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Ghana vs. Cote d'Ivoire

Introduction

GhanaCote d'Ivoire
BackgroundFormed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Ghana endured a series of coups before Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS took power in 1981 and banned political parties. After approving a new constitution and restoring multiparty politics in 1992, RAWLINGS won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996 but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR of the opposition New Patriotic Party (NPP) succeeded him and was reelected in 2004. John Atta MILLS of the National Democratic Congress won the 2008 presidential election and took over as head of state, but he died in July 2012 and was constitutionally succeeded by his vice president, John Dramani MAHAMA, who subsequently won the December 2012 presidential election. In 2016, however, Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO of the NPP defeated MAHAMA, marking the third time that the Ghana’s presidency has changed parties since the return to democracy.
Close ties to France following independence in 1960, the development of cocoa production for export, and foreign investment all made Cote d'Ivoire one of the most prosperous of the West African states but did not protect it from political turmoil. In December 1999, a military coup - the first ever in Cote d'Ivoire's history - overthrew the government. Junta leader Robert GUEI blatantly rigged elections held in late 2000 and declared himself the winner. Popular protest forced him to step aside and an election brought Laurent GBAGBO into power. Ivoirian dissidents and disaffected members of the military launched a failed coup attempt in September 2002 that developed into a rebellion and then a civil war. In 2003, a cease-fire resulted in the country being divided with the rebels holding the north, the government the south, and peacekeeping forces a buffer zone between the two. In March 2007, President GBAGBO and former New Forces rebel leader Guillaume SORO signed an agreement in which SORO joined GBAGBO's government as prime minister and the two agreed to reunite the country by dismantling the buffer zone, integrating rebel forces into the national armed forces, and holding elections. Difficulties in preparing electoral registers delayed balloting until 2010. In November 2010, Alassane Dramane OUATTARA won the presidential election over GBAGBO, but GBAGBO refused to hand over power, resulting in a five-month resumption of violent conflict. In April 2011, after widespread fighting, GBAGBO was formally forced from office by armed OUATTARA supporters with the help of UN and French forces. The UN peacekeeping mission is drawing down and is scheduled to depart in June 2017. OUATTARA is focused on rebuilding the country's economy and infrastructure while rebuilding the security forces. GBAGBO is in The Hague on trial for crimes against humanity.

Geography

GhanaCote d'Ivoire
LocationWestern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana and Liberia
Geographic coordinates8 00 N, 2 00 W
8 00 N, 5 00 W
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 238,533 sq km
land: 227,533 sq km
water: 11,000 sq km
total: 322,463 sq km
land: 318,003 sq km
water: 4,460 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Oregon
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundariestotal: 2,420 km
border countries (3): Burkina Faso 602 km, Cote d'Ivoire 720 km, Togo 1,098 km
total: 3,458 km
border countries (5): Burkina Faso 545 km, Ghana 720 km, Guinea 816 km, Liberia 778 km, Mali 599 km
Coastline539 km
515 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climatetropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)
Terrainmostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 190 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Afadjato 885 m
mean elevation: 250 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Gulf of Guinea 0 m
highest point: Monts Nimba 1,752 m
Natural resourcesgold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone
petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper, gold, nickel, tantalum, silica sand, clay, cocoa beans, coffee, palm oil, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 69.1%
arable land 20.7%; permanent crops 11.9%; permanent pasture 36.5%
forest: 21.2%
other: 9.7% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 64.8%
arable land 9.1%; permanent crops 14.2%; permanent pasture 41.5%
forest: 32.7%
other: 2.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land340 sq km (2012)
730 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsdry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds from January to March; droughts
coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during the rainy season torrential flooding is possible
Environment - current issuesrecurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
deforestation (most of the country's forests - once the largest in West Africa - have been heavily logged); water pollution from sewage and industrial and agricultural effluents
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteLake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake (manmade reservoir) by surface area (8,482 sq km; 3,275 sq mi); the lake was created following the completion of the Akosombo Dam in 1965, which holds back the White Volta and Black Volta Rivers
most of the inhabitants live along the sandy coastal region; apart from the capital area, the forested interior is sparsely populated

Demographics

GhanaCote d'Ivoire
Population26,908,262
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
23,740,424
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 38.2% (male 5,164,505/female 5,113,185)
15-24 years: 18.66% (male 2,498,185/female 2,522,353)
25-54 years: 34.05% (male 4,445,321/female 4,716,311)
55-64 years: 4.91% (male 642,984/female 678,784)
65 years and over: 4.19% (male 520,589/female 606,045) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 37.45% (male 4,483,215/female 4,407,595)
15-24 years: 20.93% (male 2,504,188/female 2,463,970)
25-54 years: 34.05% (male 4,133,975/female 3,950,734)
55-64 years: 4.15% (male 493,722/female 491,230)
65 years and over: 3.42% (male 389,551/female 422,244) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 21 years
male: 20.5 years
female: 21.5 years (2016 est.)
total: 20.7 years
male: 20.8 years
female: 20.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.18% (2016 est.)
1.88% (2016 est.)
Birth rate30.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
28.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 36.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 40.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 32.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 57.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 63.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 51.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 66.6 years
male: 64.1 years
female: 69.1 years (2016 est.)
total population: 58.7 years
male: 57.5 years
female: 59.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate4.03 children born/woman (2016 est.)
3.46 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate1.61% (2015 est.)
3.17% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Ghanaian(s)
adjective: Ghanaian
noun: Ivoirian(s)
adjective: Ivoirian
Ethnic groupsAkan 47.5%, Mole-Dagbon 16.6%, Ewe 13.9%, Ga-Dangme 7.4%, Gurma 5.7%, Guan 3.7%, Grusi 2.5%, Mande 1.1%, other 1.4% (2010 est.)
Akan 28.8%, Voltaique or Gur 16.1%, Northern Mande 14.5%, Kru 8.5%, Southern Mande 6.9%, unspecified 0.9%, non-Ivoirian 42.3% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS274,600 (2015 est.)
464,700 (2015 est.)
ReligionsChristian 71.2% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 28.3%, Protestant 18.4%, Catholic 13.1%, other 11.4%), Muslim 17.6%, traditional 5.2%, other 0.8%, none 5.2% (2010 est.)
Muslim 42.9%, Catholic 17.2%, Evangelical 11.8%, Methodist 1.7%, other Christian 3.2%, animist 3.6%, other religion 0.5%, none 19.1%
note: the majority of foreign migrant workers are Muslim (72.7%) and Christian (17.7%) (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths12,600 (2015 est.)
25,100 (2015 est.)
LanguagesAsante 16%, Ewe 14%, Fante 11.6%, Boron (Brong) 4.9%, Dagomba 4.4%, Dangme 4.2%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.9%, Kokomba 3.5%, Akyem 3.2%, Ga 3.1%, other 31.2%
note: English is the official language (2010 est.)
French (official), 60 native dialects of which Dioula is the most widely spoken
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.6%
male: 82%
female: 71.4% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 43.1%
male: 53.1%
female: 32.5% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2015)
total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2015)
Education expenditures6.2% of GDP (2014)
4.7% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 54% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 54.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.69% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 92.6% of population
rural: 84% of population
total: 88.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.4% of population
rural: 16% of population
total: 11.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 93.1% of population
rural: 68.8% of population
total: 81.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.9% of population
rural: 31.2% of population
total: 18.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 20.2% of population
rural: 8.6% of population
total: 14.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 79.8% of population
rural: 91.4% of population
total: 85.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 32.8% of population
rural: 10.3% of population
total: 22.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 67.2% of population
rural: 89.7% of population
total: 77.5% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationKumasi 2.599 million; ACCRA (capital) 2.277 million (2015)
YAMOUSSOUKRO (capital) 259,000 (2014); ABIDJAN (seat of government) 4.86 million; Bouake 762,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate319 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
645 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight11% (2014)
15.7% (2012)
Health expenditures3.6% of GDP (2014)
5.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.1 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density0.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.4 beds/1,000 population (2006)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate10.9% (2014)
8% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 1,806,750
percentage: 34% (2006 est.)
total number: 1,796,802
percentage: 35% (2006 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth22.6 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)
19.8 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011/12 est.)
Demographic profileGhana has a young age structure, with approximately 57% of the population under the age of 25. Its total fertility rate fell significantly during the 1980s and 1990s but has stalled at around four children per woman for the last few years. Fertility remains higher in the northern region than the Greater Accra region. On average, desired fertility has remained stable for several years; urban dwellers want fewer children than rural residents. Increased life expectancy, due to better health care, nutrition, and hygiene, and reduced fertility have increased Ghana’s share of elderly persons; Ghana’s proportion of persons aged 60+ is among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty has declined in Ghana, but it remains pervasive in the northern region, which is susceptible to droughts and floods and has less access to transportation infrastructure, markets, fertile farming land, and industrial centers. The northern region also has lower school enrollment, higher illiteracy, and fewer opportunities for women.
Ghana was a country of immigration in the early years after its 1957 independence, attracting labor migrants largely from Nigeria and other neighboring countries to mine minerals and harvest cocoa – immigrants composed about 12% of Ghana’s population in 1960. In the late 1960s, worsening economic and social conditions discouraged immigration, and hundreds of thousands of immigrants, mostly Nigerians, were expelled.
During the 1970s, severe drought and an economic downturn transformed Ghana into a country of emigration; neighboring Cote d’Ivoire was the initial destination. Later, hundreds of thousands of Ghanaians migrated to Nigeria to work in its booming oil industry, but most were deported in 1983 and 1985 as oil prices plummeted. Many Ghanaians then turned to more distant destinations, including other parts of Africa, Europe, and North America, but the majority continued to migrate within West Africa. Since the 1990s, increased emigration of skilled Ghanaians, especially to the US and the UK, drained the country of its health care and education professionals. Internally, poverty and other developmental disparities continue to drive Ghanaians from the north to the south, particularly to its urban centers.
Cote d’Ivoire’s population is likely to continue growing for the foreseeable future because almost 60% of the populace is younger than 25, the total fertility rate is holding steady at about 3.5 children per woman, and contraceptive use is under 20%. The country will need to improve education, health care, and gender equality in order to turn its large and growing youth cohort into human capital. Even prior to 2010 unrest that shuttered schools for months, access to education was poor, especially for women. As of 2015, only 53% of men and 33% of women were literate. The lack of educational attainment contributes to Cote d’Ivoire’s high rates of unskilled labor, adolescent pregnancy, and HIV/AIDS prevalence.
Following its independence in 1960, Cote d’Ivoire’s stability and the blossoming of its labor-intensive cocoa and coffee industries in the southwest made it an attractive destination for migrants from other parts of the country and its neighbors, particularly Burkina Faso. The HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY administration continued the French colonial policy of encouraging labor immigration by offering liberal land ownership laws. Foreigners from West Africa, Europe (mainly France), and Lebanon composed about 25% of the population by 1998.
Ongoing economic decline since the 1980s and the power struggle after HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY’s death in 1993 ushered in the politics of “Ivoirite,” institutionalizing an Ivoirian identity that further marginalized northern Ivoirians and scapegoated immigrants. The hostile Muslim north-Christian south divide snowballed into a 2002 civil war, pushing tens of thousands of foreign migrants, Liberian refugees, and Ivoirians to flee to war-torn Liberia or other regional countries and more than a million people to be internally displaced. Subsequently, violence following the contested 2010 presidential election prompted some 250,000 people to seek refuge in Liberia and other neighboring countries and again internally displaced as many as a million people. By July 2012, the majority had returned home, but ongoing inter-communal tension and armed conflict continue to force people from their homes.
Contraceptive prevalence rate34.7% (2015)
18.2% (2011/12)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 73
youth dependency ratio: 67.2
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9
potential support ratio: 17 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 83.5
youth dependency ratio: 77.9
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6
potential support ratio: 18 (2015 est.)

Government

GhanaCote d'Ivoire
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Ghana
conventional short form: Ghana
former: Gold Coast
etymology: named for the medieval West African kingdom of the same name, but whose location was actually further north than the modern country
conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire
local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
local short form: Cote d'Ivoire
note: pronounced coat-div-whar
former: Ivory Coast
etymology: name reflects the intense ivory trade that took place in the region from the 15th to 17th centuries
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Accra
geographic coordinates: 5 33 N, 0 13 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Yamoussoukro; note - although Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983, Abidjan remains the commercial and administrative center; the US, like other countries, maintains its Embassy in Abidjan
geographic coordinates: 6 49 N, 5 16 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western
12 districts and 2 autonomous districts*; Abidjan*, Bas-Sassandra, Comoe, Denguele, Goh-Djiboua, Lacs, Lagunes, Montagnes, Sassandra-Marahoue, Savanes, Vallee du Bandama, Woroba, Yamoussoukro*, Zanzan
Independence6 March 1957 (from the UK)
7 August 1960 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day, 6 March (1957)
Independence Day, 7 August (1960)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest drafted 31 March 1992, approved and promulgated 28 April 1992, entered into force 7 January 1993; amended 1996 (2016)
previous 1960, 2000; latest draft completed 24 September 2016,approved by the National Assembly 11 October 2016, approved by referendum 30 October 2016, promulgated 8 November 2016 (2016)
Legal systemmixed system of English common law and customary law
civil law system based on the French civil code; judicial review of legislation held in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (NPP) (since 7 January 2017); the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (NPP) (since 7 January 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; nominated by the president, approved by Parliament
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote; a runoff between the top two candidates may occur if no candidate earns 50 percent plus one in the first round; eligible for a second term; election last held on 7 December 2016 (next to be held in December 2020)
election results: Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO elected president; percent of vote - Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (NPP) 53.8%, John Dramani MAHAMA (NDC) 44.4%, other 1.8%
chief of state: President Alassane Dramane OUATTARA (since 4 December 2010); Vice President Daniel Kablan DUNCAN (since 16 January 2017); note - the constitution of 2016 calls for the position of a vice-president
head of government: Prime Minister Amadou Gon COULIBALY (since 11 January 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president; note - the new constitution limits the presidential tenure to two terms beginning with the 2020 election; the vice president is named by the president
election results: Alassane OUATTARA elected president; percent of vote - Alassane OUATTARA (RDR) 83.7%, Pascal Affi N'GUESSAN (ADF) 9.3%, Konan Bertin KOUADIO (independent) 3.9%, other 3.1%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Parliament (275 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 7 December 2016 (next to be held in December 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NPP 171, NDC 104
description: unicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly (255 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the new constitution of November 2016 calls for a bicameral legislature with the addition of a Senate, with one-third of members appointed by the president
elections: last held on 18 December 2011 (next to be held on December 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - RHDP 50.3%, FPI 5.8%, UDPCI 3.0%, UPCI 1.0%, independents 38.5%, other 1.39%; seats by party - RHDP 167, FPI 3, UDPCI 6, UPCI 3, independents 76
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of a chief justice and 12 justices)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president in consultation with the Council of State (a small advisory body of prominent citizens) and with the approval of Parliament; other justices appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Council (an 18-member independent body of judicial, military and police officials, and presidential nominees) and on the advice of the Council of State; justices can retire at age 60, with compulsory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Circuit Court; District Court; regional tribunals
"highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Judicial, Audit, Constitutional, and Administrative Chambers; consists of the court president, 3 vice-presidents for the Judicial, Audit, and Administrative chambers, and 9 associate justices or magistrates)
judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Superior Council of the Magistrature, a 7-member body consisting of the national president (chairman), 3 ""bench"" judges, and 3 public prosecutors; judges appointed for life
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (organized into civil, criminal, and social chambers); first instance courts; peace courts
"
Political parties and leadersConvention People's Party or CPP
National Democratic Congress or NDC
New Patriotic Party or NPP
People's National Convention or PNC
Peoples Progressive Party or PPP
note: listed are five of the more popular political parties as of May 2017; there are more than 20 registered parties
Democratic Party of Cote d'Ivoire or PDCI [Henri Konan BEDIE]
Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Pascal Affi N'GUESSAN]
Liberty and Democracy for the Republic or LIDER [Mamadou KOULIBALY]
Movement of the Future Forces or MFA [Innocent Augustin ANAKY KOBENA]
Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Alassane Dramane OUATTARA]
Union for Cote d'Ivoire or UPCI [Gnamien KONA]
Union for Democracy and Peace in Cote d'Ivoire or UDPCI [Albert Toikeuse MABRI]
other: more than 144 smaller registered parties
Political pressure groups and leadersPublic Policy Think Tanks: Institute for Democratic Governance (IDEG); IMANI Center for Policy and Education; Ghana Center for Democratic Development; Institute for Economic Affairs
Professional and Trade Groups: Ghana Bar Association; Ghana Trades Union Congress; American Chamber of Commerce; British Chamber of Commerce; and a host of religious organizations
other: Also, a wide range of international and domestic, human rights and policy advocacy groups, environmental groups, business organizations, traditional leaders and youth groups
Federation of University and High School Students of Cote d'Ivoire or FESCI [Augustin MIAN]
National Congress for the Resistance and Democracy or CNRD [Bernard DADIE]
Panafrican Congress for Justice and Peoples Equality or COJEP [Roselin BLY]
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires E.B. ASARE-ASIEDU (since January 2017)
chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520
FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527
consulate(s) general: New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Daouda DIABATE (since 11 February 2011)
chancery: 2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300
FAX: [1] (202) 462-9444
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Robert P. JACKSON (since 4 February 2016)
embassy: 24 Fourth Circular Rd., Cantonments, Accra
mailing address: P.O. Box 194, Accra
telephone: [233] 030-274-1000
FAX: [233] 030-274-1389
chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires Andrew Haviland (since 2016); Ambassador Terence Patrick MCCULLEY retired in 2016
embassy: Cocody Riviera Golf 01, Abidjan
mailing address: B. P. 1712, Abidjan 01
telephone: [225] 22 49 40 00
FAX: [225] 22 49 43 23
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green, with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; red symbolizes the blood shed for independence, yellow represents the country's mineral wealth, while green stands for its forests and natural wealth; the black star is said to be the lodestar of African freedom
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band
three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green; orange symbolizes the land (savannah) of the north and fertility, white stands for peace and unity, green represents the forests of the south and the hope for a bright future
note: similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France
National anthem"name: ""God Bless Our Homeland Ghana""
lyrics/music: unknown/Philip GBEHO
note: music adopted 1957, lyrics adopted 1966; the lyrics were changed twice, in 1960 when a republic was declared and after a 1966 coup
"
"name: ""L'Abidjanaise"" (Song of Abidjan)
lyrics/music: Mathieu EKRA, Joachim BONY, and Pierre Marie COTY/Pierre Marie COTY and Pierre Michel PANGO
note: adopted 1960; although the nation's capital city moved from Abidjan to Yamoussoukro in 1983, the anthem still owes its name to the former capital
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)black star, golden eagle; national colors: red, yellow, green, black
elephant; national colors: orange, white, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Ghana
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cote d'Ivoire
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

GhanaCote d'Ivoire
Economy - overviewGhana's economy was strengthened by a quarter century of relatively sound management, a competitive business environment, and sustained reductions in poverty levels, but in recent years has suffered the consequences of loose fiscal policy, high budget and current account deficits, and a depreciating currency. Ghana has a market-based economy with relatively few policy barriers to trade and investment in comparison with other countries in the region, and Ghana is well-endowed with natural resources.

Agriculture accounts for about 20% of GDP and employs more than half of the workforce, mainly small landholders. Gold and cocoa exports, and individual remittances, are major sources of foreign exchange. Expansion of Ghana’s nascent oil industry has boosted economic growth, but the fall in oil prices since 2015 reduced by half Ghana’s oil revenue. Production at Jubilee, Ghana's offshore oilfield, began in mid-December 2010. The country’s first gas processing plant at Atubao is also producing natural gas from the Jubilee field, providing power to several of Ghana’s thermal power plants.

As of 2016, key economic concerns facing the government include the lack of reliable electricity and the high debt burden, even amidst strong GDP growth. While the MAHAMA administration attempted to ameliorate these concerns, little progress has been made, leaving much work to be done in 2017 by the incoming AKUFO-ADDO administration. Ghana signed a $920 million extended credit facility with the IMF in April 2015 to help it address its growing economic crisis. The IMF fiscal targets require Ghana to reduce the deficit by cutting subsidies, decreasing the bloated public sector wage bill, strengthening revenue administration, and boosting tax revenues. Priorities for the AKUFO-ADDO’s administration include rescheduling some of Ghana’s $31 billion debt, stimulating economic growth, reducing inflation, and stabilizing the currency. Prospects for new oil and gas production, potentially higher global gold prices, and follow-through on tighter fiscal management are likely to help Ghana’s economy in 2017.
Cote d'Ivoire is heavily dependent on agriculture and related activities, which engage roughly two-thirds of the population. Cote d'Ivoire is the world's largest producer and exporter of cocoa beans and a significant producer and exporter of coffee and palm oil. Consequently, the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for these products and in climatic conditions. Cocoa, oil, and coffee are the country's top export revenue earners, but the country has targeted the agricultural processing of cocoa, cashews, mangoes, and other commodities as a high priority. Mining gold and exporting electricity are growing industries outside agriculture.

Following the end of more than a decade of civil conflict in 2011, Cote d’Ivoire has experienced a boom in foreign investment and economic growth. In June 2012, the IMF and the World Bank announced $4.4 billion in debt relief for Cote d'Ivoire under the Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative. For the last 5 years Cote d'Ivoire's growth rate has been among the highest in the world.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$120.8 billion (2016 est.)
$116.9 billion (2015 est.)
$112.5 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$87.12 billion (2016 est.)
$80.68 billion (2015 est.)
$74.33 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.3% (2016 est.)
3.9% (2015 est.)
4% (2014 est.)
8% (2016 est.)
8.5% (2015 est.)
7.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$4,400 (2016 est.)
$4,300 (2015 est.)
$4,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3,600 (2016 est.)
$3,400 (2015 est.)
$3,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 19.5%
industry: 24%
services: 56.4% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 17.6%
industry: 19.5%
services: 62.8% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line24.2% (2013 est.)
46.3% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 32.8% (2006)
lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 31.8% (2008)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)17.8% (2016 est.)
17.2% (2015 est.)
1.2% (2016 est.)
1.3% (2015 est.)
Labor force11.99 million (2016 est.)
8.543 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 44.7%
industry: 14.4%
services: 40.9% (2013 est.)
agriculture: 68%
industry and services: NA% (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate11.9% (2015 est.)
5.2% (2013 est.)
NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index42.3 (2012-13)
41.9 (2005-06)
41.5 (2008)
36.7 (1995)
Budgetrevenues: $8.552 billion
expenditures: $12.27 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $6.839 billion
expenditures: $8.17 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesmining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building, petroleum
foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining, gold mining, truck and bus assembly, textiles, fertilizer, building materials, electricity
Industrial production growth rate-0.5% (2016 est.)
8.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscocoa, rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber
coffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels, corn, rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar, cotton, rubber; timber
Exports$11.06 billion (2016 est.)
$10.36 billion (2015 est.)
$11.73 billion (2016 est.)
$11.98 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesoil, gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds, horticultural products
cocoa, coffee, timber, petroleum, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, fish
Exports - partnersIndia 27.4%, Switzerland 11.8%, China 10.2%, France 5.5% (2015)
US 8.6%, Netherlands 6.2%, France 5.7%, Germany 5.6%, Nigeria 5.6%, Burkina Faso 5.5%, Belgium 5.3%, India 4.7%, Ghana 4.4%, Switzerland 4.1% (2015)
Imports$12.75 billion (2016 est.)
$13.47 billion (2015 est.)
$8.966 billion (2016 est.)
$8.609 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiescapital equipment, refined petroleum, foodstuffs
fuel, capital equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersChina 32.6%, Nigeria 14.1%, Netherlands 5.5%, US 5.5% (2015)
Nigeria 21.8%, China 14.3%, France 11.3%, Bahamas, The 5% (2015)
Debt - external$21.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$19.15 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$12.84 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$11.71 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratescedis (GHC) per US dollar -
3.992 (2016 est.)
3.712 (2015 est.)
3.712 (2014 est.)
2.895 (2013 est.)
1.8 (2012 est.)
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
604.4 (2016 est.)
591.45 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.29 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt73.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
71.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
50.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
49.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$6.137 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.885 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.952 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.716 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$2.784 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.872 billion (2015 est.)
-$774 million (2016 est.)
-$323 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$42.76 billion (2016 est.)
$34.65 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$19.85 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$118 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$16.62 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$109 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares$12.55 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.05 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.465 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$12.49 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$11.71 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$11.82 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate25.5% (31 December 2016)
26% (31 December 2015)
4.25% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate31.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
28.6% (31 December 2015 est.)
2.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$13.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.93 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$11.19 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.812 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$5.914 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.736 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$9.416 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.516 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$13.02 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.42 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$13.92 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.55 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues20% of GDP (2016 est.)
19.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-8.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 66.6%
government consumption: 19.6%
investment in fixed capital: 24.5%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 36.7%
imports of goods and services: -48.2% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 66%
government consumption: 15.2%
investment in fixed capital: 16.9%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 43.3%
imports of goods and services: -42.2% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
17% of GDP (2014 est.)
18.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
19.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

GhanaCote d'Ivoire
Electricity - production11.5 billion kWh (2015 est.)
7.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption9.6 billion kWh (2015 est.)
5.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports552 million kWh (2015 est.)
900 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports223 million kWh (2015 est.)
54 million kWh (2012 est.)
Oil - production88,250 bbl/day (2016 est.)
45,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports26,040 bbl/day (2013 est.)
74,960 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports99,890 bbl/day (2015 est.)
35,150 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves660 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
100 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves22.65 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
28.32 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production63.54 million cu m (2016 est.)
1.996 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption655 million cu m (2015 est.)
1.996 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports584 million cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity3.656 million kW (2015 est.)
1.9 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels56.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
60.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants43.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
39.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production10,640 bbl/day (2013 est.)
76,910 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption83,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
38,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports1,977 bbl/day (2013 est.)
44,020 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports72,850 bbl/day (2013 est.)
3,369 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy11 million Mt (2013 est.)
8.995 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 7,300,000
electrification - total population: 72%
electrification - urban areas: 92%
electrification - rural areas: 50% (2013)
population without electricity: 15,000,000
electrification - total population: 26%
electrification - urban areas: 42%
electrification - rural areas: 8% (2013)

Telecommunications

GhanaCote d'Ivoire
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 275,570
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 277,248
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 35.008 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 133 (July 2015 est.)
total: 25.408 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed; outdated and unreliable fixed-line infrastructure heavily concentrated in Accra
domestic: competition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth with a subscribership of more than 130 per 100 persons and rising
international: country code - 233; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC, Main One, and GLO-1 fiber-optic submarine cables that provide connectivity to South Africa, Europe, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors (2015)
general assessment: well-developed by African standards; telecommunications sector privatized in late 1990s and operational fixed lines have increased since that time with 2 fixed-line providers operating over open-wire lines, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optics; 90% digitalized
domestic: with multiple mobile-cellular service providers competing in the market, usage has increased sharply to about 110 per 100 persons
international: country code - 225; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2016)
Internet country code.gh
.ci
Internet userstotal: 6.181 million
percent of population: 23.5% (July 2015 est.)
total: 4.892 million
percent of population: 21% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-owned TV station, 2 state-owned radio networks; several privately owned TV stations and a large number of privately owned radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are accessible; several cable and satellite TV subscription services are obtainable (2007)
2 state-owned TV stations; no private terrestrial TV stations, but satellite TV subscription service is available; 2 state-owned radio stations; some private radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)

Transportation

GhanaCote d'Ivoire
Railwaystotal: 947 km
narrow gauge: 947 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
total: 660 km
narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000-m gauge
note: an additional 622 km of this railroad extends into Burkina Faso (2008)
Roadwaystotal: 109,515 km
paved: 13,787 km
unpaved: 95,728 km (2009)
total: 81,996 km
paved: 6,502 km
unpaved: 75,494 km
note: includes intercity and urban roads; another 20,000 km of dirt roads are in poor condition and 150,000 km of dirt roads are impassable (2007)
Waterways1,293 km (168 km for launches and lighters on Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers; 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways on Lake Volta) (2011)
980 km (navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons) (2011)
Pipelinesgas 394 km; oil 20 km; refined products 361 km (2013)
condensate 101 km; gas 256 km; oil 118 km; oil/gas/water 5 km; water 7 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Takoradi, Tema
major seaport(s): Abidjan, San-Pedro
oil terminal(s): Espoir Offshore Terminal
Airports10 (2013)
27 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
total: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 3 (2013)

Military

GhanaCote d'Ivoire
Military branchesGhana Army, Ghana Navy, Ghana Air Force (2012)
Republican Forces of Cote d'Ivoire (Force Republiques de Cote d'Ivoire, FRCI): Army, Navy, Cote d'Ivoire Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Cote d'Ivoire) (2015)
Military service age and obligation18-26 years of age for voluntary military service, with basic education certificate; no conscription; must be HIV/AIDS negative (2012)
18-25 years of age for compulsory and voluntary male and female military service; conscription is not enforced; voluntary recruitment of former rebels into the new national army is restricted to ages 22-29 (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.49% of GDP (2015)
0.48% of GDP (2014)
0.53% of GDP (2013)
0.8% of GDP (2012)
0.59% of GDP (2011)
1.47% of GDP (2015)
1.53% of GDP (2014)
1.38% of GDP (2013)
1.51% of GDP (2012)
1.41% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

GhanaCote d'Ivoire
Disputes - internationaldisputed maritime border between Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire
disputed maritime border between Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana
Illicit drugsillicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; major transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and, to a lesser extent, South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US; widespread crime and money-laundering problem, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center; significant domestic cocaine and cannabis use
illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for local consumption; utility as a narcotic transshipment point to Europe reduced by ongoing political instability; while rampant corruption and inadequate supervision leave the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, the lack of a developed financial system limits the country's utility as a major money-laundering center (2008)
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 6,489 (Cote d'Ivoire; flight from 2010 post-election fighting) (2017)
IDPs: 301,000 (post-election conflict in 2010-2011, as well as civil war from 2002-2004; most pronounced in western and southwestern regions) (2016)
stateless persons: 694,000 (2016); note - many Ivoirians lack documentation proving their nationality, which prevent them from accessing education and healthcare; birth on Ivorian soil does not automatically result in citizenship; disputes over citizenship and the associated rights of the large population descended from migrants from neighboring countries is an ongoing source of tension and contributed to the country's 2002 civil war; some observers believe the government's mass naturalizations of thousands of people over the last couple of years is intended to boost its electoral support base; the government in October 2013 acceded to international conventions on statelessness and in August 2013 reformed its nationality law, key steps to clarify the nationality of thousands of residents; since the adoption of the Abidjan Declaration to eradicate stateless in West Africa in February 2015, 6,400 people have received nationality papers

Source: CIA Factbook