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Ghana vs. Togo

Introduction

GhanaTogo
BackgroundFormed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Ghana endured a series of coups before Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS took power in 1981 and banned political parties. After approving a new constitution and restoring multiparty politics in 1992, RAWLINGS won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996 but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR of the opposition New Patriotic Party (NPP) succeeded him and was reelected in 2004. John Atta MILLS of the National Democratic Congress won the 2008 presidential election and took over as head of state, but he died in July 2012 and was constitutionally succeeded by his vice president, John Dramani MAHAMA, who subsequently won the December 2012 presidential election. In 2016, however, Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO of the NPP defeated MAHAMA, marking the third time that the Ghana’s presidency has changed parties since the return to democracy.
French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multi-party elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has been in power almost continually since 1967 and its successor, the Union for the Republic, maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. Since 2007, President GNASSINGBE has started the country along a gradual path to political reconciliation and democratic reform, and Togo has held multiple presidential and legislative elections that were deemed generally free and fair by international observers. Despite those positive moves, political reconciliation has moved slowly and many Togolese complain that important political measures such as presidential term limits and electoral reforms remain undone, leaving the country’s politics in a lethargic state. Internationally, Togo is still known as a country where the same family has been in power for five decades.

Geography

GhanaTogo
LocationWestern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo
Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Geographic coordinates8 00 N, 2 00 W
8 00 N, 1 10 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 238,533 sq km
land: 227,533 sq km
water: 11,000 sq km
total: 56,785 sq km
land: 54,385 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Oregon
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundariestotal: 2,420 km
border countries (3): Burkina Faso 602 km, Cote d'Ivoire 720 km, Togo 1,098 km
total: 1,880 km
border countries (3): Benin 651 km, Burkina Faso 131 km, Ghana 1,098 km
Coastline539 km
56 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
territorial sea: 30 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatetropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrainmostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 190 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Afadjato 885 m
mean elevation: 236 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
Natural resourcesgold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone
phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 69.1%
arable land 20.7%; permanent crops 11.9%; permanent pasture 36.5%
forest: 21.2%
other: 9.7% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 67.4%
arable land 45.2%; permanent crops 3.8%; permanent pasture 18.4%
forest: 4.9%
other: 27.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land340 sq km (2012)
70 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsdry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds from January to March; droughts
hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Environment - current issuesrecurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteLake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake (manmade reservoir) by surface area (8,482 sq km; 3,275 sq mi); the lake was created following the completion of the Akosombo Dam in 1965, which holds back the White Volta and Black Volta Rivers
the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna

Demographics

GhanaTogo
Population26,908,262
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
7,756,937
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 38.2% (male 5,164,505/female 5,113,185)
15-24 years: 18.66% (male 2,498,185/female 2,522,353)
25-54 years: 34.05% (male 4,445,321/female 4,716,311)
55-64 years: 4.91% (male 642,984/female 678,784)
65 years and over: 4.19% (male 520,589/female 606,045) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 40.44% (male 1,573,363/female 1,563,267)
15-24 years: 19.34% (male 749,002/female 751,571)
25-54 years: 32.58% (male 1,255,524/female 1,271,804)
55-64 years: 4.27% (male 156,249/female 175,089)
65 years and over: 3.37% (male 112,845/female 148,223) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 21 years
male: 20.5 years
female: 21.5 years (2016 est.)
total: 19.7 years
male: 19.4 years
female: 20 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.18% (2016 est.)
2.66% (2016 est.)
Birth rate30.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
33.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 36.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 40.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 32.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 43.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 50.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 37 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 66.6 years
male: 64.1 years
female: 69.1 years (2016 est.)
total population: 65 years
male: 62.3 years
female: 67.7 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate4.03 children born/woman (2016 est.)
4.43 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate1.61% (2015 est.)
2.4% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Ghanaian(s)
adjective: Ghanaian
noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
Ethnic groupsAkan 47.5%, Mole-Dagbon 16.6%, Ewe 13.9%, Ga-Dangme 7.4%, Gurma 5.7%, Guan 3.7%, Grusi 2.5%, Mande 1.1%, other 1.4% (2010 est.)
African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS274,600 (2015 est.)
106,300 (2015 est.)
ReligionsChristian 71.2% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 28.3%, Protestant 18.4%, Catholic 13.1%, other 11.4%), Muslim 17.6%, traditional 5.2%, other 0.8%, none 5.2% (2010 est.)
Christian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%
HIV/AIDS - deaths12,600 (2015 est.)
5,100 (2015 est.)
LanguagesAsante 16%, Ewe 14%, Fante 11.6%, Boron (Brong) 4.9%, Dagomba 4.4%, Dangme 4.2%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.9%, Kokomba 3.5%, Akyem 3.2%, Ga 3.1%, other 31.2%
note: English is the official language (2010 est.)
French (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.6%
male: 82%
female: 71.4% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 66.5%
male: 78.3%
female: 55.3% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2015)
total: 12 years
male: NA
female: NA (2011)
Education expenditures6.2% of GDP (2014)
5.3% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 54% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 40% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.83% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 92.6% of population
rural: 84% of population
total: 88.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.4% of population
rural: 16% of population
total: 11.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 91.4% of population
rural: 44.2% of population
total: 63.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 8.6% of population
rural: 55.8% of population
total: 36.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 20.2% of population
rural: 8.6% of population
total: 14.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 79.8% of population
rural: 91.4% of population
total: 85.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 24.7% of population
rural: 2.9% of population
total: 11.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 75.3% of population
rural: 97.1% of population
total: 88.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationKumasi 2.599 million; ACCRA (capital) 2.277 million (2015)
LOME (capital) 956,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate319 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
368 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight11% (2014)
16.2% (2014)
Health expenditures3.6% of GDP (2014)
5.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.1 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density0.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate10.9% (2014)
6.4% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 1,806,750
percentage: 34% (2006 est.)
total number: 774,801
percentage: 47% (2010 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth22.6 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)
21 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013/14 est.)
Demographic profileGhana has a young age structure, with approximately 57% of the population under the age of 25. Its total fertility rate fell significantly during the 1980s and 1990s but has stalled at around four children per woman for the last few years. Fertility remains higher in the northern region than the Greater Accra region. On average, desired fertility has remained stable for several years; urban dwellers want fewer children than rural residents. Increased life expectancy, due to better health care, nutrition, and hygiene, and reduced fertility have increased Ghana’s share of elderly persons; Ghana’s proportion of persons aged 60+ is among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty has declined in Ghana, but it remains pervasive in the northern region, which is susceptible to droughts and floods and has less access to transportation infrastructure, markets, fertile farming land, and industrial centers. The northern region also has lower school enrollment, higher illiteracy, and fewer opportunities for women.
Ghana was a country of immigration in the early years after its 1957 independence, attracting labor migrants largely from Nigeria and other neighboring countries to mine minerals and harvest cocoa – immigrants composed about 12% of Ghana’s population in 1960. In the late 1960s, worsening economic and social conditions discouraged immigration, and hundreds of thousands of immigrants, mostly Nigerians, were expelled.
During the 1970s, severe drought and an economic downturn transformed Ghana into a country of emigration; neighboring Cote d’Ivoire was the initial destination. Later, hundreds of thousands of Ghanaians migrated to Nigeria to work in its booming oil industry, but most were deported in 1983 and 1985 as oil prices plummeted. Many Ghanaians then turned to more distant destinations, including other parts of Africa, Europe, and North America, but the majority continued to migrate within West Africa. Since the 1990s, increased emigration of skilled Ghanaians, especially to the US and the UK, drained the country of its health care and education professionals. Internally, poverty and other developmental disparities continue to drive Ghanaians from the north to the south, particularly to its urban centers.
Togo’s population is estimated to have grown to four times its size between 1960 and 2010. With nearly 60% of its populace under the age of 25 and a high annual growth rate attributed largely to high fertility, Togo’s population is likely to continue to expand for the foreseeable future. Reducing fertility, boosting job creation, and improving education will be essential to reducing the country’s high poverty rate. In 2008, Togo eliminated primary school enrollment fees, leading to higher enrollment but increased pressure on limited classroom space, teachers, and materials. Togo has a good chance of achieving universal primary education, but educational quality, the underrepresentation of girls, and the low rate of enrollment in secondary and tertiary schools remain concerns.
Togo is both a country of emigration and asylum. In the early 1990s, southern Togo suffered from the economic decline of the phosphate sector and ethnic and political repression at the hands of dictator Gnassingbe EYADEMA and his northern, Kabye-dominated administration. The turmoil led 300,000 to 350,000 predominantly southern Togolese to flee to Benin and Ghana, with most not returning home until relative stability was restored in 1997. In 2005, another outflow of 40,000 Togolese to Benin and Ghana occurred when violence broke out between the opposition and security forces over the disputed election of EYADEMA’s son Faure GNASSINGBE to the presidency. About half of the refugees reluctantly returned home in 2006, many still fearing for their safety. Despite ethnic tensions and periods of political unrest, Togo in 2016 was home to more than 18,000 refugees from Ghana.
Contraceptive prevalence rate34.7% (2015)
19.9% (2013/14)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 73
youth dependency ratio: 67.2
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9
potential support ratio: 17 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 81.8
youth dependency ratio: 76.8
elderly dependency ratio: 5
potential support ratio: 19.9 (2015 est.)

Government

GhanaTogo
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Ghana
conventional short form: Ghana
former: Gold Coast
etymology: named for the medieval West African kingdom of the same name, but whose location was actually further north than the modern country
"conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique Togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togoland
etymology: derived from the Ewe words ""to"" (water) and ""go"" (shore) to give the sense of ""by the water""; originally, this designation applied to the town of Togo (now Togoville) on the northern shore of Lake Togo, but the name was eventually extended to the entire nation
"
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Accra
geographic coordinates: 5 33 N, 0 13 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Lome
geographic coordinates: 6 07 N, 1 13 E
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western
5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes
Independence6 March 1957 (from the UK)
27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
National holidayIndependence Day, 6 March (1957)
Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest drafted 31 March 1992, approved and promulgated 28 April 1992, entered into force 7 January 1993; amended 1996 (2016)
several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1992, effective 14 October 1992; amended 2002, 2007 (2016)
Legal systemmixed system of English common law and customary law
customary law system
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (NPP) (since 7 January 2017); the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (NPP) (since 7 January 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; nominated by the president, approved by Parliament
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote; a runoff between the top two candidates may occur if no candidate earns 50 percent plus one in the first round; eligible for a second term; election last held on 7 December 2016 (next to be held in December 2020)
election results: Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO elected president; percent of vote - Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (NPP) 53.8%, John Dramani MAHAMA (NDC) 44.4%, other 1.8%
chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Komi KLASSOU (since 5 June 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 25 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE (UNIR) 58.8%, Jean-Pierre FABRE (ANC) 35.2%, Tchaboure GOGUE 4%, other 2%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Parliament (275 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 7 December 2016 (next to be held in December 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NPP 171, NDC 104
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (91 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 25 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - UNIR 46.7%, CST 28.9%, Rainbow Alliance 10.8%, UFC 7.7%, independent 0.8%, other 5.1%; seats by party - UNIR 62, CST 19, Rainbow Alliance 6, UFC 3, independent 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of a chief justice and 12 justices)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president in consultation with the Council of State (a small advisory body of prominent citizens) and with the approval of Parliament; other justices appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Council (an 18-member independent body of judicial, military and police officials, and presidential nominees) and on the advice of the Council of State; justices can retire at age 60, with compulsory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Circuit Court; District Court; regional tribunals
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into criminal and administrative chambers, each with a chamber president and advisors); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges including the court president)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by decree of the president of the republic upon the proposal of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy, a 9-member judicial, advisory, and disciplinary body; other judge appointments and judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: Court of Assizes (sessions court); Appeal Court; tribunals of first instance (divided into civil, commercial, and correctional chambers; Court of State Security; military tribunal
Political parties and leadersConvention People's Party or CPP
National Democratic Congress or NDC
New Patriotic Party or NPP
People's National Convention or PNC
Peoples Progressive Party or PPP
note: listed are five of the more popular political parties as of May 2017; there are more than 20 registered parties
Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yaovi AGBOYIBO]
Alliance of Democrats for Integral Development or ADDI [Tchaboure GOUGI]
Combat for Political Change in 2015 or CAP 2015 [Jean-Pierre FABRE]
Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA [Brigitte ADJAMAGBO-JOHNSON]
Democrastic Forces for the Republic or FDR [Dodji APEVON]
National Alliance for Change or ANC [Jean-Pierre FABRE]
Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP [Edem KODJO]
Rainbow Alliance (a coalition including CAR and CDPA) [Brigitte ADJAMAGBO-JOHNSON]
Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR [Abi TCHESSA]
The Togolese Party [Nathaniel OLYMPIO]
Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]
Union for the Republic or UNIR [Faure GNASSINGBE]
Political pressure groups and leadersPublic Policy Think Tanks: Institute for Democratic Governance (IDEG); IMANI Center for Policy and Education; Ghana Center for Democratic Development; Institute for Economic Affairs
Professional and Trade Groups: Ghana Bar Association; Ghana Trades Union Congress; American Chamber of Commerce; British Chamber of Commerce; and a host of religious organizations
other: Also, a wide range of international and domestic, human rights and policy advocacy groups, environmental groups, business organizations, traditional leaders and youth groups
NA
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires E.B. ASARE-ASIEDU (since January 2017)
chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520
FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527
consulate(s) general: New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Frederic Edem HEGBE (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Robert P. JACKSON (since 4 February 2016)
embassy: 24 Fourth Circular Rd., Cantonments, Accra
mailing address: P.O. Box 194, Accra
telephone: [233] 030-274-1000
FAX: [233] 030-274-1389
chief of mission: Ambassador David R. GILMORE (since December 2015)
embassy: 4332 Blvd. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Cite OUA, Lome
mailing address: B.P. 852, Lome; 2300 Lome Place, Washington, DC 20521-2300
telephone: [228] 2261-5470
FAX: [228] 2261-5501
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green, with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; red symbolizes the blood shed for independence, yellow represents the country's mineral wealth, while green stands for its forests and natural wealth; the black star is said to be the lodestar of African freedom
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band
five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; a white five-pointed star on a red square is in the upper hoist-side corner; the five horizontal stripes stand for the five different regions of the country; the red square is meant to express the loyalty and patriotism of the people; green symbolizes hope, fertility, and agriculture; yellow represents mineral wealth and faith that hard work and strength will bring prosperity; the star symbolizes life, purity, peace, dignity, and Togo's independence
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
National anthem"name: ""God Bless Our Homeland Ghana""
lyrics/music: unknown/Philip GBEHO
note: music adopted 1957, lyrics adopted 1966; the lyrics were changed twice, in 1960 when a republic was declared and after a 1966 coup
"
"name: ""Salut a toi, pays de nos aieux"" (Hail to Thee, Land of Our Forefathers)
lyrics/music: Alex CASIMIR-DOSSEH
note: adopted 1960, restored 1992; this anthem was replaced by another during one-party rule between 1979 and 1992
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)black star, golden eagle; national colors: red, yellow, green, black
lion; national colors: green, yellow, red, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Ghana
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Togo
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

GhanaTogo
Economy - overviewGhana's economy was strengthened by a quarter century of relatively sound management, a competitive business environment, and sustained reductions in poverty levels, but in recent years has suffered the consequences of loose fiscal policy, high budget and current account deficits, and a depreciating currency. Ghana has a market-based economy with relatively few policy barriers to trade and investment in comparison with other countries in the region, and Ghana is well-endowed with natural resources.

Agriculture accounts for about 20% of GDP and employs more than half of the workforce, mainly small landholders. Gold and cocoa exports, and individual remittances, are major sources of foreign exchange. Expansion of Ghana’s nascent oil industry has boosted economic growth, but the fall in oil prices since 2015 reduced by half Ghana’s oil revenue. Production at Jubilee, Ghana's offshore oilfield, began in mid-December 2010. The country’s first gas processing plant at Atubao is also producing natural gas from the Jubilee field, providing power to several of Ghana’s thermal power plants.

As of 2016, key economic concerns facing the government include the lack of reliable electricity and the high debt burden, even amidst strong GDP growth. While the MAHAMA administration attempted to ameliorate these concerns, little progress has been made, leaving much work to be done in 2017 by the incoming AKUFO-ADDO administration. Ghana signed a $920 million extended credit facility with the IMF in April 2015 to help it address its growing economic crisis. The IMF fiscal targets require Ghana to reduce the deficit by cutting subsidies, decreasing the bloated public sector wage bill, strengthening revenue administration, and boosting tax revenues. Priorities for the AKUFO-ADDO’s administration include rescheduling some of Ghana’s $31 billion debt, stimulating economic growth, reducing inflation, and stabilizing the currency. Prospects for new oil and gas production, potentially higher global gold prices, and follow-through on tighter fiscal management are likely to help Ghana’s economy in 2017.
Togo is enjoying a period of steady economic growth fueled by political stability and a concerted effort by the government to modernize the country’s commercial infrastructure. The country has recently completed an ambitious large-scale infrastructure improvement program, including new principal roads, a new airport terminal, and a new sea-port. The economy depends heavily on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for around 60% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton and other agricultural products generate about 20% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is among the world's largest producers of phosphate and seeks to develop its carbonate phosphate reserves, which provide more than 20% of export earnings.

The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Togo completed its IMF Extended Credit Facility in 2011 and reached a Heavily Indebted Poor Country debt relief completion point in 2010 at which 95% of the country's debt was forgiven. Togo continues to work with the IMF on structural reforms, and is currently finalizing IMF approval for an agreement on an Extended Credit Facility arrangement consisting of a three-year $238 million loan package . Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors.

Togo’s 2016 economic growth remained steady at 5.3%, largely driven by infusions of foreign aid, infrastructure investment in the port and mineral sectors, and improvements in the business climate. Foreign direct investment inflows have slowed in recent years.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$120.8 billion (2016 est.)
$116.9 billion (2015 est.)
$112.5 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$11.61 billion (2016 est.)
$11.02 billion (2015 est.)
$10.46 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.3% (2016 est.)
3.9% (2015 est.)
4% (2014 est.)
5.3% (2016 est.)
5.4% (2015 est.)
5.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$4,400 (2016 est.)
$4,300 (2015 est.)
$4,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1,500 (2016 est.)
$1,500 (2015 est.)
$1,500 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 19.5%
industry: 24%
services: 56.4% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 27.5%
industry: 21.3%
services: 51.2% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line24.2% (2013 est.)
55.1% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 32.8% (2006)
lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 27.1% (2006)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)17.8% (2016 est.)
17.2% (2015 est.)
2.2% (2016 est.)
1.8% (2015 est.)
Labor force11.99 million (2016 est.)
2.595 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 44.7%
industry: 14.4%
services: 40.9% (2013 est.)
agriculture: 65%
industry: 5%
services: 30% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate11.9% (2015 est.)
5.2% (2013 est.)
NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index42.3 (2012-13)
41.9 (2005-06)
46 (2011)
Budgetrevenues: $8.552 billion
expenditures: $12.27 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $1.14 billion
expenditures: $1.377 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesmining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building, petroleum
phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages
Industrial production growth rate-0.5% (2016 est.)
7.1% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscocoa, rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber
coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (manioc, tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
Exports$11.06 billion (2016 est.)
$10.36 billion (2015 est.)
$1.2 billion (2016 est.)
$1.246 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesoil, gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds, horticultural products
reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
Exports - partnersIndia 27.4%, Switzerland 11.8%, China 10.2%, France 5.5% (2015)
India 13.7%, Burkina Faso 11.5%, China 11.4%, Benin 9.7%, Ghana 9.1%, Lebanon 8.4%, Nigeria 6.2%, Niger 6% (2015)
Imports$12.75 billion (2016 est.)
$13.47 billion (2015 est.)
$1.852 billion (2016 est.)
$1.881 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiescapital equipment, refined petroleum, foodstuffs
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
Imports - partnersChina 32.6%, Nigeria 14.1%, Netherlands 5.5%, US 5.5% (2015)
China 22.8%, Belgium 20.2%, Netherlands 11.9%, France 6.6%, India 4.8%, Singapore 4.4% (2015)
Debt - external$21.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$19.15 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.173 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.034 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratescedis (GHC) per US dollar -
3.992 (2016 est.)
3.712 (2015 est.)
3.712 (2014 est.)
2.895 (2013 est.)
1.8 (2012 est.)
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
628.16 (2016 est.)
591.45 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt73.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
71.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
63.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
67.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$6.137 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.885 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$647.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$574 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$2.784 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.872 billion (2015 est.)
-$433 million (2016 est.)
-$461 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$42.76 billion (2016 est.)
$4.52 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$12.55 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.05 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.465 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$NA
Central bank discount rate25.5% (31 December 2016)
26% (31 December 2015)
2.5% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate31.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
28.6% (31 December 2015 est.)
NA%
Stock of domestic credit$13.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.93 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.977 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.65 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$5.914 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.736 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.315 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.14 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$13.02 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.42 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.599 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.184 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues20% of GDP (2016 est.)
25.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-8.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
-5.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 66.6%
government consumption: 19.6%
investment in fixed capital: 24.5%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 36.7%
imports of goods and services: -48.2% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 107%
government consumption: 16.2%
investment in fixed capital: 21%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 49.3%
imports of goods and services: -93.5% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
17% of GDP (2014 est.)
18% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
13.6% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

GhanaTogo
Electricity - production11.5 billion kWh (2015 est.)
100 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption9.6 billion kWh (2015 est.)
1.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports552 million kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports223 million kWh (2015 est.)
1.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production88,250 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports26,040 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports99,890 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves660 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves22.65 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production63.54 million cu m (2016 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption655 million cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports584 million cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity3.656 million kW (2015 est.)
86,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels56.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
21.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants43.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
78.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production10,640 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption83,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
13,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports1,977 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports72,850 bbl/day (2013 est.)
12,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy11 million Mt (2013 est.)
1.8 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 7,300,000
electrification - total population: 72%
electrification - urban areas: 92%
electrification - rural areas: 50% (2013)
population without electricity: 5,000,000
electrification - total population: 27%
electrification - urban areas: 35%
electrification - rural areas: 21% (2013)

Telecommunications

GhanaTogo
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 275,570
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 52,690
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 35.008 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 133 (July 2015 est.)
total: 4.657 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 62 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed; outdated and unreliable fixed-line infrastructure heavily concentrated in Accra
domestic: competition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth with a subscribership of more than 130 per 100 persons and rising
international: country code - 233; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC, Main One, and GLO-1 fiber-optic submarine cables that provide connectivity to South Africa, Europe, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors (2015)
general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system
domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 60 telephones per 100 persons with mobile-cellular use predominating
international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie (2015)
Internet country code.gh
.tg
Internet userstotal: 6.181 million
percent of population: 23.5% (July 2015 est.)
total: 538,000
percent of population: 7.1% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-owned TV station, 2 state-owned radio networks; several privately owned TV stations and a large number of privately owned radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are accessible; several cable and satellite TV subscription services are obtainable (2007)
1 state-owned TV station with multiple transmission sites; 5 private TV stations broadcast locally; cable TV service is available; state-owned radio network with multiple stations; several dozen private radio stations and a few community radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available (2017)

Transportation

GhanaTogo
Railwaystotal: 947 km
narrow gauge: 947 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
total: 568 km
narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 109,515 km
paved: 13,787 km
unpaved: 95,728 km (2009)
total: 11,652 km
paved: 2,447 km
unpaved: 9,205 km (2007)
Waterways1,293 km (168 km for launches and lighters on Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers; 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways on Lake Volta) (2011)
50 km (seasonally navigable by small craft on the Mono River depending on rainfall) (2011)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Takoradi, Tema
major seaport(s): Kpeme, Lome
Merchant marinetotal: 4
by type: petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 3
foreign-owned: 2 (Brazil 1, South Korea 1) (2010)
total: 61
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 38, carrier 3, chemical tanker 5, container 3, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 21 (China 1, Lebanon 6, Romania 1, Syria 6, Turkey 4, UAE 1, US 1, Yemen 1) (2010)
Airports10 (2013)
8 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
total: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Military

GhanaTogo
Military branchesGhana Army, Ghana Navy, Ghana Air Force (2012)
Togolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Togolaise, FAT): Togolese Army (l'Armee de Terre); update State, April 2017, Togolese Navy (Forces Naval Togolaises), Togolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Togolaise, TAF), National Gendarmerie (2017)
Military service age and obligation18-26 years of age for voluntary military service, with basic education certificate; no conscription; must be HIV/AIDS negative (2012)
18 years of age for military service; 2-year service obligation; currently the military is only an all-volunteer force (2017)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.49% of GDP (2015)
0.48% of GDP (2014)
0.53% of GDP (2013)
0.8% of GDP (2012)
0.59% of GDP (2011)
1.71% of GDP (2015)
1.85% of GDP (2014)
1.77% of GDP (2013)
1.63% of GDP (2012)
1.57% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

GhanaTogo
Disputes - internationaldisputed maritime border between Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire
in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River
Illicit drugsillicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; major transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and, to a lesser extent, South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US; widespread crime and money-laundering problem, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center; significant domestic cocaine and cannabis use
transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 6,489 (Cote d'Ivoire; flight from 2010 post-election fighting) (2017)
refugees (country of origin): 9,648 (Ghana) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook