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Ghana vs. Burkina Faso

Introduction

GhanaBurkina Faso
BackgroundFormed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Ghana endured a series of coups before Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS took power in 1981 and banned political parties. After approving a new constitution and restoring multiparty politics in 1992, RAWLINGS won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996 but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR of the opposition New Patriotic Party (NPP) succeeded him and was reelected in 2004. John Atta MILLS of the National Democratic Congress won the 2008 presidential election and took over as head of state, but he died in July 2012 and was constitutionally succeeded by his vice president, John Dramani MAHAMA, who subsequently won the December 2012 presidential election. In 2016, however, Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO of the NPP defeated MAHAMA, marking the third time that the Ghana’s presidency has changed parties since the return to democracy.
Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) achieved independence from France in 1960. Repeated military coups during the 1970s and 1980s were followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Former President Blaise COMPAORE (1987-2014) resigned in late October 2014 following popular protests against his efforts to amend the Constitution's two-term presidential limit. By mid-November, a framework for an interim government was adopted under the terms of the National Transition Charter. An interim administration, led by President Michel KAFANDO and Prime Minister Yacouba Isaac ZIDA, began organizing presidential and legislative elections planned for October 2015, but these were postponed during a weeklong failed coup in September. The rescheduled elections were held on 29 November, and Roch Marc Christian KABORE was elected president in the first round. Burkina Faso's high population growth and limited natural resources result in poor economic prospects for the majority of its citizens.

Geography

GhanaBurkina Faso
LocationWestern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo
Western Africa, north of Ghana
Geographic coordinates8 00 N, 2 00 W
13 00 N, 2 00 W
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 238,533 sq km
land: 227,533 sq km
water: 11,000 sq km
total: 274,200 sq km
land: 273,800 sq km
water: 400 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Oregon
slightly larger than Colorado
Land boundariestotal: 2,420 km
border countries (3): Burkina Faso 602 km, Cote d'Ivoire 720 km, Togo 1,098 km
total: 3,611 km
border countries (6): Benin 386 km, Cote d'Ivoire 545 km, Ghana 602 km, Mali 1,325 km, Niger 622 km, Togo 131 km
Coastline539 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
none (landlocked)
Climatetropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Terrainmostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 190 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Afadjato 885 m
mean elevation: 297 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m
highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m
Natural resourcesgold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone
manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, phosphates, pumice, salt
Land useagricultural land: 69.1%
arable land 20.7%; permanent crops 11.9%; permanent pasture 36.5%
forest: 21.2%
other: 9.7% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 43%
arable land 20.8%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 21.9%
forest: 20.4%
other: 36.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land340 sq km (2012)
550 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsdry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds from January to March; droughts
recurring droughts
Environment - current issuesrecurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteLake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake (manmade reservoir) by surface area (8,482 sq km; 3,275 sq mi); the lake was created following the completion of the Akosombo Dam in 1965, which holds back the White Volta and Black Volta Rivers
landlocked savanna cut by the three principal rivers of the Black, Red, and White Voltas

Demographics

GhanaBurkina Faso
Population26,908,262
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
19,512,533
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 38.2% (male 5,164,505/female 5,113,185)
15-24 years: 18.66% (male 2,498,185/female 2,522,353)
25-54 years: 34.05% (male 4,445,321/female 4,716,311)
55-64 years: 4.91% (male 642,984/female 678,784)
65 years and over: 4.19% (male 520,589/female 606,045) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 45.04% (male 4,402,311/female 4,386,518)
15-24 years: 20.08% (male 1,966,644/female 1,951,722)
25-54 years: 29.28% (male 2,898,407/female 2,813,923)
55-64 years: 3.16% (male 267,763/female 349,433)
65 years and over: 2.44% (male 178,127/female 297,685) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 21 years
male: 20.5 years
female: 21.5 years (2016 est.)
total: 17.2 years
male: 17 years
female: 17.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.18% (2016 est.)
3.01% (2016 est.)
Birth rate30.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
41.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
11.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.77 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 36.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 40.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 32.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 73.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 80.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 66.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 66.6 years
male: 64.1 years
female: 69.1 years (2016 est.)
total population: 55.5 years
male: 53.4 years
female: 57.6 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate4.03 children born/woman (2016 est.)
5.79 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate1.61% (2015 est.)
0.83% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Ghanaian(s)
adjective: Ghanaian
noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
adjective: Burkinabe
Ethnic groupsAkan 47.5%, Mole-Dagbon 16.6%, Ewe 13.9%, Ga-Dangme 7.4%, Gurma 5.7%, Guan 3.7%, Grusi 2.5%, Mande 1.1%, other 1.4% (2010 est.)
Mossi 52.5%, Fulani 8.4%, Gurma 6.8%, Bobo 4.8%, Gurunsi 4.5%, Senufo 4.4%, Bissa 3.9%, Lobi 2.5%, Dagara 2.4%, Tuareg/Bella 1.9%, Dioula 0.8%, unspecified/no answer 0.1%, other 7% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS274,600 (2015 est.)
95,300 (2015 est.)
ReligionsChristian 71.2% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 28.3%, Protestant 18.4%, Catholic 13.1%, other 11.4%), Muslim 17.6%, traditional 5.2%, other 0.8%, none 5.2% (2010 est.)
Muslim 61.6%, Catholic 23.2%, traditional/animist 7.3%, Protestant 6.7%, other/no answer 0.2%, none 0.9% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths12,600 (2015 est.)
3,600 (2015 est.)
LanguagesAsante 16%, Ewe 14%, Fante 11.6%, Boron (Brong) 4.9%, Dagomba 4.4%, Dangme 4.2%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.9%, Kokomba 3.5%, Akyem 3.2%, Ga 3.1%, other 31.2%
note: English is the official language (2010 est.)
French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.6%
male: 82%
female: 71.4% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 36%
male: 43%
female: 29.3% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2015)
total: 8 years
male: 8 years
female: 7 years (2013)
Education expenditures6.2% of GDP (2014)
3.9% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 54% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 29.9% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.87% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 92.6% of population
rural: 84% of population
total: 88.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7.4% of population
rural: 16% of population
total: 11.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 75.8% of population
total: 82.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 24.2% of population
total: 17.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 20.2% of population
rural: 8.6% of population
total: 14.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 79.8% of population
rural: 91.4% of population
total: 85.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 50.4% of population
rural: 6.7% of population
total: 19.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 49.6% of population
rural: 93.3% of population
total: 80.3% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationKumasi 2.599 million; ACCRA (capital) 2.277 million (2015)
OUAGADOUGOU (capital) 2.741 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate319 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
371 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight11% (2014)
26.2% (2010)
Health expenditures3.6% of GDP (2014)
5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.1 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density0.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate10.9% (2014)
5.2% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 1,806,750
percentage: 34% (2006 est.)
total number: 1,521,006
percentage: 38% (2006 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth22.6 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)
19.4 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Demographic profileGhana has a young age structure, with approximately 57% of the population under the age of 25. Its total fertility rate fell significantly during the 1980s and 1990s but has stalled at around four children per woman for the last few years. Fertility remains higher in the northern region than the Greater Accra region. On average, desired fertility has remained stable for several years; urban dwellers want fewer children than rural residents. Increased life expectancy, due to better health care, nutrition, and hygiene, and reduced fertility have increased Ghana’s share of elderly persons; Ghana’s proportion of persons aged 60+ is among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty has declined in Ghana, but it remains pervasive in the northern region, which is susceptible to droughts and floods and has less access to transportation infrastructure, markets, fertile farming land, and industrial centers. The northern region also has lower school enrollment, higher illiteracy, and fewer opportunities for women.
Ghana was a country of immigration in the early years after its 1957 independence, attracting labor migrants largely from Nigeria and other neighboring countries to mine minerals and harvest cocoa – immigrants composed about 12% of Ghana’s population in 1960. In the late 1960s, worsening economic and social conditions discouraged immigration, and hundreds of thousands of immigrants, mostly Nigerians, were expelled.
During the 1970s, severe drought and an economic downturn transformed Ghana into a country of emigration; neighboring Cote d’Ivoire was the initial destination. Later, hundreds of thousands of Ghanaians migrated to Nigeria to work in its booming oil industry, but most were deported in 1983 and 1985 as oil prices plummeted. Many Ghanaians then turned to more distant destinations, including other parts of Africa, Europe, and North America, but the majority continued to migrate within West Africa. Since the 1990s, increased emigration of skilled Ghanaians, especially to the US and the UK, drained the country of its health care and education professionals. Internally, poverty and other developmental disparities continue to drive Ghanaians from the north to the south, particularly to its urban centers.
Burkina Faso has a young age structure – the result of declining mortality combined with steady high fertility – and continues to experience rapid population growth, which is putting increasing pressure on the country’s limited arable land. More than 65% of the population is under the age of 25, and the population is growing at 3% annually. Mortality rates, especially those of infants and children, have decreased because of improved health care, hygiene, and sanitation, but women continue to have an average of almost 6 children. Even if fertility were substantially reduced, today’s large cohort entering their reproductive years would sustain high population growth for the foreseeable future. Only about a third of the population is literate and unemployment is widespread, dampening the economic prospects of Burkina Faso’s large working-age population.
Migration has traditionally been a way of life for Burkinabe, with seasonal migration being replaced by stints of up to two years abroad. Cote d’Ivoire remains the top destination, although it has experienced periods of internal conflict. Under French colonization, Burkina Faso became a main labor source for agricultural and factory work in Cote d’Ivoire. Burkinabe also migrated to Ghana, Mali, and Senegal for work between the world wars. Burkina Faso attracts migrants from Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, and Mali, who often share common ethnic backgrounds with the Burkinabe. Despite its food shortages and high poverty rate, Burkina Faso has become a destination for refugees in recent years and currently hosts about 50,000 Malians.
Contraceptive prevalence rate34.7% (2015)
20.8% (2015)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 73
youth dependency ratio: 67.2
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9
potential support ratio: 17 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 92.2
youth dependency ratio: 87.6
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6
potential support ratio: 21.7 (2015 est.)

Government

GhanaBurkina Faso
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Ghana
conventional short form: Ghana
former: Gold Coast
etymology: named for the medieval West African kingdom of the same name, but whose location was actually further north than the modern country
"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Burkina Faso
local long form: none
local short form: Burkina Faso
former: Upper Volta, Republic of Upper Volta
etymology: name translates as ""Land of the Honest (Incorruptible) Men""
"
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Accra
geographic coordinates: 5 33 N, 0 13 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Ouagadougou
geographic coordinates: 12 22 N, 1 31 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western
13 regions; Boucle du Mouhoun, Cascades, Centre, Centre-Est, Centre-Nord, Centre-Ouest, Centre-Sud, Est, Hauts-Bassins, Nord, Plateau-Central, Sahel, Sud-Ouest
Independence6 March 1957 (from the UK)
5 August 1960 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day, 6 March (1957)
Republic Day, 11 December (1958); note - commemorates the day that Upper Volta became an autonomous republic in the French Community
Constitutionseveral previous; latest drafted 31 March 1992, approved and promulgated 28 April 1992, entered into force 7 January 1993; amended 1996 (2016)
several previous; latest approved by referendum 2 June 1991, adopted 11 June 1991; amended several times, last in 2015 for setting a two-term limit for presidents; note - constitution temporarily suspended between late October and mid-November 2014 (2016)
Legal systemmixed system of English common law and customary law
civil law based on the French model and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (NPP) (since 7 January 2017); the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (NPP) (since 7 January 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; nominated by the president, approved by Parliament
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote; a runoff between the top two candidates may occur if no candidate earns 50 percent plus one in the first round; eligible for a second term; election last held on 7 December 2016 (next to be held in December 2020)
election results: Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO elected president; percent of vote - Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (NPP) 53.8%, John Dramani MAHAMA (NDC) 44.4%, other 1.8%
chief of state: President Roch Marc Christian KABORE (since 29 December 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Paul Kaba THIEBA (since 6 January 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds, if needed, for a 5-year term (eligible for a second); election last held on 29 November 2015 (next scheduled for November 2020); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of the National Assembly
election results: Roch Marc Christian KABORE elected president in one round; percent of vote - Roch Marc Christian KABORE 53.5%, Zephirin DIABRE 29.6%, Tahirou BARRY 3.1%. Benewende Stanislas SANKARA 2.8%, other 10.9%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Parliament (275 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 7 December 2016 (next to be held in December 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NPP 171, NDC 104
description: unicameral National Assembly (127 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 29 November 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPP 55, UPC 33, CDP 18, Union for Rebirth/Sankarist Party 5, ADF/RDA 3, other 13
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of a chief justice and 12 justices)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president in consultation with the Council of State (a small advisory body of prominent citizens) and with the approval of Parliament; other justices appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Council (an 18-member independent body of judicial, military and police officials, and presidential nominees) and on the advice of the Council of State; justices can retire at age 60, with compulsory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Circuit Court; District Court; regional tribunals
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Appeals or Cour de Cassation (consists of NA judges); Council of State (consists of NA judges); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionnel (consists of the council president and 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judge appointments mostly controlled by the president of Burkina Faso; judges have no term limits; Council of State judge appointment and tenure NA; Constitutional Council judges appointed by the president of Burkina Faso upon the proposal of the minister of justice and the president of the National Assembly; judges appointed for 9-year terms with one-third of membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: Appeals Court; High Court; first instance tribunals; district courts; specialized courts relating to issues of labor, children, and juveniles; village (customary) courts
Political parties and leadersConvention People's Party or CPP
National Democratic Congress or NDC
New Patriotic Party or NPP
People's National Convention or PNC
Peoples Progressive Party or PPP
note: listed are five of the more popular political parties as of May 2017; there are more than 20 registered parties
African Democratic Rally/Alliance for Democracy and Federation or ADF/RDA [Gilbert Noel OUEDRAOGO]
African People’s Movement or MAP [Victorien TOUGOUMA]
Congress for Democracy and Progress or CDP [Achille TAPSOBA]
Le Faso Autrement [Ablasse OUEDRAOGO]
New Alliance of the Faso or NAFA [Rasmane OUEDRAOGO]
New Time for Democracy or NTD [Vincent DABILGOU]
Organization for Democracy and Work or ODT [Mahamoudou SAWADOGO]
Party for Development and Change or PDC [Saran SEREME]
Party for Democracy and Progress-Socialist Party or PDP-PS [Francois O. KABORE]
Party for Democracy and Socialism/Metba or PDS/Metba [Philippe OUEDRAOGO]
Party for National Renaissance or PAREN [Tahirou BARRY]
People's Movement for Progress or MPP [Roch March Christian KABORE]
Rally for Democracy and Socialism or RDS [Francois OUEDRAOGO]
Rally for the Development of Burkina or RDB [Celestin Saidou COMPAORE]
Rally of Ecologists of Burkina Faso or RDEB [Adama SERE]
Union for a New Burkina or UBN [Yacouba OUEDRAOGO]
Union for Progress and Change or UPC [Zephirin DIABRE]
Union for Rebirth - Sankarist Movement or UNIR-MS [Benewende Stanislas SANKARA]
Union for the Republic or UPR [Toussaint Abel COULIBALY]
Youth Alliance for the Republic and Independence or AJIR [Adama KANAZOE]
Political pressure groups and leadersPublic Policy Think Tanks: Institute for Democratic Governance (IDEG); IMANI Center for Policy and Education; Ghana Center for Democratic Development; Institute for Economic Affairs
Professional and Trade Groups: Ghana Bar Association; Ghana Trades Union Congress; American Chamber of Commerce; British Chamber of Commerce; and a host of religious organizations
other: Also, a wide range of international and domestic, human rights and policy advocacy groups, environmental groups, business organizations, traditional leaders and youth groups
Balai Citoyen [Herve KAM]
Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB [Bassolma BAZIE]
Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP [Chrysigone ZOUGMORE]
Burkinabe Society for Constitutional Law or SBDC [Abdoulaye SOMA]
Center for Democratic Governance or CGD [Thomas OUEDRAOGO]
Coalition for African Renaissance or CAR [Herve OUATTARA]
National Independent Union of Burkinabe Magistrates or SAMAB
National Union for Health Workers or SYNTSHA
National Union for Primary Education Teachers or SYNATEB
other: watchdog/political action groups throughout the country
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires E.B. ASARE-ASIEDU (since January 2017)
chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520
FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527
consulate(s) general: New York
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Seydou SINKA (since 1 November 2014)
chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577
FAX: [1] (202) 667-1882
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Robert P. JACKSON (since 4 February 2016)
embassy: 24 Fourth Circular Rd., Cantonments, Accra
mailing address: P.O. Box 194, Accra
telephone: [233] 030-274-1000
FAX: [233] 030-274-1389
chief of mission: Ambassador Andrew YOUNG (since September 2016)
embassy: Rue 15.873, Avenue Sembene Ousmane, Ouaga 2000, Secteur 15
mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 01; pouch mail - US Department of State, 2440 Ouagadougou Place, Washington, DC 20521-2440
telephone: [226] 25-49-53-00
FAX: [226] 25-49-56-28
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green, with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; red symbolizes the blood shed for independence, yellow represents the country's mineral wealth, while green stands for its forests and natural wealth; the black star is said to be the lodestar of African freedom
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; red recalls the country's struggle for independence, green is for hope and abundance, and yellow represents the country's mineral wealth
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
National anthem"name: ""God Bless Our Homeland Ghana""
lyrics/music: unknown/Philip GBEHO
note: music adopted 1957, lyrics adopted 1966; the lyrics were changed twice, in 1960 when a republic was declared and after a 1966 coup
"
"name: ""Le Ditanye"" (Anthem of Victory)
lyrics/music: Thomas SANKARA
note: adopted 1974; also known as ""Une Seule Nuit"" (One Single Night); written by the country's president, an avid guitar player
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)black star, golden eagle; national colors: red, yellow, green, black
white stallion; national colors: red, yellow, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Ghana
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Burkina Faso
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

GhanaBurkina Faso
Economy - overviewGhana's economy was strengthened by a quarter century of relatively sound management, a competitive business environment, and sustained reductions in poverty levels, but in recent years has suffered the consequences of loose fiscal policy, high budget and current account deficits, and a depreciating currency. Ghana has a market-based economy with relatively few policy barriers to trade and investment in comparison with other countries in the region, and Ghana is well-endowed with natural resources.

Agriculture accounts for about 20% of GDP and employs more than half of the workforce, mainly small landholders. Gold and cocoa exports, and individual remittances, are major sources of foreign exchange. Expansion of Ghana’s nascent oil industry has boosted economic growth, but the fall in oil prices since 2015 reduced by half Ghana’s oil revenue. Production at Jubilee, Ghana's offshore oilfield, began in mid-December 2010. The country’s first gas processing plant at Atubao is also producing natural gas from the Jubilee field, providing power to several of Ghana’s thermal power plants.

As of 2016, key economic concerns facing the government include the lack of reliable electricity and the high debt burden, even amidst strong GDP growth. While the MAHAMA administration attempted to ameliorate these concerns, little progress has been made, leaving much work to be done in 2017 by the incoming AKUFO-ADDO administration. Ghana signed a $920 million extended credit facility with the IMF in April 2015 to help it address its growing economic crisis. The IMF fiscal targets require Ghana to reduce the deficit by cutting subsidies, decreasing the bloated public sector wage bill, strengthening revenue administration, and boosting tax revenues. Priorities for the AKUFO-ADDO’s administration include rescheduling some of Ghana’s $31 billion debt, stimulating economic growth, reducing inflation, and stabilizing the currency. Prospects for new oil and gas production, potentially higher global gold prices, and follow-through on tighter fiscal management are likely to help Ghana’s economy in 2017.
Burkina Faso is a poor, landlocked country that depends on adequate rainfall. About 80% of the population is engaged in subsistence farming and cotton is the main cash crop. The country has few natural resources and a weak industrial base.

Cotton and gold are Burkina Faso’s key exports - gold has accounted for about three-quarters of the country’s total export revenues. Burkina Faso’s economic growth and revenue depends largely on production levels and global prices for the two commodities. The Burkinabe economy experienced high levels of growth over the last few years, and the country has seen an upswing in gold exploration, production, and exports.

Burkina Faso experienced a number of public protests over the high cost of living, corruption, and other socioeconomic issues in 2013, while the fall of the COMPAORE government in 2014 and failed coup in September 2015 disrupted economic activity and strained government finances. A new three-year IMF program, approved in 2013, was recently completed. Discussions are currently underway on a new program. Political insecurity in neighboring Mali, unreliable energy supplies, and poor transportation links pose long-term challenges.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$120.8 billion (2016 est.)
$116.9 billion (2015 est.)
$112.5 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$32.99 billion (2016 est.)
$31.35 billion (2015 est.)
$30.14 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.3% (2016 est.)
3.9% (2015 est.)
4% (2014 est.)
5.2% (2016 est.)
4% (2015 est.)
4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$4,400 (2016 est.)
$4,300 (2015 est.)
$4,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1,800 (2016 est.)
$1,800 (2015 est.)
$1,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 19.5%
industry: 24%
services: 56.4% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 32.5%
industry: 21.8%
services: 45.7% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line24.2% (2013 est.)
40.1% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 32.8% (2006)
lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 32.2% (2009 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)17.8% (2016 est.)
17.2% (2015 est.)
1.4% (2016 est.)
1% (2015 est.)
Labor force11.99 million (2016 est.)
7.942 million
note: a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment (2014 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 44.7%
industry: 14.4%
services: 40.9% (2013 est.)
agriculture: 90%
industry and services: 10% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate11.9% (2015 est.)
5.2% (2013 est.)
77% (2004)
Distribution of family income - Gini index42.3 (2012-13)
41.9 (2005-06)
39.5 (2007)
48.2 (1994)
Budgetrevenues: $8.552 billion
expenditures: $12.27 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $2.442 billion
expenditures: $2.779 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesmining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building, petroleum
cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold
Industrial production growth rate-0.5% (2016 est.)
4.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscocoa, rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber
cotton, peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock
Exports$11.06 billion (2016 est.)
$10.36 billion (2015 est.)
$2.771 billion (2016 est.)
$2.515 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesoil, gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds, horticultural products
gold, cotton, livestock
Exports - partnersIndia 27.4%, Switzerland 11.8%, China 10.2%, France 5.5% (2015)
Switzerland 53.2%, India 14.8% (2015)
Imports$12.75 billion (2016 est.)
$13.47 billion (2015 est.)
$2.872 billion (2016 est.)
$2.863 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiescapital equipment, refined petroleum, foodstuffs
capital goods, foodstuffs, petroleum
Imports - partnersChina 32.6%, Nigeria 14.1%, Netherlands 5.5%, US 5.5% (2015)
Cote dIvoire 23.3%, France 11.1%, Togo 7.6%, China 4.8%, Ghana 4.6% (2015)
Debt - external$21.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$19.15 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.092 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.669 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratescedis (GHC) per US dollar -
3.992 (2016 est.)
3.712 (2015 est.)
3.712 (2014 est.)
2.895 (2013 est.)
1.8 (2012 est.)
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
605.7 (2016 est.)
591.45 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$6.137 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.885 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$333.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$259.6 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$2.784 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.872 billion (2015 est.)
-$918 million (2016 est.)
-$892 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$42.76 billion (2016 est.)
$12.01 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$12.55 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.05 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.465 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$NA
Central bank discount rate25.5% (31 December 2016)
26% (31 December 2015)
4.25% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate31.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
28.6% (31 December 2015 est.)
NA%
Stock of domestic credit$13.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.93 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.421 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.192 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$5.914 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.736 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.348 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.124 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$13.02 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.42 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.387 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues20% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-8.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
-2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 11.2%
male: 10.2%
female: 12% (2010 est.)
total: 3.8%
male: 4.6%
female: 2.9% (2006 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 66.6%
government consumption: 19.6%
investment in fixed capital: 24.5%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 36.7%
imports of goods and services: -48.2% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 45.1%
government consumption: 22%
investment in fixed capital: 28.7%
investment in inventories: 0.7%
exports of goods and services: 34.5%
imports of goods and services: -31% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
17% of GDP (2014 est.)
8.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
7.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
11.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

GhanaBurkina Faso
Electricity - production11.5 billion kWh (2015 est.)
700 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption9.6 billion kWh (2015 est.)
1.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports552 million kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports223 million kWh (2015 est.)
600 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production88,250 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports26,040 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports99,890 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves660 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves22.65 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production63.54 million cu m (2016 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption655 million cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports584 million cu m (2015 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity3.656 million kW (2015 est.)
300,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels56.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
86.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants43.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
13.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production10,640 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption83,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
22,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports1,977 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports72,850 bbl/day (2013 est.)
20,890 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy11 million Mt (2013 est.)
1.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 7,300,000
electrification - total population: 72%
electrification - urban areas: 92%
electrification - rural areas: 50% (2013)
population without electricity: 14,100,000
electrification - total population: 17%
electrification - urban areas: 56%
electrification - rural areas: 1% (2013)

Telecommunications

GhanaBurkina Faso
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 275,570
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 75,075
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 35.008 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 133 (July 2015 est.)
total: 14.447 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 76 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed; outdated and unreliable fixed-line infrastructure heavily concentrated in Accra
domestic: competition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth with a subscribership of more than 130 per 100 persons and rising
international: country code - 233; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC, Main One, and GLO-1 fiber-optic submarine cables that provide connectivity to South Africa, Europe, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors (2015)
general assessment: system includes microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communication stations
domestic: fixed-line connections stand at less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, fostered by multiple providers, is increasing steadily from a low base
international: country code - 226; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.gh
.bf
Internet userstotal: 6.181 million
percent of population: 23.5% (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.156 million
percent of population: 11.4% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-owned TV station, 2 state-owned radio networks; several privately owned TV stations and a large number of privately owned radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are accessible; several cable and satellite TV subscription services are obtainable (2007)
2 TV stations - 1 state-owned and 1 privately owned; state-owned radio runs a national and regional network; substantial number of privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters available in Ouagadougou (2007)

Transportation

GhanaBurkina Faso
Railwaystotal: 947 km
narrow gauge: 947 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
total: 622 km
narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge
note: another 660 km of this railway extends into Cote d'Ivoire (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 109,515 km
paved: 13,787 km
unpaved: 95,728 km (2009)
total: 15,272 km
note: does not include urban roads (2010)
Airports10 (2013)
23 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
total: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 5 (2013)

Military

GhanaBurkina Faso
Military branchesGhana Army, Ghana Navy, Ghana Air Force (2012)
Army, Air Force of Burkina Faso (Force Aerienne de Burkina Faso, FABF), National Gendarmerie (2011)
Military service age and obligation18-26 years of age for voluntary military service, with basic education certificate; no conscription; must be HIV/AIDS negative (2012)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; women may serve in supporting roles (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.49% of GDP (2015)
0.48% of GDP (2014)
0.53% of GDP (2013)
0.8% of GDP (2012)
0.59% of GDP (2011)
1.67% of GDP (2014)
1.34% of GDP (2013)
1.32% of GDP (2012)
1.29% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

GhanaBurkina Faso
Disputes - internationaldisputed maritime border between Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire
adding to illicit cross-border activities, Burkina Faso has issues concerning unresolved boundary alignments with its neighbors; demarcation is currently underway with Mali; the dispute with Niger was referred to the ICJ in 2010, and a dispute over several villages with Benin persists; Benin retains a border dispute with Burkina Faso around the town of Koualou
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 6,489 (Cote d'Ivoire; flight from 2010 post-election fighting) (2017)
refugees (country of origin): 33,056 (Mali) (2017)
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Ghana is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the trafficking of Ghanians, particularly children, internally is more common than the trafficking of foreign nationals; Ghanian children are subjected to forced labor in fishing, domestic service, street hawking, begging, portering, mining, quarrying, herding, and agriculture, with girls, and to a lesser extent boys, forced into prostitution; Ghanian women, sometimes lured with legitimate job offers, and girls are sex trafficked in West Africa, the Middle East, and Europe; Ghanian men fraudulently recruited for work in the Middle East are subjected to forced labor or prostitution, and a few Ghanian adults have been identified as victims of false labor in the US; women and girls from Vietnam, China, and neighboring West African countries are sex trafficked in Ghana; the country is also a transit point for sex trafficking from West Africa to Europe
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Ghana does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; Ghana continued to investigate and prosecute trafficking offenses but was unable to ramp up its anti-trafficking efforts in 2014 because the government failed to provide law enforcement or protection agencies with operating budgets; victim protection efforts decreased in 2014, with significantly fewer victims identified; most child victims were referred to NGO-run facilities, but care for adults was lacking because the government did not provide any support to the country’s Human Trafficking Fund for victim services or its two shelters; anti-trafficking prevention measures increased modestly, including reconvening of the Human Trafficking Management Board, public awareness campaigns on child labor and trafficking, and anti-trafficking TV and radio programs (2015)
current situation: Burkina Faso is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Burkinabe children are forced to work as farm hands, gold panners and washers, street vendors, domestic servants, and beggars or in the commercial sex trade, with some transported to nearby countries; to a lesser extent, Burkinabe women are recruited for legitimate jobs in the Middle East or Europe and subsequently forced into prostitution; women from other West African countries are also lured to Burkina Faso for work and subjected to forced prostitution, forced labor in restaurants, or domestic servitude
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Burkina Faso does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; law enforcement efforts decreased in 2014, with a significant decline in trafficking prosecutions (none for forced begging involving Koranic school teachers – a prevalent form of trafficking) and no convictions, a 2014 law criminalizing the sale of children, child prostitution, and child pornography is undermined by a provision allowing offenders to pay a fine in lieu of serving prison time proportionate to the crime; the government sustained efforts to identify and protect a large number of child victims, relying on support from NGOs and international organizations; nationwide awareness-raising activities were sustained, but little was done to stop forced begging (2015)

Source: CIA Factbook