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; despite enacting an anti-trafficking law and finalizing and adopting a national action plan in 2011, authorities have not conducted any investigations or prosecutions of trafficking offenses; the government has not provided adequate protection to identified trafficking victims, conducted any tangible prevention activities in 2012, or made progress on the implementation of its national action plan (2013)

Source: CIA Factbook