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Guinea vs. Cote d'Ivoire

Introduction

GuineaCote d'Ivoire
BackgroundGuinea is at a turning point after decades of authoritarian rule since gaining its independence from France in 1958. Guinea held its first free and competitive democratic presidential and legislative elections in 2010 and 2013 respectively, and in October 2015 held a second consecutive presidential election. Alpha CONDE was reelected to a second five-year term as president in 2015, and the National Assembly was seated in January 2014. CONDE's first cabinet is the first all-civilian government in Guinea. The country held a successful political dialogue in August and September 2016 that brought together the government and opposition to address long-standing tensions. Likewise, President CONDE’s election as AU chairperson has instilled confidence in Guinea. Previously, Sekou TOURE ruled the country as president from independence to his death in 1984. Lansana CONTE came to power in 1984 when the military seized the government after TOURE's death. Gen. CONTE organized and won presidential elections in 1993, 1998, and 2003, though all the polls were rigged. Upon CONTE's death in December 2008, Capt. Moussa Dadis CAMARA led a military coup, seizing power and suspending the constitution. His unwillingness to yield to domestic and international pressure to step down led to heightened political tensions that culminated in September 2009 when presidential guards opened fire on an opposition rally killing more than 150 people, and in early December 2009 when CAMARA was wounded in an assassination attempt and exiled to Burkina Faso. A transitional government led by Gen. Sekouba KONATE paved the way for Guinea's transition to a fledgling democracy.
Close ties to France following independence in 1960, the development of cocoa production for export, and foreign investment all made Cote d'Ivoire one of the most prosperous of the West African states but did not protect it from political turmoil. In December 1999, a military coup - the first ever in Cote d'Ivoire's history - overthrew the government. Junta leader Robert GUEI blatantly rigged elections held in late 2000 and declared himself the winner. Popular protest forced him to step aside and an election brought Laurent GBAGBO into power. Ivoirian dissidents and disaffected members of the military launched a failed coup attempt in September 2002 that developed into a rebellion and then a civil war. In 2003, a cease-fire resulted in the country being divided with the rebels holding the north, the government the south, and peacekeeping forces a buffer zone between the two. In March 2007, President GBAGBO and former New Forces rebel leader Guillaume SORO signed an agreement in which SORO joined GBAGBO's government as prime minister and the two agreed to reunite the country by dismantling the buffer zone, integrating rebel forces into the national armed forces, and holding elections. Difficulties in preparing electoral registers delayed balloting until 2010. In November 2010, Alassane Dramane OUATTARA won the presidential election over GBAGBO, but GBAGBO refused to hand over power, resulting in a five-month resumption of violent conflict. In April 2011, after widespread fighting, GBAGBO was formally forced from office by armed OUATTARA supporters with the help of UN and French forces. The UN peacekeeping mission is drawing down and is scheduled to depart in June 2017. OUATTARA is focused on rebuilding the country's economy and infrastructure while rebuilding the security forces. GBAGBO is in The Hague on trial for crimes against humanity.

Geography

GuineaCote d'Ivoire
LocationWestern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana and Liberia
Geographic coordinates11 00 N, 10 00 W
8 00 N, 5 00 W
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 245,857 sq km
land: 245,717 sq km
water: 140 sq km
total: 322,463 sq km
land: 318,003 sq km
water: 4,460 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Oregon
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundariestotal: 4,046 km
border countries (6): Cote d'Ivoire 816 km, Guinea-Bissau 421 km, Liberia 590 km, Mali 1,062 km, Senegal 363 km, Sierra Leone 794 km
total: 3,458 km
border countries (5): Burkina Faso 545 km, Ghana 720 km, Guinea 816 km, Liberia 778 km, Mali 599 km
Coastline320 km
515 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climategenerally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)
Terraingenerally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior
mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 472 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m
mean elevation: 250 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Gulf of Guinea 0 m
highest point: Monts Nimba 1,752 m
Natural resourcesbauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish, salt
petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper, gold, nickel, tantalum, silica sand, clay, cocoa beans, coffee, palm oil, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 58.1%
arable land 11.8%; permanent crops 2.8%; permanent pasture 43.5%
forest: 26.5%
other: 15.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 64.8%
arable land 9.1%; permanent crops 14.2%; permanent pasture 41.5%
forest: 32.7%
other: 2.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land950 sq km (2012)
730 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardshot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season
coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during the rainy season torrential flooding is possible
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; inadequate potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing, overpopulation in forest region; poor mining practices have led to environmental damage
deforestation (most of the country's forests - once the largest in West Africa - have been heavily logged); water pollution from sewage and industrial and agricultural effluents
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notethe Niger and its important tributary the Milo River have their sources in the Guinean highlands
most of the inhabitants live along the sandy coastal region; apart from the capital area, the forested interior is sparsely populated

Demographics

GuineaCote d'Ivoire
Population12,093,349 (July 2016 est.)
23,740,424
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 41.7% (male 2,547,037/female 2,495,495)
15-24 years: 19.67% (male 1,200,618/female 1,177,633)
25-54 years: 30.52% (male 1,851,200/female 1,839,952)
55-64 years: 4.46% (male 258,455/female 281,497)
65 years and over: 3.65% (male 195,054/female 246,408) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 37.45% (male 4,483,215/female 4,407,595)
15-24 years: 20.93% (male 2,504,188/female 2,463,970)
25-54 years: 34.05% (male 4,133,975/female 3,950,734)
55-64 years: 4.15% (male 493,722/female 491,230)
65 years and over: 3.42% (male 389,551/female 422,244) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.8 years
male: 18.6 years
female: 19.1 years (2016 est.)
total: 20.7 years
male: 20.8 years
female: 20.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.62% (2016 est.)
1.88% (2016 est.)
Birth rate35.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
28.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate9.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 51.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 54.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 48.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 57.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 63.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 51.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 60.6 years
male: 59 years
female: 62.2 years (2016 est.)
total population: 58.7 years
male: 57.5 years
female: 59.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate4.82 children born/woman (2016 est.)
3.46 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate1.56% (2015 est.)
3.17% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Guinean(s)
adjective: Guinean
noun: Ivoirian(s)
adjective: Ivoirian
Ethnic groupsFulani (Peul) 33.9%, Malinke 31.1%, Susu 19.1%, Guerze 6%, Kissi 4.7%, Toma 2.6%, other/no answer 2.7% (2012 est.)
Akan 28.8%, Voltaique or Gur 16.1%, Northern Mande 14.5%, Kru 8.5%, Southern Mande 6.9%, unspecified 0.9%, non-Ivoirian 42.3% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS116,800 (2015 est.)
464,700 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 86.7%, Christian 8.9%, animist/other/none 4.4% (2012 est.)
Muslim 42.9%, Catholic 17.2%, Evangelical 11.8%, Methodist 1.7%, other Christian 3.2%, animist 3.6%, other religion 0.5%, none 19.1%
note: the majority of foreign migrant workers are Muslim (72.7%) and Christian (17.7%) (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths4,600 (2015 est.)
25,100 (2015 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official)
note: each ethnic group has its own language
French (official), 60 native dialects of which Dioula is the most widely spoken
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 30.4%
male: 38.1%
female: 22.8% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 43.1%
male: 53.1%
female: 32.5% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2014)
total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2015)
Education expenditures3.2% of GDP (2014)
4.7% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 37.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.82% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 54.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.69% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 92.7% of population
rural: 67.4% of population
total: 76.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.3% of population
rural: 32.6% of population
total: 23.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 93.1% of population
rural: 68.8% of population
total: 81.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.9% of population
rural: 31.2% of population
total: 18.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 34.1% of population
rural: 11.8% of population
total: 20.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 65.9% of population
rural: 88.2% of population
total: 79.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 32.8% of population
rural: 10.3% of population
total: 22.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 67.2% of population
rural: 89.7% of population
total: 77.5% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationCONAKRY (capital) 1.936 million (2015)
YAMOUSSOUKRO (capital) 259,000 (2014); ABIDJAN (seat of government) 4.86 million; Bouake 762,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate679 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
645 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight18.7% (2012)
15.7% (2012)
Health expenditures5.6% of GDP (2014)
5.7% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density0.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.4 beds/1,000 population (2006)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate5.9% (2014)
8% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 571,774
percentage: 25% (2003 est.)
total number: 1,796,802
percentage: 35% (2006 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth18.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)
19.8 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011/12 est.)
Demographic profileGuinea’s strong population growth is a result of declining mortality rates and sustained elevated fertility. The population growth rate was somewhat tempered in the 2000s because of a period of net outmigration. Although life expectancy and mortality rates have improved over the last two decades, the nearly universal practice of female genital cutting continues to contribute to high infant and maternal mortality rates. Guinea’s total fertility remains high at about 5 children per woman because of the ongoing preference for larger families, low contraceptive usage and availability, a lack of educational attainment and empowerment among women, and poverty. A lack of literacy and vocational training programs limit job prospects for youths, but even those with university degrees often have no option but to work in the informal sector. About 60% of the country’s large youth population is unemployed.
Tensions and refugees have spilled over Guinea’s borders with Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Cote d’Ivoire. During the 1990s Guinea harbored as many as half a million refugees from Sierra Leone and Liberia, more refugees than any other African country for much of that decade. About half sought refuge in the volatile “Parrot’s Beak” region of southwest Guinea, a wedge of land jutting into Sierra Leone near the Liberian border. Many were relocated within Guinea in the early 2000s because the area suffered repeated cross-border attacks from various government and rebel forces, as well as anti-refugee violence. As of 2016, Guinea sheltered more than 7,000 Ivoirians.
Cote d’Ivoire’s population is likely to continue growing for the foreseeable future because almost 60% of the populace is younger than 25, the total fertility rate is holding steady at about 3.5 children per woman, and contraceptive use is under 20%. The country will need to improve education, health care, and gender equality in order to turn its large and growing youth cohort into human capital. Even prior to 2010 unrest that shuttered schools for months, access to education was poor, especially for women. As of 2015, only 53% of men and 33% of women were literate. The lack of educational attainment contributes to Cote d’Ivoire’s high rates of unskilled labor, adolescent pregnancy, and HIV/AIDS prevalence.
Following its independence in 1960, Cote d’Ivoire’s stability and the blossoming of its labor-intensive cocoa and coffee industries in the southwest made it an attractive destination for migrants from other parts of the country and its neighbors, particularly Burkina Faso. The HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY administration continued the French colonial policy of encouraging labor immigration by offering liberal land ownership laws. Foreigners from West Africa, Europe (mainly France), and Lebanon composed about 25% of the population by 1998.
Ongoing economic decline since the 1980s and the power struggle after HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY’s death in 1993 ushered in the politics of “Ivoirite,” institutionalizing an Ivoirian identity that further marginalized northern Ivoirians and scapegoated immigrants. The hostile Muslim north-Christian south divide snowballed into a 2002 civil war, pushing tens of thousands of foreign migrants, Liberian refugees, and Ivoirians to flee to war-torn Liberia or other regional countries and more than a million people to be internally displaced. Subsequently, violence following the contested 2010 presidential election prompted some 250,000 people to seek refuge in Liberia and other neighboring countries and again internally displaced as many as a million people. By July 2012, the majority had returned home, but ongoing inter-communal tension and armed conflict continue to force people from their homes.
Contraceptive prevalence rate5.6% (2012)
18.2% (2011/12)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 83.8
youth dependency ratio: 78.2
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6
potential support ratio: 17.8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 83.5
youth dependency ratio: 77.9
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6
potential support ratio: 18 (2015 est.)

Government

GuineaCote d'Ivoire
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Guinea
conventional short form: Guinea
local long form: Republique de Guinee
local short form: Guinee
former: French Guinea
etymology: the country is named after the Guinea region of West Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea and stretches north to the Sahel
conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire
local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
local short form: Cote d'Ivoire
note: pronounced coat-div-whar
former: Ivory Coast
etymology: name reflects the intense ivory trade that took place in the region from the 15th to 17th centuries
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Conakry
geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 13 42 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Yamoussoukro; note - although Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983, Abidjan remains the commercial and administrative center; the US, like other countries, maintains its Embassy in Abidjan
geographic coordinates: 6 49 N, 5 16 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions7 regions administrative and 1 gouvenorat*; Boke, Conakry*, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labe, Mamou, N'Zerekore
12 districts and 2 autonomous districts*; Abidjan*, Bas-Sassandra, Comoe, Denguele, Goh-Djiboua, Lacs, Lagunes, Montagnes, Sassandra-Marahoue, Savanes, Vallee du Bandama, Woroba, Yamoussoukro*, Zanzan
Independence2 October 1958 (from France)
7 August 1960 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day, 2 October (1958)
Independence Day, 7 August (1960)
Constitutionprevious 1958, 1990; latest promulgated 19 April 2010, approved 7 May 2010 (2016)
previous 1960, 2000; latest draft completed 24 September 2016,approved by the National Assembly 11 October 2016, approved by referendum 30 October 2016, promulgated 8 November 2016 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system based on the French model
civil law system based on the French civil code; judicial review of legislation held in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Alpha CONDE (since 21 December 2010)
head of government: Prime Minister Mamady YOULA (since 26 December 2015); Prime Minister Mohamed Said FOFANA (since 24 December 2010) resigned 12/23/15
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 October 2015 (next scheduled for 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Alpha CONDE reelected president; percent of vote - Alpha CONDE (RPG) 57.8%, Cellou Dalein DIALLO (UFDG) 31.4%, other 10.8%
chief of state: President Alassane Dramane OUATTARA (since 4 December 2010); Vice President Daniel Kablan DUNCAN (since 16 January 2017); note - the constitution of 2016 calls for the position of a vice-president
head of government: Prime Minister Amadou Gon COULIBALY (since 11 January 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president; note - the new constitution limits the presidential tenure to two terms beginning with the 2020 election; the vice president is named by the president
election results: Alassane OUATTARA elected president; percent of vote - Alassane OUATTARA (RDR) 83.7%, Pascal Affi N'GUESSAN (ADF) 9.3%, Konan Bertin KOUADIO (independent) 3.9%, other 3.1%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral People's National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale Populaire (114 seats; 76 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote and 38 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 28 September 2013 (next scheduled for 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPG 53, UFDG 37, UFR 10, PEDN 2, UPG 2, other parties 10
description: unicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly (255 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the new constitution of November 2016 calls for a bicameral legislature with the addition of a Senate, with one-third of members appointed by the president
elections: last held on 18 December 2011 (next to be held on December 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - RHDP 50.3%, FPI 5.8%, UDPCI 3.0%, UPCI 1.0%, independents 38.5%, other 1.39%; seats by party - RHDP 167, FPI 3, UDPCI 6, UPCI 3, independents 76
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Administrative Chamber and Civil, Penal, and Social Chamber; court consists of the first president, 2 chamber presidents, at least 4 councillors, the solicitor general and NA deputies); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court first president appointed by the national president after consultation with the National Assembly; other members appointed by presidential decree; members serve until age 65; Constitutional Court member appointments - 2 by the National Assembly and the president of the republic, 3 experienced judges designated by their peers, 1 experienced lawyer, 1 university professor with expertise in public law designated by peers, and 2 experienced representatives of the Independent National Institution of Human Rights; members serve single 9-year terms
subordinate courts: includes Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; courts of first instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; High Court of Justice or Cour d'Assises; labor court; military tribunal; justices of the peace; specialized courts
"highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Judicial, Audit, Constitutional, and Administrative Chambers; consists of the court president, 3 vice-presidents for the Judicial, Audit, and Administrative chambers, and 9 associate justices or magistrates)
judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Superior Council of the Magistrature, a 7-member body consisting of the national president (chairman), 3 ""bench"" judges, and 3 public prosecutors; judges appointed for life
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (organized into civil, criminal, and social chambers); first instance courts; peace courts
"
Political parties and leadersLiberal Block or BL [Faya MILLIMONO]
National Party for Hope and Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]
Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]
Union for the Progress of Guinea or UPG
Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]
Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]
Democratic Party of Cote d'Ivoire or PDCI [Henri Konan BEDIE]
Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Pascal Affi N'GUESSAN]
Liberty and Democracy for the Republic or LIDER [Mamadou KOULIBALY]
Movement of the Future Forces or MFA [Innocent Augustin ANAKY KOBENA]
Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Alassane Dramane OUATTARA]
Union for Cote d'Ivoire or UPCI [Gnamien KONA]
Union for Democracy and Peace in Cote d'Ivoire or UDPCI [Albert Toikeuse MABRI]
other: more than 144 smaller registered parties
Political pressure groups and leadersNational Confederation of Guinean Workers-Labor Union of Guinean Workers or CNTG-USTG Alliance (includes National Confederation of Guinean Workers or CNTG, Labor Union of Guinean Workers or USTG)
Syndicate of Guinean Teachers and Researchers or SLECG
Federation of University and High School Students of Cote d'Ivoire or FESCI [Augustin MIAN]
National Congress for the Resistance and Democracy or CNRD [Bernard DADIE]
Panafrican Congress for Justice and Peoples Equality or COJEP [Roselin BLY]
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Mamady CONDE (since 14 July 2014)
chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 986-3800
chief of mission: Ambassador Daouda DIABATE (since 11 February 2011)
chancery: 2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300
FAX: [1] (202) 462-9444
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Dennis B. HANKINS (since December 2015)
embassy: Koloma, Conakry, across from the Radio Television de Guinee
mailing address: P.O. Box 603, Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry
telephone: [224] 655-10-40-00
FAX: [224] 655-10-42-97
chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires Andrew Haviland (since 2016); Ambassador Terence Patrick MCCULLEY retired in 2016
embassy: Cocody Riviera Golf 01, Abidjan
mailing address: B. P. 1712, Abidjan 01
telephone: [225] 22 49 40 00
FAX: [225] 22 49 43 23
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; red represents the people's sacrifice for liberation and work; yellow stands for the sun, for the riches of the earth, and for justice; green symbolizes the country's vegetation and unity
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the reverse of those on the flags of neighboring Mali and Senegal
three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green; orange symbolizes the land (savannah) of the north and fertility, white stands for peace and unity, green represents the forests of the south and the hope for a bright future
note: similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France
National anthem"name: ""Liberte"" (Liberty)
lyrics/music: unknown/Fodeba KEITA
note: adopted 1958
"
"name: ""L'Abidjanaise"" (Song of Abidjan)
lyrics/music: Mathieu EKRA, Joachim BONY, and Pierre Marie COTY/Pierre Marie COTY and Pierre Michel PANGO
note: adopted 1960; although the nation's capital city moved from Abidjan to Yamoussoukro in 1983, the anthem still owes its name to the former capital
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)national colors: red, yellow, green
elephant; national colors: orange, white, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Guinea
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: na
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cote d'Ivoire
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

GuineaCote d'Ivoire
Economy - overviewGuinea is a poor country of approximately 12.9 million people in 2016 that possesses the world's largest reserves of bauxite and largest untapped high-grade iron ore reserves, as well as gold and diamonds. In addition, Guinea has fertile soil, ample rainfall, and is the source of several West African rivers, including the Senegal, Niger, and Gambia. Guinea's hydro potential is enormous and the country could be a major exporter of electricity. The country also has tremendous agriculture potential. Gold, bauxite, and diamonds are Guinea’s main exports. International investors have shown interest in Guinea's unexplored mineral reserves, which have the potential to propel Guinea's future growth.

Following the death of long-term President Lansana CONTE in 2008 and the coup that followed, international donors, including the G-8, the IMF, and the World Bank, significantly curtailed their development programs in Guinea. However, the IMF approved a 3-year Extended Credit Facility arrangement in 2012, following the December 2010 presidential elections. In September 2012, Guinea achieved Heavily Indebted Poor Countries completion point status. Future access to international assistance and investment will depend on the government’s ability to be transparent, combat corruption, reform its banking system, improve its business environment, and build infrastructure. In April 2013, the government amended its mining code to reduce taxes and royalties. In 2014, Guinea also complied with requirements of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative by publishing its mining contracts and was found to be compliant. Guinea completed its program with the IMF in October 2016 even though some targeted reforms have been delayed. Currently Guinea is negotiating a new IMF program which will be based on Guinea’s new five-year economic plan, focusing on the development of higher value-added products, including from the agro-business sector and development of the rural economy.

The biggest threats to Guinea’s economy are political instability, a reintroduction of the Ebola virus epidemic, and low international commodity prices. Economic recovery will be a long process while the government adjusts to lower inflows of international donor aid following the surge of Ebola-related emergency support. Ebola stalled promising economic growth in 2014-15 and impeded several projects, such as offshore oil exploration and the Simandou iron ore project. The economy, however, grew by 5.2% in 2016, mainly due to growth from bauxite mining and thermal energy generation as well as the resiliency of the agricultural sector. The economy is projected to grow by 4.6% in 2017. The 240 megawatt Kaleta Dam, inaugurated in September 2015, has expanded access to electricity for residents of Conakry. An enduring legacy of corruption, inefficiency, and lack of government transparency, combined with fears of Ebola virus, continue to undermine Guinea's economic viability.

Guinea’s iron ore industry took a hit in 2016 when investors in the Simandou iron ore project announced plans to divest from the project. In 2017, agriculture output and public investment will boost economic growth while the mining sector continues to play a prominent role in economic performance.

Successive governments have failed to address the country's crumbling infrastructure. Guinea suffers from chronic electricity shortages; poor roads, rail lines and bridges; and a lack of access to clean water - all of which continue to plague economic development. The present government, led by President Alpha CONDE, is working to create an environment to attract foreign investment and hopes to have greater participation from western countries and firms in Guinea's economic development.
Cote d'Ivoire is heavily dependent on agriculture and related activities, which engage roughly two-thirds of the population. Cote d'Ivoire is the world's largest producer and exporter of cocoa beans and a significant producer and exporter of coffee and palm oil. Consequently, the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for these products and in climatic conditions. Cocoa, oil, and coffee are the country's top export revenue earners, but the country has targeted the agricultural processing of cocoa, cashews, mangoes, and other commodities as a high priority. Mining gold and exporting electricity are growing industries outside agriculture.

Following the end of more than a decade of civil conflict in 2011, Cote d’Ivoire has experienced a boom in foreign investment and economic growth. In June 2012, the IMF and the World Bank announced $4.4 billion in debt relief for Cote d'Ivoire under the Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative. For the last 5 years Cote d'Ivoire's growth rate has been among the highest in the world.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$16.08 billion (2016 est.)
$15.49 billion (2015 est.)
$15.47 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$87.12 billion (2016 est.)
$80.68 billion (2015 est.)
$74.33 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.8% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2015 est.)
1.1% (2014 est.)
8% (2016 est.)
8.5% (2015 est.)
7.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$1,300 (2016 est.)
$1,300 (2015 est.)
$1,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3,600 (2016 est.)
$3,400 (2015 est.)
$3,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 19.7%
industry: 37.7%
services: 42.6% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 17.6%
industry: 19.5%
services: 62.8% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line47% (2006 est.)
46.3% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 30.3% (2007)
lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 31.8% (2008)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)7.9% (2016 est.)
8.1% (2015 est.)
1.2% (2016 est.)
1.3% (2015 est.)
Labor force5.392 million (2016 est.)
8.543 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 76%
industry and services: 24% (2006 est.)
agriculture: 68%
industry and services: NA% (2007 est.)
Unemployment rateNA%
NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index39.4 (2007)
40.3 (1994)
41.5 (2008)
36.7 (1995)
Budgetrevenues: $1.421 billion
expenditures: $1.857 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $6.839 billion
expenditures: $8.17 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesbauxite, gold, diamonds, iron ore; light manufacturing, agricultural processing
foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining, gold mining, truck and bus assembly, textiles, fertilizer, building materials, electricity
Industrial production growth rate6.2% (2016 est.)
8.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsrice, coffee, pineapples, mangoes, palm kernels, cocoa, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, potatoes, sweet potatoes; cattle, sheep, goats; timber
coffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels, corn, rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar, cotton, rubber; timber
Exports$1.705 billion (2016 est.)
$1.611 billion (2015 est.)
$11.73 billion (2016 est.)
$11.98 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesbauxite, gold, diamonds, coffee, fish, agricultural products
cocoa, coffee, timber, petroleum, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, fish
Exports - partnersIndia 22.1%, Spain 8.2%, Ireland 7.3%, Germany 6.3%, Belgium 5.5%, Ukraine 5.3%, France 4.1% (2015)
US 8.6%, Netherlands 6.2%, France 5.7%, Germany 5.6%, Nigeria 5.6%, Burkina Faso 5.5%, Belgium 5.3%, India 4.7%, Ghana 4.4%, Switzerland 4.1% (2015)
Imports$2.185 billion (2016 est.)
$2.173 billion (2015 est.)
$8.966 billion (2016 est.)
$8.609 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, textiles, grain and other foodstuffs
fuel, capital equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersChina 20.5%, Netherlands 5.4%, India 4.4% (2015)
Nigeria 21.8%, China 14.3%, France 11.3%, Bahamas, The 5% (2015)
Debt - external$1.332 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.329 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$12.84 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$11.71 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesGuinean francs (GNF) per US dollar -
8,230 (2016 est.)
7,485.5 (2015 est.)
7,485.5 (2014 est.)
7,014.1 (2013 est.)
6,986 (2012 est.)
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
604.4 (2016 est.)
591.45 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.29 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$243.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$233.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.952 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.716 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$839 million (2016 est.)
-$1.363 billion (2015 est.)
-$774 million (2016 est.)
-$323 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$6.754 billion (2016 est.)
$34.65 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$67.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$67.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$12.49 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$11.71 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$11.82 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate22.25% (31 December 2005)
4.25% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate22% (31 December 2016 est.)
23% (31 December 2015 est.)
2.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$1.757 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.863 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$11.19 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.812 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.701 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.658 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$9.416 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.516 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$2.093 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.175 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$13.92 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.55 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues21% of GDP (2016 est.)
19.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-6.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 97.2%
government consumption: 8.4%
investment in fixed capital: 13.3%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 23.5%
imports of goods and services: -42.4% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 66%
government consumption: 15.2%
investment in fixed capital: 16.9%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 43.3%
imports of goods and services: -42.2% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving3.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
-8.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
-8% of GDP (2014 est.)
18.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
19.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

GuineaCote d'Ivoire
Electricity - production1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
7.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption900 million kWh (2014 est.)
5.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
900 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
54 million kWh (2012 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
45,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
74,960 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
35,150 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
100 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
28.32 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
1.996 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
1.996 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity500,000 kW (2014 est.)
1.9 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels67.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
60.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants32.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
39.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
76,910 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption16,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
38,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
44,020 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports16,130 bbl/day (2013 est.)
3,369 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy1.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
8.995 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 8,700,000
electrification - total population: 26%
electrification - urban areas: 53%
electrification - rural areas: 11% (2013)
population without electricity: 15,000,000
electrification - total population: 26%
electrification - urban areas: 42%
electrification - rural areas: 8% (2013)

Telecommunications

GuineaCote d'Ivoire
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 18,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2011 est.)
total subscriptions: 277,248
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 10.764 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 91 (July 2015 est.)
total: 25.408 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: huge improvement over the last 10 years; the capital and the regional administrative centers have 3G access
domestic: there is national coverage and Conakry is reasonably well-served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate but is improving; fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is expanding rapidly and exceeds 90 per 100 persons
international: country code - 224; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
general assessment: well-developed by African standards; telecommunications sector privatized in late 1990s and operational fixed lines have increased since that time with 2 fixed-line providers operating over open-wire lines, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optics; 90% digitalized
domestic: with multiple mobile-cellular service providers competing in the market, usage has increased sharply to about 110 per 100 persons
international: country code - 225; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2016)
Internet country code.gn
.ci
Internet userstotal: 554,000
percent of population: 4.7% (July 2015 est.)
total: 4.892 million
percent of population: 21% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediagovernment maintains marginal control over broadcast media; single state-run TV station; state-run radio broadcast station also operates several stations in rural areas; a steadily increasing number of privately owned radio stations, nearly all in Conakry, and about a dozen community radio stations; foreign TV programming available via satellite and cable subscription services (2011)
2 state-owned TV stations; no private terrestrial TV stations, but satellite TV subscription service is available; 2 state-owned radio stations; some private radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)

Transportation

GuineaCote d'Ivoire
Railwaystotal: 1,086 km
standard gauge: 279 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 807 km 1.000-m gauge (2017)
total: 660 km
narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000-m gauge
note: an additional 622 km of this railroad extends into Burkina Faso (2008)
Roadwaystotal: 44,348 km
paved: 4,342 km
unpaved: 40,006 km (2003)
total: 81,996 km
paved: 6,502 km
unpaved: 75,494 km
note: includes intercity and urban roads; another 20,000 km of dirt roads are in poor condition and 150,000 km of dirt roads are impassable (2007)
Waterways1,300 km (navigable by shallow-draft native craft in the northern part of the Niger River system) (2011)
980 km (navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons) (2011)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Conakry, Kamsar
major seaport(s): Abidjan, San-Pedro
oil terminal(s): Espoir Offshore Terminal
Airports16 (2013)
27 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
total: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 3 (2013)

Military

GuineaCote d'Ivoire
Military branchesNational Armed Forces: Army, Guinean Navy (Armee de Mer or Marine Guineenne, includes Marines), Guinean Air Force (Force Aerienne de Guinee) (2009)
Republican Forces of Cote d'Ivoire (Force Republiques de Cote d'Ivoire, FRCI): Army, Navy, Cote d'Ivoire Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Cote d'Ivoire) (2015)
Military service age and obligationno compulsory military service (2017)
18-25 years of age for compulsory and voluntary male and female military service; conscription is not enforced; voluntary recruitment of former rebels into the new national army is restricted to ages 22-29 (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP3.85% of GDP (2014)
3.09% of GDP (2013)
2.98% of GDP (2012)
1.47% of GDP (2015)
1.53% of GDP (2014)
1.38% of GDP (2013)
1.51% of GDP (2012)
1.41% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

GuineaCote d'Ivoire
Disputes - internationalSierra Leone considers Guinea's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona and Moa Rivers excessive and protests Guinea's continued occupation of these lands, including the hamlet of Yenga, occupied since 1998
disputed maritime border between Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana

Source: CIA Factbook