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Gibraltar vs. Spain

Introduction

GibraltarSpain
BackgroundStrategically important, Gibraltar was reluctantly ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967, Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency. The subsequent granting of autonomy in 1969 by the UK led Spain to close the border and sever all communication links. Between 1997 and 2002, the UK and Spain held a series of talks on establishing temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. In response to these talks, the Gibraltar Government called a referendum in late 2002 in which the majority of citizens voted overwhelmingly against any sharing of sovereignty with Spain. Since late 2004, Spain, the UK, and Gibraltar have held tripartite talks with the aim of cooperatively resolving problems that affect the local population, and work continues on cooperation agreements in areas such as taxation and financial services; communications and maritime security; policy, legal and customs services; environmental protection; and education and visa services. A new noncolonial constitution came into force in 2007, and the European Court of First Instance recognized Gibraltar's right to regulate its own tax regime in December 2008. The UK retains responsibility for defense, foreign relations, internal security, and financial stability.
Spain and the UK continue to spar over the territory. Throughout 2009, a dispute over Gibraltar's claim to territorial waters extending out three miles gave rise to periodic non-violent maritime confrontations between Spanish and UK naval patrols and in 2013, the British reported a record number of entries by Spanish vessels into waters claimed by Gibraltar following a dispute over Gibraltar's creation of an artificial reef in those waters. Spain renewed its demands for an eventual return of Gibraltar to Spanish control after the UK’s June 2016 vote to leave the EU, but London has dismissed any connection between the vote and its future commitment to Gibraltar.
Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World War I and II but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975, and rapid economic modernization (Spain joined the EU in 1986) gave Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy and made it a global champion of freedom and human rights. More recently Spain has emerged from a severe economic recession that began in mid-2008, posting three straight years of GDP growth above the EU average. Unemployment has fallen, but remains high especially among youth. Spain is the Eurozone’s fourth largest economy.

Geography

GibraltarSpain
LocationSouthwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain
Southwestern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Bay of Biscay, and Pyrenees Mountains; southwest of France
Geographic coordinates36 08 N, 5 21 W
40 00 N, 4 00 W
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 6.5 sq km
land: 6.5 sq km
water: 0 sq km
total: 505,370 sq km
land: 498,980 sq km
water: 6,390 sq km
note: there are two autonomous cities - Ceuta and Melilla - and 17 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera
Area - comparativemore than 10 times the size of The National Mall in Washington, D.C.
almost five times the size of Kentucky; slightly more than twice the size of Oregon
Land boundariestotal: 1.2 km
border countries (1): Spain 1.2 km
total: 1,952.7 km
border countries (5): Andorra 63 km, France 646 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,224 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 8 km, Morocco (Melilla) 10.5 km
note: an additional 75-meter border segment exists between Morocco and the Spanish exclave of Penon de Velez de la Gomera
Coastline12 km
4,964 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 3 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)
ClimateMediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast
Terraina narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar
large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees Mountains in north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m
mean elevation: 660 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m
Natural resourcesnone
coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 0%
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0%
forest: 0%
other: 100% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 54.1%
arable land 24.9%; permanent crops 9.1%; permanent pasture 20.1%
forest: 36.8%
other: 9.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated landNA
38,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsoccasional droughts; no streams or large bodies of water on the peninsula (all potable water comes from desalination)
periodic droughts, occasional flooding
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Canary Islands, located off Africa's northwest coast; Teide (elev. 3,715 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; La Palma (elev. 2,426 m), which last erupted in 1971, is the most active of the Canary Islands volcanoes; Lanzarote is the only other historically active volcano
Environment - current issueslimited natural freshwater resources: large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rainwater (no longer used for drinking water) and adequate desalination plant
pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification
Geography - notestrategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea
strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; Spain controls a number of territories in northern Morocco including the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas

Demographics

GibraltarSpain
Population29,328 (July 2016 est.)
48,563,476 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 20.12% (male 3,024/female 2,878)
15-24 years: 15.02% (male 2,305/female 2,101)
25-54 years: 38.94% (male 5,804/female 5,617)
55-64 years: 10.15% (male 1,328/female 1,649)
65 years and over: 15.76% (male 2,276/female 2,346) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 15.43% (male 3,854,687/female 3,638,288)
15-24 years: 9.56% (male 2,400,188/female 2,243,311)
25-54 years: 45.24% (male 11,200,786/female 10,771,652)
55-64 years: 11.91% (male 2,820,933/female 2,963,050)
65 years and over: 17.85% (male 3,700,832/female 4,969,749) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 34.5 years
male: 33.6 years
female: 33.5 years (2016 est.)
total: 42.3 years
male: 41.2 years
female: 43.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.24% (2016 est.)
0.84% (2016 est.)
Birth rate14.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate8.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-3.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.81 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 79.4 years
male: 76.6 years
female: 82.5 years (2016 est.)
total population: 81.7 years
male: 78.7 years
female: 84.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.91 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.49 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
0.39% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Gibraltarian(s)
adjective: Gibraltar
noun: Spaniard(s)
adjective: Spanish
Ethnic groupsGibraltarian 79%, other British 13.2%, Spanish 2.1%, Moroccan 1.6%, other EU 2.4%, other 1.6% (2012 est.)
composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
148,900 (2015 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 72.1%, Church of England 7.7%, other Christian 3.8%, Muslim 3.6%, Jewish 2.4%, Hindu 2%, other 1.1%, none 7.1%, unspecified 0.1% (2012 est.)
Roman Catholic 67.8%, atheist 9.1%, other 2.2%, non-believer 18.4%, unspecified 2.5% (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
1,200 (2015 est.)
LanguagesEnglish (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese
Castilian Spanish (official nationwide) 74%, Catalan (official in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and the Valencian Community (where it is known as Valencian)) 17%, Galician (official in Galicia) 7%, Basque (official in the Basque Country and in the Basque-speaking area of Navarre) 2%, Aranese (official in the northwest corner of Catalonia (Vall d'Aran) along with Catalan; <5,000 speakers)
note: Aragonese, Aranese Asturian, Basque, Calo, Catalan, Galician, and Valencian are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
Education expendituresNA
4.3% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 100% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.07% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 79.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.52% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major cities - populationGIBRALTAR (capital) 29,000 (2014)
MADRID (capital) 6.199 million; Barcelona 5.258 million; Valencia 810,000 (2015)

Government

GibraltarSpain
Country name"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Gibraltar
etymology: from the Spanish derivation of the Arabic ""Jabal Tariq,"" which means ""Mountain of Tariq"" and which refers to the Rock of Gibraltar
"
"conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain
conventional short form: Spain
local long form: Reino de Espana
local short form: Espana
etymology: derivation of the name ""Espana"" is uncertain, but may come from the Phoenician term ""span,"" related to the word ""spy,"" meaning ""to forge metals,"" so, ""i-spn-ya"" would mean ""place where metals are forged""; the ancient Phoenicians long exploited the Iberian Peninsula for its mineral wealth
"
Government typeparliamentary democracy (Parliament); self-governing overseas territory of the UK
parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capitalname: Gibraltar
geographic coordinates: 36 08 N, 5 21 W
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Madrid
geographic coordinates: 40 24 N, 3 41 W
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
note: Spain has two time zones including the Canary Islands
Administrative divisionsnone (overseas territory of the UK)
17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma) and 2 autonomous cities* (ciudades autonomas, singular - ciudad autonoma); Andalucia; Aragon; Asturias; Canarias (Canary Islands); Cantabria; Castilla-La Mancha; Castilla-Leon; Cataluna (Castilian), Catalunya (Catalan), Catalonha (Aranese) [Catalonia]; Ceuta*; Comunidad Valenciana (Castilian), Comunitat Valenciana (Valencian) [Valencian Community]; Extremadura; Galicia; Illes Baleares (Balearic Islands); La Rioja; Madrid; Melilla*; Murcia; Navarra (Castilian), Nafarroa (Basque) [Navarre]; Pais Vasco (Castilian), Euskadi (Basque) [Basque Country]
note: the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla plus three small islands of Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, administered directly by the Spanish central government, are all along the coast of Morocco and are collectively referred to as Places of Sovereignty (Plazas de Soberania)
Independencenone (overseas territory of the UK)
1492; the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Muslim occupation that began in the early 8th century A.D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain
National holidayNational Day, 10 September (1967); note - day of the national referendum to decide whether to remain with the UK or join Spain
National Day (Hispanic Day), 12 October (1492); note - commemorates COLUMBUS' arrival in the Americas
Constitutionhistory: previous 1969; latest passed by referendum 30 November 2006, entered into effect 14 December 2006, entered into force 2 January 2007
amendments: proposed by Parliament and require prior consent of the British monarch (through the Secretary of State); passage requires at least three-quarters majority vote in Parliament followed by simple majority vote in a referendum; note – only sections 1 through 15 in Chapter 1 (Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms) can be amended by Parliament (2016)
history: previous 1812; latest approved by the General Courts 31 October 1978, passed by referendum 6 December 1978, signed by the king 27 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978
amendments: proposed by the government, by the General Courts (the Congress or the Senate), or by the self-governing communities submitted through the government; passage requires three-fifths majority vote by both houses and passage by referendum if requested by one-tenth of members of either house; proposals disapproved by both houses are submitted to a joint committee, which submits an agreed upon text for another vote; passage requires two-thirds vote in Congress and simple majority vote in the Senate; amended 1992, 2007, 2011 (2016)
Legal systemthe laws of the UK, where applicable, apply
civil law system with regional variations
Suffrage18 years of age; universal; and British citizens with six months residence or more
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Lt. Gen. Edward DAVIS (since 19 January 2016)
head of government: Chief Minister Fabian PICARDO (since 9 December 2011)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 17 elected members of Parliament by the governor in consultation with the chief minister
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed chief minister by the governor
chief of state: King FELIPE VI (since 19 June 2014); Heir Apparent Princess LEONOR, Princess of Asturias, daughter of the monarch, born 31 October 2005
head of government: President of the Government or Prime Minister Mariano RAJOY (since 20 December 2011); Vice President (and Minister of the President's Office) Soraya SAENZ DE SANTAMARIA (since 22 December 2011)
cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the monarch usually proposes the leader of the party or coalition with the largest majority of seats as president, who is then indirectly elected by the Congress of Deputies; election last held on 26 June 2016; vice president and Council of Ministers appointed by the president
election results: percent of National Assembly vote - NA
note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Parliament (18 seats; 17 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by majority vote and 1 appointed by Parliament as speaker; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 26 November 2015 (next to be held not later than December 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - GSLP 68.4%, GSD 31.6%; seats by party - GSLP 10, GSD 7
description: bicameral General Courts or Las Cortes Generales consists of the Senate or Senado (266 seats as of 2017; 208 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 58 appointed by the regional legislatures; members serve 4-year terms) and the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; 348 members directly elected in 50 multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 directly elected from the North African Ceuta and Melilla enclaves by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms or until the government is dissolved)
elections: Senate - last held on 26 June 2016; Congress of Deputies - last held on 26 June 2016 (next to be held no later than June 2020)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PP 149, PSOE 62, Podemos 20, ERC 12, EAJ/PNV 6, other 17; Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PP 33.0%, PSOE 22.7%, Podemos 21.1%, C's 13.0%, ERC-CatSi 2.6%, CDC 2.0%, EAJ/PNV 1.2%, other 4.4%; seats by party - PP 134, PSOE 84, Podemos 67, C's 32, ERC-CatSi 9, EAJ/PNV 5, other 19
Judicial branchhighest resident court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of at least 3 judges, including the court president); Supreme Court of Gibraltar (consists of the chief justice and 3 judges); note - appeals beyond the Court of Appeal are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and Supreme Court judges appointed by the governor upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission, a 7-member body of judges and appointees of the governor; tenure of the Court of Appeal president based on terms of appointment; Supreme Court chief justice and judge normally appointed until retirement at age 67, but can be extended 3 years
subordinate courts: Court of First Instance; Magistrates' Court; specialized tribunals for issues relating to social security, taxes, and employment
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo (consists of the court president and organized into the Civil Room with a president and 9 judges, the Penal Room with a president and 14 judges, the Administrative Room with a president and 32 judges, the Social Room with a president and 12 judges, and the Military Room with a president and 7 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional de Espana (consists of 12 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch from candidates proposed by the General Council of the Judiciary Power, a 20-member governing board chaired by the monarch that includes presidential appointees, and lawyers and jurists confirmed by the National Assembly; judges can serve until age 70; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Assembly, executive branch, and the General Council of the Judiciary, and appointed by the monarch for 9-year terms
subordinate courts: National High Court; High Courts of Justice (in each of the autonomous communities); provincial courts; courts of first instance
Political parties and leadersGibraltar Liberal Party [Joseph GARCIA]
Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Daniel FEETHAM]
Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Fabian PICARDO]
Progressive Democratic Party [Nick CRUZ]
Amaiur [Xabier ERREKONDO] (a separatist political coalition that advocates Basque independence from Spain)
Asturias Forum or FAC [Cristina COTO]
Basque Country Unite (Euskal Herria Bildu) or EH Bildu [Pello URIZAR] (coalition of 4 Basque pro-independence parties)
Basque Nationalist Party or PNV or EAJ [Andoni ORTUZAR]
Canarian Coalition or CC [Claudina MORALES Rodriguez] (coalition of five parties)
Canarian Nationalist Party or PNC [Juan Manuel GARCIA Ramos]
Catalan Agreement of Progress (Entesa Catalonia de Progress) or ECP [Carles BONET i Reves] (Senate coalition of Catalan parties - PSC, ERC, ICV, EUA)
Catalan European Democratic Party or PDeCat [Artur MAS]
Ciudadanos Party or C's [Albert RIVERA]
Compromis [Monica Oltra JARQUE]
Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Ana PONTON Mondelo]
Gomera Socialist Group or ASG
Initiative for Catalonia Greens or ICV [Joan HERRERA i Torres and Dolors CAMATS]
Podemos [Pablo IGLESIAS Turrion]
Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY Brey]
Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Oriol JUNQUERAS i Vies]
Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Pedro SANCHEZ]
Union of People of Navarra or UPN [Javier ESPARZA]
Union, Progress and Democracy or UPyD [Gorka MAEIRO]
United Left or IU [Alberto GARZON] (a coalition of parties including the Communist Party of Spain or PCE and other small parties; ran as Popular Unity or UP in 2015 election)
Yes to the Future or Geroa Bai [Koldo MARTINEZ] (a coalition of four Navarran parties)
Political pressure groups and leadersChamber of Commerce
Gibraltar Representatives Organization
Women's Association
Association for Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to supporting victims of the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorist organization)
Catholic Church
Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT (includes the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO)
Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO.
Spanish Confederation of Employers' Organizations or CEOE
other: business and landowning interests; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); university students
International organization participationICC (NGOs), Interpol (subbureau), UPU
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USnone (overseas territory of the UK)
chief of mission: Ambassador Pedro MORENES Eulate (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340
FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Kansas City (MO)
Diplomatic representation from the USnone (overseas territory of the UK)
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kris URS (since January 2017) note - also accredited to Andorra
embassy: Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid
mailing address: PSC 61, APO AE 09642
telephone: [34] (91) 587-2200
FAX: [34] (91) 587-2303
consulate(s) general: Barcelona
Flag descriptiontwo horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band; the design is that of Gibraltar's coat of arms granted on 10 July 1502 by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain; the castle symbolizes Gibraltar as a fortress, while the key represents Gibraltar's strategic importance - the key to the Mediterranean
"three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms is quartered to display the emblems of the traditional kingdoms of Spain (clockwise from upper left, Castile, Leon, Navarre, and Aragon) while Granada is represented by the stylized pomegranate at the bottom of the shield; the arms are framed by two columns representing the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar; the red scroll across the two columns bears the imperial motto of ""Plus Ultra"" (further beyond) referring to Spanish lands beyond Europe; the triband arrangement with the center stripe twice the width of the outer dates to the 18th century
note: the red and yellow colors are related to those of the oldest Spanish kingdoms: Aragon, Castile, Leon, and Navarre
"
National anthem"name: ""Gibraltar Anthem""
lyrics/music: Peter EMBERLEY
note: adopted 1994; serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, ""God Save the Queen"" remains official (see United Kingdom)
"
"name: ""Himno Nacional Espanol"" (National Anthem of Spain)
lyrics/music: no lyrics/unknown
note: officially in use between 1770 and 1931, restored in 1939; the Spanish anthem is the first anthem to be officially adopted, but it has no lyrics; in the years prior to 1931 it became known as ""Marcha Real"" (The Royal March); it first appeared in a 1761 military bugle call book and was replaced by ""Himno de Riego"" in the years between 1931 and 1939; the long version of the anthem is used for the king, while the short version is used for the prince, prime minister, and occasions such as sporting events
"
National symbol(s)Barbary macaque; national colors: red, white, yellow
Pillars of Hercules; national colors: red, yellow
Citizenshipsee United Kingdom
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Spain
dual citizenship recognized: only with select Latin American countries
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years for persons with no ties to Spain

Economy

GibraltarSpain
Economy - overviewSelf-sufficient Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. Tax rates are low to attract foreign investment. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and now contributes about 7% to the local economy, compared with 60% in 1984. In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government spending still have a major impact on the level of employment.

The financial sector, tourism (over 11 million visitors in 2012), gaming revenues, shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. The financial sector, tourism, and the shipping sector contribute 30%, 30%, and 25%, respectively, of GDP. Telecommunications, e-commerce, and e-gaming account for the remaining 15%.
After experiencing a prolonged recession in the wake of the global financial crisis that began in 2008, in 2016 Spain marked the third full year of positive economic growth in nine years, largely due to increased private consumption. At the onset of the financial crisis, Spain's GDP contracted by 3.7% in 2009, ending a 16-year growth trend, and continued contracting through most of 2013. In 2013, the government successfully shored up struggling banks - exposed to the collapse of Spain's depressed real estate and construction sectors - and in January 2014 completed an EU-funded restructuring and recapitalization program for its financial sector.

Until 2014, credit contraction in the private sector, fiscal austerity, and high unemployment weighed on domestic consumption and investment. The unemployment rate rose from a low of about 8% in 2007 to more than 26% in 2013, but labor reforms prompted a modest reduction to 19.7% in 2016. High unemployment has strained Spain's public finances, as spending on social benefits increased while tax revenues fell. Spain’s budget deficit peaked at 11.4% of GDP in 2010, but Spain gradually reduced the deficit to about 5% of GDP in 2015, and 4.1% of GDP in 2016. Public debt has increased substantially – from 60.1% of GDP in 2010 to nearly 99.5% in 2016.

Exports were resilient throughout the economic downturn and helped to bring Spain's current account into surplus in 2013 for the first time since 1986, where it remained in 2014-16. Rising labor productivity and an internal devaluation resulting from moderating labor costs and lower inflation have helped to improve foreign investor interest in the economy and positive FDI flows have been restored.

Political gridlock after the national elections in December 2015 and June 2016 and ensuing government formation process constrained the caretaker government’s ability to implement needed labor, pension, healthcare, tax, and education reforms— in 2016. The European Commission criticized Spain’s 2016 budget for its easing of austerity measures and its alleged overly optimistic growth and deficit projections. Spain’s borrowing costs are dramatically lower since their peak in mid-2012, and despite the recent uptick in economic activity, inflation has dropped sharply, from 1.5% in 2013 to a negative 0.3% in 2016.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$2.044 billion (2014 est.)
$1.85 billion (2013 est.)
$2 billion (2012 est.)
$1.69 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.64 trillion (2015 est.)
$1.589 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - per capita (PPP)$61,700 (2014 est.)
$43,000 (2008 est.)
$41,200 (2007 est.)
$36,500 (2016 est.)
$35,300 (2015 est.)
$34,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 0%
industry: 0%
services: 100% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 2.5%
industry: 22.4%
services: 75.1% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty lineNA%
21.1% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 24% (2011)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.5% (2013 est.)
2.2% (2012 est.)
-0.3% (2016 est.)
-0.6% (2015 est.)
Labor force24,420 (2014 est.)
22.89 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: NEGL
industry: 1.8%
services: 98.2% (2014 est.)
agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 24%
services: 71.7% (2009)
Unemployment rate1% (2016 est.)
19.7% (2016 est.)
22.1% (2015 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $475.8 million
expenditures: $452.3 million (2008 est.)
revenues: $461.3 billion
expenditures: $512.9 billion (2016 est.)
Industriestourism, banking and finance, ship repairing, tobacco
textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment
Industrial production growth rateNA%
2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsnone
grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish
Exports$202.3 million (2014 est.)
$271 million (2004 est.)
$266.3 billion (2016 est.)
$277.9 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities(principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods (2010 est.)
machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods
Imports$2.967 billion (2004 est.)
$287.9 billion (2016 est.)
$302.6 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfuels, manufactured goods, foodstuffs
machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semi-finished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring and medical control instruments
Debt - external$NA
$2.094 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$1.963 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesGibraltar pounds (GIP) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.64 (2012)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.7525 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
Fiscal year1 July - 30 June
calendar year
Public debt7.5% of GDP (2008 est.)
8.4% of GDP (2006 est.)
99.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
99.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$2.044 billion (2013 est.)
$1.252 trillion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues25.7% of GDP (2008 est.)
36.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)1.3% of GDP (2008 est.)
-4.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

Energy

GibraltarSpain
Electricity - production200 million kWh (2014 est.)
264 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption200 million kWh (2014 est.)
234 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
16 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
4,652 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
1.349 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
54,230 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
150 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
2.548 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
24 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
27.23 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
8.219 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
36.38 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity43,000 kW (2014 est.)
102.3 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
43% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
19.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
7.7% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
30% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
1.352 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption80,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
1.241 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
416,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports76,680 bbl/day (2013 est.)
302,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy3.6 million Mt (2013 est.)
276 million Mt (2013 est.)

Telecommunications

GibraltarSpain
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 23,400
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 80 (July 2014 est.)
total subscriptions: 19,180,192
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 40 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 38,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 130 (July 2014 est.)
total: 50.926 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities
domestic: automatic exchange facilities
international: country code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: well-developed, modern facilities
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 145 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 34; submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries (2015)
Internet country code.gi
.es
Internet userstotal: 24,000
percent of population: 82% (July 2015 est.)
total: 37.886 million
percent of population: 78.7% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediaGibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) provides TV and radio broadcasting services via 1 TV station and 4 radio stations; British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) operates 1 radio station; broadcasts from Spanish radio and TV stations are accessible (2008)
a mixture of both publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; overall, hundreds of TV channels are available including national, regional, local, public, and international channels; satellite and cable TV systems available; multiple national radio networks, a large number of regional radio networks, and a larger number of local radio stations; overall, hundreds of radio stations (2008)

Transportation

GibraltarSpain
Roadwaystotal: 29 km
paved: 29 km (2007)
total: 683,175 km
paved: 683,175 km (includes 16,205 km of expressways) (2011)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Gibraltar
major seaport(s): Algeciras, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Tarragona, Valencia (all in Spain); Las Palmas, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (in the Canary Islands)
container port(s) (TEUs): Algeciras (3,608,301), Barcelona (2,033,747), Valencia (4,327,371); Las Palmas (1,287,389)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Mugardos, Sagunto
Merchant marinetotal: 267
by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 146, chemical tanker 64, container 28, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 14, roll on/roll off 2, vehicle carrier 8
foreign-owned: 254 (Belgium 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 7, Finland 2, Germany 123, Greece 8, Iceland 1, Italy 4, Jersey 1, Morocco 4, Netherlands 34, Norway 46, Sweden 11, UAE 5, UK 6)
registered in other countries: 6 (Liberia 5, Panama 1) (2010)
total: 132
by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 19, chemical tanker 8, container 5, liquefied gas 12, passenger/cargo 43, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 9, vehicle carrier 7
foreign-owned: 27 (Canada 4, Germany 4, Italy 1, Mexico 1, Norway 10, Russia 6, Switzerland 1)
registered in other countries: 103 (Angola 1, Argentina 3, Bahamas 6, Brazil 12, Cabo Verde 1, Cyprus 6, Ireland 1, Malta 8, Morocco 9, Panama 30, Peru 1, Portugal 18, Uruguay 5, Venezuela 1, unknown 1) (2010)
Airports1 (2013)
150 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
total: 99
over 3,047 m: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 24
under 914 m: 24 (2013)

Military

GibraltarSpain
Military branchesRoyal Gibraltar Regiment (2013)
Spanish Armed Forces: Army (Ejercito de Tierra), Spanish Navy (Armada Espanola, AE, includes Marine Corps), Spanish Air Force (Ejercito del Aire Espanola, EdA) (2013)

Transnational Issues

GibraltarSpain
Disputes - international"in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any ""shared sovereignty"" arrangement; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar even greater autonomy
"
"in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any ""shared sovereignty"" arrangement; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; after voters in the UK chose to leave the EU in a June 2016 referendum, Spain again proposed shared sovereignty of Gibraltar; UK officials rejected Spain’s joint sovereignty proposal; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); Morocco serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
"

Source: CIA Factbook