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Greece vs. Bulgaria

Introduction

GreeceBulgaria
BackgroundGreece achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1830. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories, most with Greek-speaking populations. In World War II, Greece was first invaded by Italy (1940) and subsequently occupied by Germany (1941-44); fighting endured in a protracted civil war between supporters of the king and other anti-communist and communist rebels. Following the latter's defeat in 1949, Greece joined NATO in 1952. In 1967, a group of military officers seized power, establishing a military dictatorship that suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country. In 1974 following the collapse of the dictatorship, democratic elections and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy. In 1981, Greece joined the EC (now the EU); it became the 12th member of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in 2001. Greece has suffered a severe economic crisis since late 2009, due to nearly a decade of chronic overspending and structural rigidities. Since 2010, Greece has entered three bailout agreements with the European Commission, the European Central Bank (ECB), the IMF, and with the third, the European Stability Mechanism (ESM). The Greek Government agreed to its current, $96 billion bailout in August 2015, which will conclude in August 2018.
The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. Northern Bulgaria attained autonomy in 1878 and all of Bulgaria became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1908. Having fought on the losing side in both World Wars, Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multiparty election since World War II and began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. The country joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.

Geography

GreeceBulgaria
LocationSouthern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turkey
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey
Geographic coordinates39 00 N, 22 00 E
43 00 N, 25 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 131,957 sq km
land: 130,647 sq km
water: 1,310 sq km
total: 110,879 sq km
land: 108,489 sq km
water: 2,390 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Alabama
almost identical in size to Virginia; slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundariestotal: 1,110 km
border countries (4): Albania 212 km, Bulgaria 472 km, Macedonia 234 km, Turkey 192 km
total: 1,806 km
border countries (5): Greece 472 km, Macedonia 162 km, Romania 605 km, Serbia 344 km, Turkey 223 km
Coastline13,676 km
354 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatetemperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers
temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
Terrainmountainous with ranges extending into the sea as peninsulas or chains of islands
mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 498 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Olympus 2,917 m
mean elevation: 472 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Musala 2,925 m
Natural resourceslignite, petroleum, iron ore, bauxite, lead, zinc, nickel, magnesite, marble, salt, hydropower potential
bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 63.4%
arable land 19.7%; permanent crops 8.9%; permanent pasture 34.8%
forest: 30.5%
other: 6.1% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 46.9%
arable land 29.9%; permanent crops 1.5%; permanent pasture 15.5%
forest: 36.7%
other: 16.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land15,550 sq km (2012)
1,020 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardssevere earthquakes
volcanism: Santorini (elev. 367 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; although there have been very few eruptions in recent centuries, Methana and Nisyros in the Aegean are classified as historically active
earthquakes; landslides
Environment - current issuesair pollution; water pollution
air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notestrategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands
strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia
Population distributionone-third of the population lives in and around metropolitan Athens; the remainder of the country has moderate population density mixed with sizeable pockets of urban agglomeration
a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger populations

Demographics

GreeceBulgaria
Population10,773,253 (July 2016 est.)
7,144,653 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 13.93% (male 772,973/female 727,720)
15-24 years: 9.68% (male 533,112/female 510,133)
25-54 years: 42.71% (male 2,291,355/female 2,309,664)
55-64 years: 13% (male 686,182/female 713,821)
65 years and over: 20.68% (male 975,819/female 1,252,474) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 14.54% (male 535,131/female 503,540)
15-24 years: 9.73% (male 362,805/female 332,358)
25-54 years: 43.33% (male 1,589,183/female 1,506,285)
55-64 years: 13.38% (male 447,865/female 507,805)
65 years and over: 19.03% (male 552,217/female 807,464) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 44.2 years
male: 43.1 years
female: 45.3 years (2016 est.)
total: 42.4 years
male: 40.6 years
female: 44.5 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate-0.03% (2016 est.)
-0.6% (2016 est.)
Birth rate8.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
8.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate11.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
14.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 4.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 8.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 80.5 years
male: 77.9 years
female: 83.3 years (2016 est.)
total population: 74.5 years
male: 71.2 years
female: 78 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.42 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.46 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.26% (2015 est.)
NA
Nationalitynoun: Greek(s)
adjective: Greek
noun: Bulgarian(s)
adjective: Bulgarian
Ethnic groupspopulation: Greek 93%, other (foreign citizens) 7% (2001 census)
note: data represent citizenship, since Greece does not collect data on ethnicity
Bulgarian 76.9%, Turkish 8%, Romani 4.4%, other 0.7% (including Russian, Armenian, and Vlach), other (unknown) 10% (2011 est.)
note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 9–11% of Bulgaria's population
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS16,200 (2015 est.)
NA
ReligionsGreek Orthodox (official) 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%
Eastern Orthodox 59.4%, Muslim 7.8%, other (including Catholic, Protestant, Armenian Apostolic Orthodox, and Jewish) 1.7%, none 3.7%, unspecified 27.4% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths300 (2015 est.)
NA
LanguagesGreek (official) 99%, other (includes English and French) 1%
Bulgarian (official) 76.8%, Turkish 8.2%, Romani 3.8%, other 0.7%, unspecified 10.5% (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.7%
male: 98.5%
female: 96.9% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.4%
male: 98.7%
female: 98.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 18 years
male: 18 years
female: 18 years (2014)
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 78% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.47% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 73.9% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.31% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 99.2% of population
rural: 98.1% of population
total: 99% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.8% of population
rural: 1.9% of population
total: 1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 86.8% of population
rural: 83.7% of population
total: 86% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13.2% of population
rural: 16.3% of population
total: 14% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationATHENS (capital) 3.052 million (2015)
SOFIA (capital) 1.226 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate3 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
11 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures8.1% of GDP (2014)
8.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density6.26 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
4 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density4.8 beds/1,000 population (2009)
6.4 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate25.1% (2014)
25.6% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth31.2 years (2010 est.)
26.5 years (2013 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 56.2
youth dependency ratio: 22.8
elderly dependency ratio: 33.4
potential support ratio: 3 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 51.9
youth dependency ratio: 21.5
elderly dependency ratio: 30.4
potential support ratio: 3.3 (2015 est.)

Government

GreeceBulgaria
Country name"conventional long form: Hellenic Republic
conventional short form: Greece
local long form: Elliniki Dimokratia
local short form: Ellas or Ellada
former: Hellenic State, Kingdom of Greece
etymology: the English name derives from the Roman (Latin) designation ""Graecia,"" meaning ""Land of the Greeks""; the Greeks call their country ""Hellas"" or ""Ellada""
"
conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
conventional short form: Bulgaria
local long form: Republika Bulgaria
local short form: Bulgaria
etymology: named after the Bulgar tribes who settled the lower Balkan region in the 7th century A.D.
Government typeparliamentary republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Athens
geographic coordinates: 37 59 N, 23 44 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Sofia
geographic coordinates: 42 41 N, 23 19 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions13 regions (perifereies, singular - perifereia) and 1 autonomous monastic state* (aftonomi monastiki politeia); Agion Oros* (Mount Athos), Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki (East Macedonia and Thrace), Attiki (Attica), Dytiki Ellada (West Greece), Dytiki Makedonia (West Macedonia), Ionia Nisia (Ionian Islands), Ipeiros (Epirus), Kentriki Makedonia (Central Macedonia), Kriti (Crete), Notio Aigaio (South Aegean), Peloponnisos (Peloponnese), Sterea Ellada (Central Greece), Thessalia (Thessaly), Voreio Aigaio (North Aegean)
28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Haskovo, Kardzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofia, Sofia-Grad (Sofia City), Stara Zagora, Targovishte, Varna, Veliko Tarnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol
Independence3 February 1830 (from the Ottoman Empire); note - 25 March 1821, outbreak of the national revolt against the Ottomans; 3 February 1830, signing of the London Protocol recognizing Greek independence by Great Britain, France, and Russia
3 March 1878 (as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire); 22 September 1908 (complete independence from the Ottoman Empire)
National holidayIndependence Day, 25 March (1821)
Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)
Constitutionhistory: many previous; latest entered into force 11 June 1975
amendments: proposed by at least 50 members of Parliament and agreed by three-fifths majority vote in two separate ballots at least 30 days apart; passage requires absolute majority vote by the next elected Parliament; entry into force finalized through a “special parliamentary resolution”; articles on human rights and freedoms and the form of government cannot be amended; amended 1986, 2001, 2008 (2016)
"history: several previous; latest drafted between late 1990 and early 1991, adopted 13 July 1991
amendments: proposed by the National Assembly or by the president of the republic; passage requires three-fourths majority vote of National Assembly members in three ballots; signed by the National Assembly chairperson; note - under special circumstances, a ""Grand National Assembly"" is elected with the authority to write a new constitution and amend certain articles of the constitution, including those affecting basic civil rights and national sovereignty; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote in each of several readings; amended several times, last in 2015 (2016)
"
Legal systemcivil legal system based on Roman law
civil law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Prokopios (Prokopis) PAVLOPOULOS (since 13 March 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Alexios TSIPRAS (since 21 September 2015); note - Vassiliki THANOU-CHRISTOFILOU served as interim prime minister beginning on 27 August 2015 after the resignation of Alexios TSIPRAS on 20 August 2015; she was Greece's first female prime minister
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president elected by Hellenic Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 18 February 2015 (next to be held by February 2020); president appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party or coalition in the Hellenic Parliament
election results: Prokopios PAVLOPOULOS (ND) elected president by Parliament - 233 of 300 votes
chief of state: President Rumen RADEV (since 22 January 2017); Vice President Iliana YOTOVA (since 22 January 2017)
head of government: Boyko BORISSOV (since 4 May 2017); note - BORISSOV served two previous terms as prime minister (27 July 2009-13 March 2013 and 7 November 2014-27 January 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 6 and 13 November 2016 (next to be held fall 2021); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly
election results: Rumen RADEV elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Rumen RADEV (independent, supported by Bulgarian Socialist Party) 59.4%, Tsetska TSACHEVA (GERB) 36.2%, neither 4.5%; Boyko BORISSOV elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 133 to 100
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Hellenic Parliament or Vouli ton Ellinon (300 seats; 288 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 12 seats are filled from nationwide party lists; 50 seats allocated to the party with the highest total valid vote count and remaining seats are apportioned according to each party's or coalition's vote percentage; members serve up to 4 years)
elections: last held on 20 September 2015 (next to be held by 2019); note - snap elections were called because of upheaval in the governing SYRIZA party over a new bailout deal with international creditors
election results: percent of vote by party - SYRIZA 35.5%, ND 28.1%, Golden Dawn 7.0%, PASOK-DIMAR 6.3%, KKE 5.6%, To Potami (The River) 4.1%, ANEL 3.7%, EK 3.4%, other 6.3%; seats by party - SYRIZA 145, ND 75, Golden Dawn 18, PASOK-DIMAR 17, KKE 15, To Potami 11, ANEL 10, EK 9; note - only parties surpassing a 3% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats; parties need 10 seats to become formal parliamentary groups but can retain that status if the party participated in the last election and received the minimum 3% threshold
description: unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sabranie (240 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); note - the National Assembly was dissolved on 27 January 2017 and Bulgaria will not have a legislative body until after a general election scheduled for 26 March 2017
elections: last held on 26 March 2017 (next to be held spring 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - GERB 32.7%, BSP 27.2%, United Patriots 9.1%, DPS 9%, Volya 4.1%, other 17.9%; seats by party - GERB 95, BSP 80, United Patriots 27, DPS 26, Volya 12
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Civil and Criminal Court or Areios Pagos (consists of 56 judges including the court presidents); Council of State (supreme administrative court) consists of the president, vice president, 42 privy councillors, and 98 associate and reporting judges, organized into 5- and 7-member chambers; Hellenic Court of Audit (government audit and enforcement) consists of the president 5 vice presidents, 20 councillors, and 90 associate and reporting judges
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by presidential decree on the advice of the Supreme Judicial Council (SJC), which includes the president of the Supreme Court, other judges, and the prosecutor of the Supreme Court; judges appointed for life following a 2-year probationary period; Council of State president appointed by the Greek Cabinet to serve a 4-year term; other judge appointment and tenure NA; Court of Audit president appointed by decree of the president of the republic on the advice of the SJC to serve a 4-year term with an age limit of 67
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal and Courts of First Instance(district courts)
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation (consists of a chairman and approximately 72 judges organized into penal, civil, and commercial colleges); Supreme Administrative Court (organized in 2 colleges with various panels of 5 judges each); Constitutional Court (consists of 12 justices); note - Constitutional Court resides outside the judiciary
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Cassation and Supreme Administrative judges elected by the Supreme Judicial Council or SJC (consists of 25 members with extensive legal experience) and appointed by the president; judges can serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court justices elected by the National Assembly and appointed by the president and the SJC; justices appointed for 9-year terms with renewal of 4 justices every 3 years
subordinate courts: appeals courts; regional and district courts; administrative courts; courts martial
Political parties and leadersAnticapitalist Left Cooperation for the Overthrow or ANTARSYA [collective leadership]
Coalition of the Radical Left or SYRIZA [Alexios (Alexis) TSIPRAS]
Communist Party of Greece or KKE [Dimitrios KOUTSOUMBAS]
Democratic Left or DIMAR [Athanasios (Thanasis) THEOCHAROPOULOS]
Independent Greeks or ANEL [Panagiotis (Panos) KAMMENOS]
Movement of Democratic Socialists or KIDISO [Georgios PAPANDREOU]
New Democracy or ND [Kyriakos MITSOTAKIS]
Panhellenic Socialist Movement or PASOK [Foteini (Fofi) GENIMMATA]
People's Association-Golden Dawn [Nikolaos MICHALOLIAKOS]
Popular Unity [Panagiotis LAFAZANIS]
To Potami (The River) [Stavros THEODORAKIS]
Union of Centrists or EK [Vasilis LEVENTIS]
Alternative for Bulgarian Revival or ABV [Konstantin PRODANOV]
Attack (Ataka) [Volen Nikolov SIDEROV]
Bulgarian Agrarian People’s Union [Nikolay NENCHEV]
Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Korneliya NINOVA]
Bulgaria of the Citizens or DBG [Meglena KUNEVA]
Citizens for the European Development of Bulgaria or GERB [Boyko BORISSOV]
Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria or DSB [Radan KANEV]
Democrats for Responsibility, Solidarity, and Tolerance or DOST [Lyutvi MESTAN]
IMRO - Bulgarian National Movement or IMRO-BNM [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]
Movement for Rights and Freedoms or DPS [Mustafa KARADAYA]
National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria or NFSB [Valeri SIMEONOV]
New Republic (alliance of DSB and other center-right parties) [Radan KANEV]
Patriotic Front (alliance of IMRO-BNM, NFSB, and other smaller parties, but not including Attack)
Reformist Bloc or RB (a four-party alliance including DBG and SDS)
United Patriots Front (alliance of IMRO-BNM, NFSB, and Attack)
Union of Democratic Forces or SDS [Bozhidar LUKARSKI]
Yes! Bulgaria [Hristo IVANOV]
Political pressure groups and leadersSupreme Administration of Civil Servants Unions or ADEDY [Spyros PAPASPYROS]
Federation of Greek Industries or SEV [Dimitris DASKALOPOULOS]
General Confederation of Greek Workers or GSEE [Ioannis PANAGOPOULOS]
Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB
Podkrepa Labor Confederation
other: numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas
International organization participationAustralia Group, BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EU, FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Theocharis LALAKOS (since 27 June 2016)
chancery: 2217 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-1300
FAX: [1] (202) 939-1324
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Tampa (FL), San Francisco
consulate(s): Atlanta, Houston
chief of mission: Ambassador Tihomir Anguelov STOYTCHEV (since 27 June 2016)
chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-0174
FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Geoffrey R. PYATT (since 24 October 2016)
embassy: 91 Vasillisis Sophias Avenue, 10160 Athens
mailing address: PSC 108, APO AE 09842-0108
telephone: [30] (210) 721-2951
FAX: [30] (210) 645-6282
consulate(s) general: Thessaloniki (2012)
chief of mission: Ambassador Eric RUBIN (since February 2016)
embassy: 16 Kozyak Street, Sofia 1408
mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, US Department of State, 5740 Sofia Place, Washington, DC 20521-5740
telephone: [359] (2) 937-5100
FAX: [359] (2) 937-5320
Flag description"nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; a blue square bearing a white cross appears in the upper hoist-side corner; the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the country; there is no agreed upon meaning for the nine stripes or for the colors
note: Greek legislation states that the flag colors are cyan and white, but cyan can mean ""blue"" in Greek, so the exact shade of blue has never been set and has varied from a light to a dark blue over time; in general, the hue of blue normally encountered is a form of azure
"
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the pan-Slavic white-blue-red colors were modified by substituting a green band (representing freedom) for the blue
note: the national emblem, formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe, has been removed
National anthem"name: ""Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian"" (Hymn to Liberty)
lyrics/music: Dionysios SOLOMOS/Nikolaos MANTZAROS
note: adopted 1864; the anthem is based on a 158-stanza poem by the same name, which was inspired by the Greek Revolution of 1821 against the Ottomans (only the first two stanzas are used); Cyprus also uses ""Hymn to Liberty"" as its anthem
"
"name: ""Mila Rodino"" (Dear Homeland)
lyrics/music: Tsvetan Tsvetkov RADOSLAVOV
note: adopted 1964; composed in 1885 by a student en route to fight in the Serbo-Bulgarian War
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Greek cross (white cross on blue field, arms equal length); national colors: blue, white
lion; national colors: white, green, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Greece
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bulgaria
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

GreeceBulgaria
Economy - overviewGreece has a capitalist economy with a public sector accounting for about 40% of GDP and with per capita GDP about two-thirds that of the leading euro-zone economies. Tourism provides 18% of GDP. Immigrants make up nearly one-fifth of the work force, mainly in agricultural and unskilled jobs. Greece is a major beneficiary of EU aid, equal to about 3.3% of annual GDP.

The Greek economy averaged growth of about 4% per year between 2003 and 2007, but the economy went into recession in 2009 as a result of the world financial crisis, tightening credit conditions, and Athens' failure to address a growing budget deficit. By 2013 the economy had contracted 26%, compared with the pre-crisis level of 2007. Greece met the EU's Growth and Stability Pact budget deficit criterion of no more than 3% of GDP in 2007-08, but violated it in 2009, with the deficit reaching 15% of GDP. Deteriorating public finances, inaccurate and misreported statistics, and consistent underperformance on reforms prompted major credit rating agencies to downgrade Greece's international debt rating in late 2009 and led the country into a financial crisis. Under intense pressure from the EU and international market participants, the government accepted a bailout program that called on Athens to cut government spending, decrease tax evasion, overhaul the civil-service, health-care, and pension systems, and reform the labor and product markets. Austerity measures reduced the deficit to 4.5% in 2016. Successive Greek governments, however, failed to push through many of the most unpopular reforms in the face of widespread political opposition, including from the country's powerful labor unions and the general public.

In April 2010, a leading credit agency assigned Greek debt its lowest possible credit rating, and in May 2010, the International Monetary Fund and euro-zone governments provided Greece emergency short- and medium-term loans worth $147 billion so that the country could make debt repayments to creditors. Greece, however, struggled to meet the targets set by the EU and the IMF, especially after Eurostat - the EU's statistical office - revised upward Greece's deficit and debt numbers for 2009 and 2010. European leaders and the IMF agreed in October 2011 to provide Athens a second bailout package of $169 billion. The second deal called for holders of Greek government bonds to write down a significant portion of their holdings to try to alleviate Greece’s government debt burden. However, Greek banks, saddled with a significant portion of sovereign debt, were adversely affected by the write down and $60 billion of the second bailout package was set aside to ensure the banking system was adequately capitalized.

In 2014, the Greek economy began to turn the corner on the recession. Greece achieved three significant milestones: balancing the budget - not including debt repayments; issuing government debt in financial markets for the first time since 2010; and generating 0.7% GDP growth — the first economic expansion since 2007.

Despite the nascent recovery, widespread discontent with austerity measures helped propel the far-left Coalition of the Radical Left (SYRIZA) party into government in national legislative elections in January 2015. Between January and July 2015, frustrations between the SYRIZA-led government and Greece’s EU and IMF creditors over the implementation of bailout measures and disbursement of funds led the Greek government to run up significant arrears to suppliers and Greek banks to rely on emergency lending, and also called into question Greece’s future in the euro zone. To stave off a collapse of the banking system, Greece imposed capital controls in June 2015 shortly before rattling international financial markets by becoming the first developed nation to miss a loan payment to the IMF. Unable to reach an agreement with creditors, Prime Minister Alexios TSIPRAS held a nationwide referendum on 5 July on whether to accept the terms of Greece’s bailout, campaigning for the ultimately successful “no” vote. The TSIPRAS government subsequently agreed, however, to a new $96 billion bailout in order to avert Greece’s exit from the monetary bloc. On 20 August, Greece signed its third bailout which allowed it to cover significant debt payments to its EU and IMF creditors and ensure the banking sector retained access to emergency liquidity. The TSIPRAS government — which retook office on 20 September after calling new elections in late August — successfully secured disbursal of two delayed tranches of bailout funds. Despite the economic turmoil, Greek GDP did not contract as sharply as feared, with official estimates of a -0.2% contraction in 2015, boosted in part by a strong tourist season.

In 2016, Greece saw slight improvements in GDP and unemployment. The economy remains stagnant, because of unfinished economic reforms, a massive non-performing loan problem, and ongoing uncertainty regarding the political direction of the country. Some estimates put Greece’s black market at 20 to 25% of GDP, as more people have stopped reporting their income to avoid paying taxes that, in some cases, have risen to 70% of an individual’s gross income. These issues will continue to be a drag on the economy in 2017 and further delay recovery from the financial crisis.
Bulgaria, a former communist country that entered the EU in 2007, has an open economy that has historically has demonstrated strong growth, but its per-capita income remains one of the lowest among EU members and its reliance on energy imports and foreign demand for its exports makes its growth sensitive to external market conditions.

The government undertook significant structural economic reforms in the 1990s to move the economy from a centralized, planned economy to a more liberal, market-driven economy. These reforms included the privatization of state-owned enterprises, the liberalization of trade, and strengthening of the tax system - changes that initially caused some economic hardships but later helped to attract investment, spur growth, and make gradual improvements to living conditions. From 2000 through 2008, Bulgaria maintained robust, average annual real GDP growth in excess of 6%, which was followed by a deep recession in 2009 as the financial crisis caused domestic demand, exports, capital inflows and industrial production to contract, prompting the government to rein in spending. Real GDP growth remained slow - less than 2% annually - until 2015, when demand from EU countries for Bulgarian exports, plus an inflow of EU development funds, boosted growth to more than 3%. In recent years, low international energy prices have contributed to Bulgaria’s economic growth and helped to ease inflation, but, in 2017, rising international gas prices could dampen Bulgaria’s growth prospects.

Bulgaria is heavily reliant on energy imports from Russia, a potential vulnerability, and is a participant in EU-backed efforts to diversify regional natural gas supplies. In late 2016, the Bulgarian Government provided funding to Bulgaria’s National Electric Company to cover the $695 million compensation owed to Russian nuclear equipment manufacture Atomstroyexport for the cancellation of the Belene Nuclear Power Plant project, which the Bulgarian Government terminated in 2012. In 2016 the Bulgarian Government established the State eGovernment Agency. This new agency is responsible for the implementation of projects related to electronic governance as well as coordination of national policies in the area with the EU requirements and practices, as well as to strengthen cybersecurity.

Despite a favorable investment regime, including low, flat corporate income taxes, significant challenges remain. Corruption in public administration, a weak judiciary, low productivity, and the presence of organized crime continue to hamper the country's investment climate and economic prospects.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$290.5 billion (2016 est.)
$290.3 billion (2015 est.)
$291 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$143.1 billion (2016 est.)
$138.9 billion (2015 est.)
$134.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate0.1% (2016 est.)
-0.2% (2015 est.)
0.7% (2014 est.)
3% (2016 est.)
3% (2015 est.)
1.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$26,800 (2016 est.)
$26,700 (2015 est.)
$26,600 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$20,100 (2016 est.)
$19,400 (2015 est.)
$18,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 4.1%
industry: 15%
services: 80.9% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 5.1%
industry: 27.5%
services: 67.5% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line36% (2014 est.)
22% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 26.7% (2015 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 28.4% (2015)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)-0.2% (2016 est.)
-1.7% (2015 est.)
-0.8% (2016 est.)
-0.1% (2015 est.)
Labor force4.761 million (2016 est.)
3.017 million
note: number of employed persons (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 12.6%
industry: 15%
services: 72.4% (30 October 2015 e)
agriculture: 6.8%
industry: 26.6%
services: 66.6% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate24.6% (2016 est.)
25% (2015 est.)
8% (2016 est.)
10% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index36.7 (2012 est.)
35.7 (2011)
37 (2015)
35.4 (2014)
Budgetrevenues: $93.34 billion
expenditures: $102.1 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $18.25 billion
expenditures: $17.46 billion (2016 est.)
Industriestourism, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products; mining, petroleum
electricity, gas, water; food, beverages, tobacco; machinery and equipment, automotive parts, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel; outsourcing centers
Industrial production growth rate-1% (2016 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; beef, dairy products
vegetables, fruits, tobacco, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets; livestock
Exports$21.93 billion (2016 est.)
$27.5 billion (2015 est.)
$23.72 billion (2016 est.)
$23.95 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesfood and beverages, manufactured goods, petroleum products, chemicals, textiles
clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels, agriculture, tobacco, IT components
Exports - partnersItaly 11.2%, Germany 7.3%, Turkey 6.6%, Cyprus 5.9%, Bulgaria 5.2%, US 4.8%, UK 4.2%, Egypt 4% (2015)
Germany 12.5%, Italy 9.2%, Turkey 8.5%, Romania 8.2%, Greece 6.5%, France 4.2% (2015)
Imports$42.73 billion (2016 est.)
$46.62 billion (2015 est.)
$25.66 billion (2016 est.)
$26.81 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, transport equipment, fuels, chemicals
machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; fuels, minerals, and raw materials
Imports - partnersGermany 10.7%, Italy 8.4%, Russia 7.9%, Iraq 7%, China 5.9%, Netherlands 5.5%, France 4.5% (2015)
Germany 12.9%, Russia 12%, Italy 7.6%, Romania 6.8%, Turkey 5.7%, Greece 4.8%, Spain 4.8% (2015)
Debt - external$506.6 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$468.2 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
$36.52 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$37.25 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rateseuros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)
leva (BGN) per US dollar -
1.802 (2016 est.)
1.7644 (2015 est.)
1.7644 (2014 est.)
1.4742 (2013 est.)
1.52 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt181.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
177.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
26.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
26.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
note:: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$6.026 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.212 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$25.13 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$22.16 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$1.221 billion (2016 est.)
$228 million (2015 est.)
$2.201 billion (2016 est.)
-$67 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$195.9 billion (2016 est.)
$50.45 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$22.15 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$21.28 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$42.21 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$41.47 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$29.67 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$30.07 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.033 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.925 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$42.08 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$55.15 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$82.59 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$5.205 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.797 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$5.45 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate0.05% (31 March 2016)
0.15% (11 June 2014)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
0% (31 December 2016)
0.01% (31 December 2015)
note: Bulgarian National Bank (BNB) has had no independent monetary policy since the introduction of the Currency Board regime in 1997; this is BNB's base interest rate
Commercial bank prime lending rate5.7% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.89% (31 December 2015 est.)
6.58% (31 December 2016 est.)
6.59% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$250 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$259.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$27.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$29.72 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$85.68 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$86.69 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
$21.95 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$20.09 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$260.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$264.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$42.79 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$41.32 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues47.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
36.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
1.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 52.4%
male: 47.4%
female: 58.1% (2014 est.)
total: 23.8%
male: 23.8%
female: 23.7% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 71.1%
government consumption: 19.8%
investment in fixed capital: 10.7%
investment in inventories: -2.3%
exports of goods and services: 29.1%
imports of goods and services: -28.4% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 60.8%
government consumption: 15.9%
investment in fixed capital: 20.4%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 69.1%
imports of goods and services: -66.3% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving10.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
9.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
10.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
22.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
22.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

GreeceBulgaria
Electricity - production48 billion kWh (2014 est.)
44.35 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption53 billion kWh (2014 est.)
33.91 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports600 million kWh (2014 est.)
10.94 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports9.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
4.566 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production1,077 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports549,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
129,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports1,667 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016)
Oil - proved reserves10 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
15 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves991.1 million cu m (1 January 2016 es)
5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production5 million cu m (2014 est.)
94 million cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption2.924 billion cu m (2014 est.)
3.209 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - imports2.931 billion cu m (2014 est.)
3.093 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity19 million kW (2014 est.)
12.13 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels70.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
36.3% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants11.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
30% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
17.3% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources15.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
16.4% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production587,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
139,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption297,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
84,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports316,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
92,350 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports83,020 bbl/day (2015 est.)
41,320 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy78 million Mt (2013 est.)
49.92 million Mt (2016 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

GreeceBulgaria
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 5,177,090
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 48 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 1,654,535
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 23 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 12.682 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 118 (July 2015 est.)
total: 9.195 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 128 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: adequate, modern networks reach all areas; good mobile telephone and international service
domestic: microwave radio relay trunk system; extensive open-wire connections; submarine cable to offshore islands
international: country code - 30; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; a number of smaller submarine cables provide connectivity to various parts of Europe, the Middle East, and Cyprus; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean, 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat - Indian Ocean region) (2015)
general assessment: inherited an extensive but antiquated telecommunications network from the Soviet era; quality has improved with a modern digital trunk line now connecting switching centers in most of the regions; remaining areas are connected by digital microwave radio relay
domestic: the Bulgaria Telecommunications Company's fixed-line monopoly terminated in 2005 in an effort to upgrade fixed-line services; mobile-cellular teledensity, fostered by multiple service providers, is over 125 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 359; submarine cable provides connectivity to Ukraine and Russia; a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system provides connectivity to Italy, Albania, and Macedonia; satellite earth stations - 3 (1 Intersputnik in the Atlantic Ocean region, 2 Intelsat in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions) (2015)
Internet country code.gr
.bg
Internet userstotal: 7.202 million
percent of population: 66.8% (July 2015 est.)
total: 4.072 million
percent of population: 56.7% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediaBroadcast media dominated by the private sector; roughly 150 private TV channels, about ten of which broadcast nationwide; 1 government-owned terrestrial TV channel with national coverage; 3 privately owned satellite channels; multi-channel satellite and cable TV services available; upwards of 1,500 radio stations, all of them privately owned; government-owned broadcaster has 2 national radio stations (2014)
4 national terrestrial TV stations with 1 state-owned and 3 privately owned; a vast array of TV stations are available from cable and satellite TV providers; state-owned national radio broadcasts over 3 networks; large number of private radio stations broadcasting, especially in urban areas (2010)

Transportation

GreeceBulgaria
Railwaystotal: 2,548 km
standard gauge: 1,565 km 1.435-m gauge (764 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 961 km 1.000-m gauge; 22 km 0.750-m gauge (2014)
total: 5,114 km
standard gauge: 4,989 km 1.435-m gauge (2,880 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 125 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 116,960 km
paved: 41,357 km (includes 1,091 km of expressways)
unpaved: 75,603 km (2010)
total: 19,512 km
paved: 19,235 km (includes 458 km of expressways)
unpaved: 277 km
note: does not include Category IV local roads (2011)
Waterways6 km (the 6-km-long Corinth Canal crosses the Isthmus of Corinth; it shortens a sea voyage by 325 km) (2012)
470 km (2009)
Pipelinesgas 1,329 km; oil 94 km (2013)
gas 2,765 km; oil 346 km; refined products 378 km (2017)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Aspropyrgos, Pachi, Piraeus, Thessaloniki
oil terminal(s): Agioi Theodoroi
LNG terminal(s) (import): Revithoussa
major seaport(s): Burgas, Varna (Black Sea)
Merchant marinetotal: 860
by type: bulk carrier 262, cargo 49, carrier 1, chemical tanker 68, container 35, liquefied gas 13, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 109, petroleum tanker 302, roll on/roll off 14
foreign-owned: 42 (Belgium 17, Bermuda 3, Cyprus 3, Italy 5, UK 6, US 8)
registered in other countries: 2,459 (Antigua and Barbuda 4, Bahamas 225, Barbados 14, Belize 2, Bermuda 8, Brazil 1, Cabo Verde 1, Cambodia 2, Cayman Islands 9, Comoros 4, Curacao 1, Cyprus 201, Dominica 4, Egypt 8, Gibraltar 8, Honduras 4, Hong Kong 27, Indonesia 1, Isle of Man 62, Italy 7, Jamaica 3, Liberia 505, Malta 469, Marshall Islands 408, Mexico 2, Moldova 1, Panama 379, Philippines 5, Portugal 2, Saint Kitts and Nevis 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 42, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Saudi Arabia 4, Singapore 22, UAE 3, Uruguay 1, Vanuatu 3, Venezuela 4, unknown 10) (2010)
total: 22
by type: bulk carrier 9, cargo 8, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 14 (Germany 12, Russia 2)
registered in other countries: 30 (Belize 1, Comoros 4, Georgia 1, Malta 8, Moldova 1, Panama 6, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9) (2010)
Airports77 (2013)
68 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 68
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 18
under 914 m: 10 (2013)
total: 57
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
under 914 m: 26 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 7 (2013)
total: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 9 (2013)
Heliports9 (2013)
1 (2013)

Military

GreeceBulgaria
Military branchesHellenic Army (Ellinikos Stratos, ES), Hellenic Navy (Elliniko Polemiko Navtiko, EPN), Hellenic Air Force (Elliniki Polemiki Aeroporia, EPA) (2013)
Bulgarian Armed Forces: Land Forces (aka Army), Naval Forces, Bulgarian Air Forces (Voennovazdyshni Sily, VVS) (2017)
Military service age and obligation19-45 years of age for compulsory military service; during wartime the law allows for recruitment beginning January of the year of inductee's 18th birthday, thus including 17 year olds; 18 years of age for volunteers; conscript service obligation is 1 year for the Army and 9 months for the Air Force and Navy; women are eligible for voluntary military service (2014)
18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription ended in January 2008; service obligation 6-9 months (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP2.61% of GDP (2015)
2.34% of GDP (2014)
2.36% of GDP (2013)
2.41% of GDP (2012)
2.48% of GDP (2011)
1.35% of GDP (2016 est.)
1.29% of GDP (2015)
1.32% of GDP (2014)
1.46% of GDP (2013)
1.35% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

GreeceBulgaria
Disputes - internationalGreece and Turkey continue discussions to resolve their complex maritime, air, territorial, and boundary disputes in the Aegean Sea; Greece rejects the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia; the mass migration of unemployed Albanians still remains a problem for developed countries, chiefly Greece and Italy
none
Illicit drugsa gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling cannabis and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the West and precursor chemicals to the East; some South American cocaine transits or is consumed in Greece; money laundering related to drug trafficking and organized crime
major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals; vulnerable to money laundering because of corruption, organized crime; some money laundering of drug-related proceeds through financial institutions (2008)
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 14,420 (Syria); 11,440 (Afghanistan) (2016)
stateless persons: 198 (2016)
note: 1,044,363 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - July 2017)
refugees (country of origin): 15,027 (Syria) (2016)
stateless persons: 67 (2016)
note: 47,509 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - July 2017)

Source: CIA Factbook