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France vs. Italy

Introduction

FranceItaly
BackgroundFrance today is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leader among European nations. It plays an influential global role as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, NATO, the G-7, the G-20, the EU, and other multilateral organizations. France rejoined NATO's integrated military command structure in 2009, reversing DE GAULLE's 1966 decision to withdraw French forces from NATO. Since 1958, it has constructed a hybrid presidential-parliamentary governing system resistant to the instabilities experienced in earlier, more purely parliamentary administrations. In recent decades, its reconciliation and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the economic integration of Europe, including the introduction of a common currency, the euro, in January 1999. In the early 21st century, five French overseas entities - French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion - became French regions and were made part of France proper.
Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy is a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include sluggish economic growth, high youth and female unemployment, organized crime, corruption, and economic disparities between southern Italy and the more prosperous north.

Geography

FranceItaly
Locationmetropolitan France: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel, between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain
French Guiana: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Brazil and Suriname
Guadeloupe: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Puerto Rico
Martinique: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago
Mayotte: Southern Indian Ocean, island in the Mozambique Channel, about halfway between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique
Reunion: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar
Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia
Geographic coordinatesmetropolitan France: 46 00 N, 2 00 E
French Guiana: 4 00 N, 53 00 W
Guadeloupe: 16 15 N, 61 35 W
Martinique: 14 40 N, 61 00 W
Mayotte: 12 50 S, 45 10 E
Reunion: 21 06 S, 55 36 E
42 50 N, 12 50 E
Map referencesmetropolitan France: Europe
French Guiana: South America
Guadeloupe: Central America and the Caribbean
Martinique: Central America and the Caribbean
Mayotte: Africa
Reunion: World
Europe
Areatotal: 643,801 sq km; 551,500 sq km (metropolitan France)
land: 640,427 sq km; 549,970 sq km (metropolitan France)
water: 3,374 sq km; 1,530 sq km (metropolitan France)
note: the first numbers include the overseas regions of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion
total: 301,340 sq km
land: 294,140 sq km
water: 7,200 sq km
note: includes Sardinia and Sicily
Area - comparativeslightly more than four times the size of Georgia; slightly less than the size of Texas
almost twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Arizona
Land boundariesmetropolitan France - total: 2,751 km
border countries (8): Andorra 55 km, Belgium 556 km, Germany 418 km, Italy 476 km, Luxembourg 69 km, Monaco 6 km, Spain 646 km, Switzerland 525 km
French Guiana - total: 1,205 km
border countries (2): Brazil 649 km, Suriname 556 km
total: 1,836.4 km
border countries (6): Austria 404 km, France 476 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.4 km, San Marino 37 km, Slovenia 218 km, Switzerland 698 km
Coastlinetotal: 4,853 km
metropolitan France: 3,427 km
7,600 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (does not apply to the Mediterranean Sea)
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatemetropolitan France: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean; occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral
French Guiana: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation
Guadeloupe and Martinique: subtropical tempered by trade winds; moderately high humidity; rainy season (June to October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight years on average
Mayotte: tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November)
Reunion: tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation; cool and dry (May to November), hot and rainy (November to April)
predominantly Mediterranean; alpine in far north; hot, dry in south
Terrainmetropolitan France: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east
French Guiana: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains
Guadeloupe: Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains; Grande-Terre is low limestone formation; most of the seven other islands are volcanic in origin
Martinique: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano
Mayotte: generally undulating, with deep ravines and ancient volcanic peaks
Reunion: mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast
mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 375 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Rhone River delta -2 m
highest point: Mont Blanc 4,807 m
note: to assess the possible effects of climate change on the ice and snow cap of Mont Blanc, its surface and peak have been extensively measured in recent years; these new peak measurements have exceeded the traditional height of 4,807 m and have varied between 4,808 m and 4,811 m; the actual rock summit is 4,792 m and is 40 m away from the ice-covered summit
mean elevation: 538 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) de Courmayeur 4,748 m (a secondary peak of Mont Blanc)
Natural resourcesmetropolitan France: coal, iron ore, bauxite, zinc, uranium, antimony, arsenic, potash, feldspar, fluorspar, gypsum, timber, arable land, fish
French Guiana: gold deposits, petroleum, kaolin, niobium, tantalum, clay
coal, mercury, zinc, potash, marble, barite, asbestos, pumice, fluorspar, feldspar, pyrite (sulfur), natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 52.7%
arable land 33.4%; permanent crops 1.8%; permanent pasture 17.5%
forest: 29.2%
other: 18.1% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 47.1%
arable land 22.8%; permanent crops 8.6%; permanent pasture 15.7%
forest: 31.4%
other: 21.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated landtotal: 26,420 sq km 26,950 sq km
metropolitan France: 26,000 sq km (2012)
39,500 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsmetropolitan France: flooding; avalanches; midwinter windstorms; drought; forest fires in south near the Mediterranean
overseas departments: hurricanes (cyclones); flooding; volcanic activity (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion)
regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice
volcanism: significant volcanic activity; Etna (elev. 3,330 m), which is in eruption as of 2010, is Europe's most active volcano; flank eruptions pose a threat to nearby Sicilian villages; Etna, along with the famous Vesuvius, which remains a threat to the millions of nearby residents in the Bay of Naples area, have both been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Stromboli, on its namesake island, has also been continuously active with moderate volcanic activity; other historically active volcanoes include Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Larderello, Pantelleria, Vulcano, and Vulsini
Environment - current issuessome forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural runoff
air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelargest West European nation; most major French rivers - the Meuse, Seine, Loire, Charente, Dordogne, and Garonne - flow northward or westward into the Atlantic Ocean, only the Rhone flows southward into the Mediterranean Sea
strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe
Population distributionmuch of the population is concentrated in the north and southeast; although there are many urban agglomerations throughout the country, Paris is by far the largest city, with Lyon ranked a distant second
despite a distinctive pattern with an industrial north and an agrarian south, a fairly even population distribution exists throughout most of the country, with coastal areas, the Po River Valley, and urban centers (particularly Milan, Rome, and Naples), attracting larger and denser populations

Demographics

FranceItaly
Population66,836,154
note: the above figure is for metropolitan France and five overseas regions; the metropolitan France population is 62,814,233 (July 2016 est.)
62,007,540 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 18.59% (male 6,354,241/female 6,070,971)
15-24 years: 11.8% (male 4,035,407/female 3,853,153)
25-54 years: 38.04% (male 12,799,923/female 12,625,781)
55-64 years: 12.44% (male 4,011,853/female 4,303,261)
65 years and over: 19.12% (male 5,510,337/female 7,271,227) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 13.69% (male 4,337,792/female 4,151,901)
15-24 years: 9.74% (male 3,026,359/female 3,012,882)
25-54 years: 42.46% (male 13,003,171/female 13,326,901)
55-64 years: 12.73% (male 3,826,630/female 4,069,855)
65 years and over: 21.37% (male 5,696,612/female 7,555,437) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 41.2 years
male: 39.5 years
female: 42.9 years (2016 est.)
total: 45.1 years
male: 44 years
female: 46.2 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.41% (2016 est.)
0.23% (2016 est.)
Birth rate12.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
8.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate9.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
10.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 81.8 years
male: 78.7 years
female: 85.1 years (2016 est.)
total population: 82.2 years
male: 79.6 years
female: 85 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.07 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.43 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
0.37% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective: French
noun: Italian(s)
adjective: Italian
Ethnic groupsCeltic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque minorities
overseas departments: black, white, mulatto, East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian
Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
136,800 (2015 est.)
ReligionsChristian (overwhelmingly Roman Catholic) 63-66%, Muslim 7-9%, Buddhist 0.5-0.75%, Jewish 0.5-0.75%, other 0.5-1.0%, none 23-28%
note: France maintains a tradition of secularism and has not officially collected data on religious affiliation since the 1872 national census, which complicates assessments of France's religious composition; an 1872 law prohibiting state authorities from collecting data on individuals' ethnicity or religious beliefs was reaffirmed by a 1978 law emphasizing the prohibition of the collection or exploitation of personal data revealing an individual's race, ethnicity, or political, philosophical, or religious opinions; a 1905 law codified France's separation of church and state (2015 est.)
Christian 80% (overwhelmingly Roman Catholic with very small groups of Jehovah's Witnesses and Protestants), Muslim (about 800,000 to 1 million), atheist and agnostic 20%
HIV/AIDS - deaths1,500 (2013 est.)
700 (2015 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official) 100%, declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish, Occitan, Picard)
overseas departments: French, Creole patois, Mahorian (a Swahili dialect)
Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2014)
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2014)
Education expenditures5.5% of GDP (2013)
4.2% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 79.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.84% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 69% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.39% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 98.6% of population
rural: 98.9% of population
total: 98.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.4% of population
rural: 1.1% of population
total: 1.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.5% of population
rural: 99.6% of population
total: 99.5% of population
unimproved::
urban: 0.5% of population
rural: 0.4% of population
total: 0.5% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationPARIS (capital) 10.843 million; Lyon 1.609 million; Marseille-Aix-en-Provence 1.605 million; Lille 1.027 million; Nice-Cannes 967,000; Toulouse 938,000 (2015)
ROME (capital) 3.718 million; Milan 3.099 million; Naples 2.202 million; Turin 1.765 million; Palermo 853,000; Bergamo 840,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate8 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures11.5% of GDP (2014)
9.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3.23 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
3.95 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density6.4 beds/1,000 population (2011)
3.4 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate25.7% (2014)
23.7% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth28.1 years (2010 est.)
30.3 years (2011 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 60.3
youth dependency ratio: 29.6
elderly dependency ratio: 30.6
potential support ratio: 3.3 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 56.5
youth dependency ratio: 21.5
elderly dependency ratio: 35.1
potential support ratio: 2.9 (2015 est.)

Government

FranceItaly
Country name"conventional long form: French Republic
conventional short form: France
local long form: Republique francaise
local short form: France
etymology: name derives from the Latin ""Francia"" meaning ""Land of the Franks""; the Franks were a group of Germanic tribes located along the middle and lower Rhine River in the 3rd century A.D. who merged with Gallic-Roman populations in succeeding centuries and to whom they passed on their name
"
"conventional long form: Italian Republic
conventional short form: Italy
local long form: Repubblica Italiana
local short form: Italia
former: Kingdom of Italy
etymology: derivation is unclear, but the Latin ""Italia"" may come from the Oscan ""Viteliu"" meaning ""[Land] of Young Cattle"" (the bull was a symbol of southern Italic tribes)
"
Government typesemi-presidential republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Paris
geographic coordinates: 48 52 N, 2 20 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
note: applies to metropolitan France only, not to its overseas departments, collectivities, or territories
name: Rome
geographic coordinates: 41 54 N, 12 29 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions"18 regions (regions, singular - region); Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes, Bourgogne-Franche-Comte (Burgundy-Free County), Bretagne (Brittany), Centre-Val de Loire (Center-Loire Valley), Corse (Corsica), Grand Est (Grand East), Guadeloupe, Guyane (French Guiana), Hauts-de-France (Upper France), Ile-de-France, Martinique, Mayotte, Normandie (Normandy), Nouvelle-Aquitaine (New Aquitaine), Occitanie (Occitania), Pays de la Loire (Lands of the Loire), Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Reunion
note: France is divided into 13 metropolitan regions (including the ""territorial collectivity"" of Corse or Corsica) and 5 overseas regions (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion) and is subdivided into 96 metropolitan departments and 5 overseas departments (which are the same as the overseas regions)
"
15 regions (regioni, singular - regione) and 5 autonomous regions (regioni autonome, singular - regione autonoma)
regions: Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Lazio (Latium), Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte (Piedmont), Puglia (Apulia), Toscana (Tuscany), Umbria, Veneto (Venetia)
autonomous regions: Friuli-Venezia Giulia; Sardegna (Sardinia); Sicilia (Sicily); Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-South Tyrol) or Trentino-Suedtirol (German); Valle d'Aosta (Aosta Valley) or Vallee d'Aoste (French)
Independenceno official date of independence: 486 (Frankish tribes unified under Merovingian kingship); 10 August 843 (Western Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 14 July 1789 (French monarchy overthrown); 22 September 1792 (First French Republic founded); 4 October 1958 (Fifth French Republic established)
17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1871)
National holidayFete de la Federation, 14 July (1790); note - although often incorrectly referred to as Bastille Day, the celebration actually commemorates the holiday held on the first anniversary of the storming of the Bastille (on 14 July 1789) and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy; other names for the holiday are Fete Nationale (National Holiday) and quatorze juillet (14th of July)
Republic Day, 2 June (1946)
Constitutionhistory: many previous; latest effective 4 October 1958
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic (upon recommendation of the prime minister and Parliament) or by Parliament; proposals submitted by Parliament members require passage by both houses followed by approval in a referendum; passage of proposals submitted by the government can bypass a referendum if submitted by the president to Parliament and passed by at least three-fifths majority vote by Parliament’s National Assembly; amended many times, last in 2008 (2016)
history: previous 1848 (originally for the Kingdom of Sardinia and adopted by the Kingdom of Italy in 1861); latest enacted 22 December 1947, adopted 27 December 1947, entered into force 1 January 1948
amendments: proposed by both houses of Parliament; passage requires two successive debates and approval by absolute majority of each house on the second vote; a referendum is only required when requested by one-fifth of the members of either house, by voter petition, or by five Regional Councils (elected legislative assemblies of the 15 first-level administrative regions and 5 autonomous regions of Italy); referendum not required if an amendment has been approved by a two-thirds majority in each house in the second vote; amended many times, last in 2012; note - a referendum held on 4 December 2016 on constitutional amendments was defeated
Legal systemcivil law; review of administrative but not legislative acts
civil law system; judicial review of legislation under certain conditions in Constitutional Court
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25
Executive branchchief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Edouard PHILIPPE (since 15 May 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president at the suggestion of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 April and 7 May 2017 (next to be held on April (first round) and May (second round) 2022); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Emmanuel MACRON elected president; percent of vote in first round - Emmanuel MACRON (EM) 24.0%, Marine LE PEN (FN) 21.3%, Francois FILLON (LR) 20.0%, Jean-Luc MELENCHON (FI) 19.6%, Benoit HAMON (PS) 6.4%, other 8.7%; percent of vote in second round - MACRON 66.1%%, LE PEN 33.9%
chief of state: President Sergio MATTARELLA (since 3 February 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Paolo GENTILONI (since 12 December 2016); note - Prime Minister Matteo RENZI (since 22 February 2014) resigned 12 December 2016; the prime minister's official title is President of the Council of Ministers
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, known officially as the President of the Council of Ministers and locally as the Premier; nominated by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of Parliament and 58 regional representatives for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 31 January 2015 (next scheduled for 2022); prime minister appointed by the president, confirmed by parliament
election results: Sergio MATTARELLA (PD) elected president; electoral college vote count in fourth round - 665 out of 1,009 (505-vote threshold); Paolo GENTILONI (PD) sworn in as prime minister on 12 December 2016
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (348 seats - 328 for metropolitan France and overseas departments and regions of Guadeloupe, Martinque, French Guiana, Reunion, and Mayotte, 2 for New Caledonia, 2 for French Polynesia, 1 for Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, 1 for Saint-Barthelemy, 1 for Saint-Martin, 1 for Wallis and Futuna, and 12 for French nationals abroad; members indirectly elected by departmental electoral colleges using absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed for departments with 1-3 members and proportional representation vote in departments with 4 or more members; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (577 seats - 556 for metropolitan France, 10 for overseas departments, and 11 for citizens abroad; members directly elected by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed to serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 28 September 2014 (next to be held 24 September 2017); National Assembly - last held on 10 and 17 June 2012 (next to be held 11 and 18 June 2017)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UMP 187, PS 152, other 9; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - PS 48.5%, UMP 33.6%, miscellaneous left wing parties 3.8%, Greens 3.0%, miscellaneous right wing parties 2.6%, NC 2.1%, PRG 2.1%, FDG 1.7%, other 2.6%; seats by party - PS 280, UMP 194, miscellaneous left wing parties 22, Greens 17, miscellaneous right wing parties 15, NC 12, PRG 12, FDG 10, other 15
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of the Senate or Senato della Repubblica (322 seats; 315 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 7 ex-officio members appointed by the president of the Republic to serve for life) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; 629 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member from Valle d'Aosta elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - center-left coalition 123 (PD 111, SEL 7, SVP 2, other 3), center-right coalition 117 (PdL 98, LN 18, other 1), M5S 54, centrist coalition 19, other 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - center-left coalition 345 (PD 297, SEL 37, CD 6 SVP 5), center-right coalition 125 (PdL 98, LN 18, FdI 9), M5S 109, centrist coalition 47, other 3
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (consists of the court president, 6 divisional presiding judges, 120 trial judges, and 70 deputy judges organized into 6 divisions - 3 civil, 1 commercial, 1 labor, and 1 criminal); Constitutional Council (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by the president of the republic from nominations from the High Council of the Judiciary, presided by the Court of Cassation and 15 appointed members; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council members appointed - 3 by the president of the republic and 3 each by the National Assembly and Senate presidents; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms with one third of the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: appellate courts or Cour d'Appel; regional courts or Tribunal de Grande Instance; first instance courts or Tribunal d'instance
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation or Corte Suprema di Cassazione consists of the first president (chief justice), deputy president, 54 justices presiding over 6 civil and 7 criminal divisions, and 288 judges; an additional 30 judges of lower courts serve as supporting judges; cases normally heard by 5-judge panels; more complex cases heard by 9-judge panels; Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale (consists of the court president and 14 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the High Council of the Judiciary, headed by the president of the republic; judges may serve for life; Constitutional Court judges - 5 appointed by the president, 5 elected by parliament, 5 elected by select higher courts; judges serve up to 9 years
subordinate courts: various lower civil and criminal courts (primary and secondary tribunals, courts, and courts of appeal)
Political parties and leadersDemocratic Movement or MODEM [Francois BAYROU]
Europe Ecology - The Greens or EELV [David CORMAND]
Forward! (En Marche!) or EM [Catherine BARBAROUX, acting]
French Communist Party or PCF [Pierre LAURENT]
La France insoumise or FI [Jean-Luc MELENCHON]
Left Front Coalition or FDG [Jean-Luc MELENCHON]
Left Party or PG [collective leadership; main leaders Jean-Luc MELENCHON and Francois COCO, linked with the movement La France Insoumise or FI [Jean-Luc MELENCHON]]
Left Radical Party or PRG [Sylvia PINEL] (previously Radical Socialist Party or PRS and the Left Radical Movement or MRG)
Movement for France or MPF [Philippe DE VILLIERS]
National Front or FN [Marine LE PEN]
New Anticapitalist Party or NPA [collective leadership; main spokesperson Christine POUPIN; presidential candIdate Philippe POUTOU]
Rally for France or RPF [Igor KUREK]
Republican and Citizen Movement or MRC [Jean-Luc LAURENT]
Socialist Party or PS [vacant]
Stand Up France (Debout La France) [Nicolas DUPONT-AIGNAN]
The Centrists [Herve MORIN] (formerly new Center of NC)
The Republicans or LR (formerly Union for a Popular Movement or UMP) [vacant]
Union des Democrates et Independants or UDI [Jean-Christohe LAGARDE] and Democratic Movement or MoDem [Francois BAYROU] (previously Union for French Democracy or UDF); together known as UDI-Modem; Radical Party [Laurent HENART] is a member of UDI
United Republic or RS [Dominique DE VILLEPIN]
Worker's Struggle (Lutte Ouvriere) or LO; also known as Communist Union; [collective leadership; spokespersons Nathalie ARTHAUD and Arlette LAGUILLER]
Ruling left-center-right coalition:
Civic Choice or SC [Enrico ZANETTI]
Democratic Centre or CD [Bruno TABACCI]
Democratic Party or PD [Matteo RENZI]
The New Center-Right or NCD [Angelino ALFANO]
Union of the Center or UdC [Pier Fernando CASSINI]

Center-right opposition:
Brothers of Italy-National Alliance or FdI-AN [Giorgia MELONI, Ignazio LA RUSSA, and Guido CROSETTO]
Forza Italia [Silvio BERLUSCONI] (formerly PdL)
Northern League or LN [Matteo SALVINI]
other minor parties

Other parties and parliamentary groups:
Five Star Movment or M5S (populist, anti-establishment) [Beppe GRILLO]
Liberal Popular Alliance [Denis VERDINI]
Movement of Democrats and Progressives (left; external support of governing coalition) [Pierluigi BERSANI]
Sinistra Italiani (left opposition) [Nicola FRATOIANNI]
South Tyrolean People's Party or SVP [Philipp ACHAMMER]
Political pressure groups and leadersConfederation francaise de l'encadrement - Confederation generale des cadres (French Confederation of Management - General Confederation of Executives) or CFE-CGC [Francois HOMMERIL, president] (independent white-collar union with 140,000 members)
Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail (French Democratic Confederation of Labor) or CFDT [Laurent BERGER, secretary general] (left-leaning labor union with approximately 875,000 members)
Confederation francaise des travailleurs chretiens (French Confederation of Christian Workers) or CFTC [Philippe LOUIS, president] (independent labor union founded by Catholic workers that claims 142,000 members)
Confederation generale du travail (General Confederation of Labor) or CGT [Philippe MARTINEZ, secretary general] (historically communist labor union with approximately 710,000 members)
Confederation generale du travail - Force ouvriere (General Confederation of Labor - Worker's Force) or FO [Jean-Claude MAILLY, secretary general] (independent labor union with an estimated 300,000 members)
Mouvement des entreprises de France or MEDEF [Pierre GATTAZ, president] (employers' union with claimed 750,000 companies as members)

French Guiana:
conservationists; gold mining pressure groups; hunting pressure groups

Guadeloupe:
Christian Movement for the Liberation of Guadeloupe or KLPG
General Federation of Guadeloupe Workers or CGT-G
General Union of Guadeloupe Workers or UGTG
Movement for an Independent Guadeloupe or MPGI
The Socialist Renewal Movement

Martinique:
Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance or ARC
Central Union for Martinique Workers or CSTM
Frantz Fanon Circle
League of Workers and Peasants
Proletarian Action Group or GAP

Reunion:
NA

manufacturers and merchants associations: Confcommercio
Confindustria
organized farm groups: Confcoltivatori
Confagricoltura
major trade union confederations: Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Susanna CAMUSSO] (left wing)
Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Raffaele BONANNI] (Roman Catholic centrist)
Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] (lay centrist)
other: Roman Catholic Church
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, FZ, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CDB, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Gerard ARAUD (since 18 September 2014)
chancery: 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 944-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 944-6166
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Washington DC
chief of mission: Ambassador Armando VARRICCHIO (since 2 March 2016)
chancery: 3000 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 612-4400
FAX: [1] (202) 518-2151
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco
consulate(s): Charlotte (NC), Cleveland (OH), Detroit (MI), Hattiesburg (MS), Honolulu (HI), New Orleans, Newark (NJ), Norfolk (VA), Pittsburgh (PA), Portland (OR), Seattle
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Uzra ZEYA (since 20 January 2017) note - also accredited to Monaco
embassy: 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08
mailing address: PSC 116, APO AE 09777
telephone: [33] (1) 43-12-22-22
FAX: [33] (1) 42 66 97 83
consulate(s) general: Marseille, Strasbourg
consulate(s): Bordeaux, Lyon, Rennes, Toulouse
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kelly C. DEGNAN (since 20 January 2017); note - also accredited to San Marino
embassy: Via Vittorio Veneto 121, 00187-Rome
mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100, APO AE 09624
telephone: [39] (06) 46741
FAX: [39] (06) 4674-2244
consulate(s) general: Florence, Milan, Naples
Flag description"three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as the ""Le drapeau tricolore"" (French Tricolor), the origin of the flag dates to 1790 and the French Revolution when the ""ancient French color"" of white was combined with the blue and red colors of the Parisian militia; the official flag for all French dependent areas
note: the design and/or colors are similar to a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, and Netherlands
"
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; design inspired by the French flag brought to Italy by Napoleon in 1797; colors are those of Milan (red and white) combined with the green uniform color of the Milanese civic guard
note: similar to the flag of Mexico, which is longer, uses darker shades of red and green, and has its coat of arms centered on the white band; Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green
National anthem"name: ""La Marseillaise"" (The Song of Marseille)
lyrics/music: Claude-Joseph ROUGET de Lisle
note: adopted 1795, restored 1870; originally known as ""Chant de Guerre pour l'Armee du Rhin"" (War Song for the Army of the Rhine), the National Guard of Marseille made the song famous by singing it while marching into Paris in 1792 during the French Revolutionary Wars
"
"name: ""Il Canto degli Italiani"" (The Song of the Italians)
lyrics/music: Goffredo MAMELI/Michele NOVARO
note: adopted 1946; the anthem, originally written in 1847, is also known as ""L'Inno di Mameli"" (Mameli's Hymn), and ""Fratelli D'Italia"" (Brothers of Italy)
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Gallic rooster, fleur-de-lis, Marianne (female personification); national colors: blue, white, red
white, five-pointed star (Stella d'Italia); national colors: red, white, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of France
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Italy
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years for EU nationals, 5 years for refugees and specified exceptions, 10 years for all others

Economy

FranceItaly
Economy - overviewThe French economy is diversified across all sectors. The government has partially or fully privatized many large companies, including Air France, France Telecom, Renault, and Thales. However, the government maintains a strong presence in some sectors, particularly power, public transport, and defense industries. Despite terrorist attacks, labor strikes, and bad weather, France is still the most visited country in the world with 83 million foreign tourists in 2016, including 530,000 who came for the 2016 Euro Cup. France's leaders remain committed to a capitalism in which they maintain social equity by means of laws, tax policies, and social spending that mitigate economic inequality.

France's real GDP grew by 1.1% in 2016, down from 1.3% the year before. The unemployment rate (including overseas territories) increased from 7.8% in 2008 to 10.2% in 2015, before slightly falling to 10% in 2016. Youth unemployment in metropolitan France decreased from 24.6% in the fourth quarter of 2014 to 24% in the fourth quarter of 2016.

Lower-than-expected growth and high spending have strained France's public finances. Despite measures to restore public finances since President Fran?ois HOLLANDE took office in 2012, the budget deficit rose from 3.3% of GDP in 2008 to 7.5% of GDP in 2009 before improving to 3.4% of GDP in 2016. Meanwhile, France's public debt rose from 89.5% of GDP in 2012 to 96% in 2016.

President HOLLANDE’s policies have aimed to enhance French industry’s competitiveness and to lower high jobless figures. The Competitiveness and Employment Tax Credit of 2012, the Responsibility and Solidarity Pact of 2014, the Investment Stimulus Plan, and the Emergency Jobs Plan represent more than $42.6 billion in support for businesses in 2017 by lowering French labor costs, but so far the results of these policies have been marginal on France’s competitiveness and job creation. In an effort to bolster social justice, the 2017 budget bill contained provisions to reduce income taxes for households and for small and medium sized enterprises.

During his mandate, President HOLLANDE oversaw two highly unpopular economic reforms that led to widespread protests. The “Macron Law” of 2015, enacted to boost economic growth, authorized businesses to open some Sundays of each month and allowed flexibility to negotiate pay and working hours. The “El Khomri law,” imposed by decree in 2016, aimed to make it easier for businesses to employ people and gave employers more leeway to negotiate hours, wages, and time off.
Italy has a diversified economy, which is divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less-developed, highly subsidized, agricultural south, where unemployment is higher. The Italian economy is driven in large part by the manufacture of high-quality consumer goods produced by small and medium-sized enterprises, many of them family-owned. Italy also has a sizable underground economy, which by some estimates accounts for as much as 17% of GDP. These activities are most common within the agriculture, construction, and service sectors.

Italy is the third-largest economy in the euro zone, but its exceptionally high public debt and structural impediments to growth have rendered it vulnerable to scrutiny by financial markets. Public debt has increased steadily since 2007, reaching 133% of GDP in 2016. Investor concerns about Italy and the broader euro-zone crisis eased in 2013, bringing down Italy's borrowing costs on sovereign government debt from euro-era records. The government still faces pressure from investors and European partners to sustain its efforts to address Italy's longstanding structural impediments to growth, such as labor market inefficiencies, a sluggish judicial system, and a weak banking sector. Italy’s economy returned to modest growth in late 2014 for the first time since late 2011. In 2015-16, Italy’s economy grew 0.7% each year. In 2016, overall unemployment was 11.7%, but youth unemployment remains high at 37.1%.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$2.699 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.67 trillion (2015 est.)
$2.667 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$2.221 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.204 trillion (2015 est.)
$2.187 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1.1% (2016 est.)
1.3% (2015 est.)
0.6% (2014 est.)
0.8% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2015 est.)
-0.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$42,400 (2016 est.)
$42,000 (2015 est.)
$41,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$36,300 (2016 est.)
$36,300 (2015 est.)
$36,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 1.7%
industry: 19.4%
services: 78.8% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 2.2%
industry: 23.9%
services: 73.8% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line14% (2013 est.)
29.9% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 25.4% (2013)
lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 26.8% (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)0.3% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2015 est.)
-0.2% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2015 est.)
Labor force30.48 million (2016 est.)
25.6 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 2.4%
industry: 18.3%
services: 79.3% (2015 est.)
agriculture: 3.9%
industry: 28.3%
services: 67.8% (2011)
Unemployment rate9.7% (2016 est.)
10.1% (2015 est.)
note: includes overseas territories
11.4% (2016 est.)
11.9% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index29.2 (2015)
30.5 (2012)
31.9 (2012 est.)
27.3 (1995)
Budgetrevenues: $1.308 trillion
expenditures: $1.392 trillion (2016 est.)
revenues: $842.5 billion
expenditures: $889.8 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesmachinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics; textiles, food processing; tourism
tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
Industrial production growth rate0.5% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productswheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; beef, dairy products; fish
fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; beef, dairy products; fish
Exports$489.1 billion (2016 est.)
$493.6 billion (2015 est.)
$436.3 billion (2016 est.)
$450.1 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmachinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, iron and steel, beverages
engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco; minerals, nonferrous metals
Exports - partnersGermany 16.1%, Spain 7.5%, US 7.4%, Italy 7.3%, UK 7%, Belgium 6.8% (2016)
Germany 12.3%, France 10.3%, US 8.7%, UK 5.4%, Spain 4.8%, Switzerland 4.7% (2015)
Imports$561 billion (2016 est.)
$563.4 billion (2015 est.)
$372.2 billion (2016 est.)
$391.2 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics, chemicals
engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages, tobacco
Imports - partnersGermany 16.9%, China 9.1%, Italy 7.5%, US 7%, Belgium 6.7%, Spain 6.4%, Netherlands 6%, UK 4.3% (2016)
Germany 15.4%, France 8.7%, China 7.7%, Netherlands 5.6%, Spain 5%, Belgium 4.7% (2015)
Debt - external$5.36 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$5.25 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
$2.444 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$2.3 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
Exchange rateseuros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt96% of GDP (2016 est.)
95.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
132.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
132.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: Italy reports its data on public debt according to guidelines set out in the Maastricht Treaty; general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year, in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the central government, state government, local government and social security funds
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$153.9 billion (29 April 2016 est.)
$138.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$130.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$142.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Current Account Balance-$26.85 billion (2016 est.)
-$4.832 billion (2015 est.)
$50.76 billion (2016 est.)
$29.57 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$2.488 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.852 trillion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$796.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$772 billion (2015 est.)
$472.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$463.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$1.339 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.314 trillion (2015 est.)
$610.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$594.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$1.591 trillion (31 March 2017 est.)
$2.088 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.086 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$587.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$615.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$480.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Central bank discount rate0% (31 December 2016)
0.05% (31 December 2015)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
0.25% (31 December 2013)
0.75% (31 December 2012)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
Commercial bank prime lending rate2% (31 December 2016 est.)
1.93% (31 December 2015 est.)
3.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.13% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$3.64 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.528 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.97 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.053 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.144 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.079 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
$1.069 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.026 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
Stock of broad money$2.541 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$2.771 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$2.134 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$2.284 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues52.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
45.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
-2.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 23.2%
male: 24.1%
female: 22.1% (2014 est.)
total: 42.7%
male: 41.3%
female: 44.7% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 53.5%
government consumption: 26.4%
investment in fixed capital: 21.8%
investment in inventories: 1.3%
exports of goods and services: 30.4%
imports of goods and services: -33.4% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 60.9%
government consumption: 18.8%
investment in fixed capital: 16.5%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 29.7%
imports of goods and services: -26.1% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving21.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
18.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
19% of GDP (2015 est.)
18.2% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

FranceItaly
Electricity - production562.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
283 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption415.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
297 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports75.06 billion kWh (2014 est.)
4.5 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports7.873 billion kWh (2014 est.)
50.8 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Oil - production16,670 bbl/day (2015 est.)
100,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports1.174 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.395 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - exports21,960 bbl/day (2015 est.)
24,640 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - proved reserves84.08 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
544.5 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves8.75 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
53.72 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production17 million cu m (2014 est.)
5.785 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption36.72 billion cu m (2014 est.)
70.91 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports7.077 billion cu m (2014 est.)
21.2 million cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - imports45.13 billion cu m (2014 est.)
65.28 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity129 million kW (2014 est.)
120 million kW (2015 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels20.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
57.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants14.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
18.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels48.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources11.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
24% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production1.277 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.578 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption1.691 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.266 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports444,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
533,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports866,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
261,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy385.6 million Mt (2013 est.)
362 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

FranceItaly
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 38.929 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 58 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 20,236,305
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 66.681 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 100 (July 2015 est.)
total: 92.52 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 150 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: highly developed
domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive use of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system
international: country code - 33; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and US; satellite earth stations - more than 3 (2 Intelsat (with total of 5 antennas - 2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean), NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat - Atlantic Ocean region); HF radiotelephone communications with more than 20 countries
overseas departments: country codes: French Guiana - 594; Guadeloupe - 590; Martinique - 596; Mayotte - 262; Reunion - 262 (2015)
general assessment: modern, well-developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services
domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks
international: country code - 39; a series of submarine cables provide links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat (2015)
Internet country codemetropolitan France - .fr; French Guiana - .gf; Guadeloupe - .gp; Martinique - .mq; Mayotte - .yt; Reunion - .re
.it
Internet userstotal: 56.367 million
percent of population: 84.7% (July 2015 est.)
total: 40.559 million
percent of population: 65.6% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediaa mix of both publicly operated and privately owned TV stations; state-owned France television stations operate 4 networks, one of which is a network of regional stations, and has part-interest in several thematic cable/satellite channels and international channels; a large number of privately owned regional and local TV stations; multi-channel satellite and cable services provide a large number of channels; public broadcaster Radio France operates 7 national networks, a series of regional networks, and operates services for overseas territories and foreign audiences; Radio France Internationale, under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is a leading international broadcaster; a large number of commercial FM stations, with many of them consolidating into commercial networks (2008)
two Italian media giants dominate - the publicly owned Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI) with 3 national terrestrial stations and privately owned Mediaset with 3 national terrestrial stations; a large number of private stations and Sky Italia - a satellite TV network; RAI operates 3 AM/FM nationwide radio stations; about 1,300 commercial radio stations (2007)

Transportation

FranceItaly
Railwaystotal: 29,640 km
standard gauge: 29,473 km 1.435-m gauge (15,561 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 167 km 1.000-m gauge (63 km electrified) (2014)
total: 20,181.7 km
standard gauge: 18,770.1 km 1.435-m gauge (12,893.6 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 122.3 km 1.000-m gauge (122.3 km electrified); 1,289.3 km 0.950-m gauge (151.3 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 1,028,446 km (metropolitan France)
paved: 1,028,446 km (includes 11,416 km of expressways)
note: not included are 5,100 km of roadways in overseas departments (2010)
total: 487,700 km
paved: 487,700 km (includes 6,700 km of expressways) (2007)
Waterwaysmetropolitan France: 8,501 km (1,621 km navigable by craft up to 3,000 metric tons) (2010)
2,400 km (used for commercial traffic; of limited overall value compared to road and rail) (2012)
Pipelinesgas 15,322 km; oil 2,939 km; refined products 5,084 km (2013)
gas 20,223 km; oil 1,393 km; refined products 1,574 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Brest, Calais, Dunkerque, Le Havre, Marseille, Nantes,
river port(s): Paris, Rouen (Seine); Strasbourg (Rhine); Bordeaux (Garronne)
container port(s): Le Havre (2,215,262) (2011)
cruise/ferry port(s): Calais, Cherbourg, Le Havre
LNG terminal(s) (import): Fos Cavaou, Fos Tonkin, Montoir de Bretagne
major seaport(s): Augusta, Cagliari, Genoa, Livorno, Taranto, Trieste, Venice
oil terminal(s): Melilli (Santa Panagia) oil terminal, Sarroch oil terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Genoa (1,847,648), Gioia Tauro (2,264,798), La Spezia (1,307,274)
LNG terminal(s) (import): La Spezia, Panigaglia, Porto Levante
Merchant marinetotal: 169
by type: container 24, dry bulk 1, liquefied gas 6, passenger 67, roll on/roll off 21, tanker 34, other 16 (2016)
foreign-owned: 50 (Belgium 7, Bermuda 5, Denmark 11, French Polynesia 11, Germany 1, New Caledonia 3, Singapore 3, Sweden 4, Switzerland 5) (2010)
registered in other countries: 151 (Bahamas 15, Belgium 7, Bermuda 1, Canada 1, Cyprus 16, Egypt 1, Hong Kong 4, Indonesia 1, Ireland 2, Italy 2, Luxembourg 15, Malta 8, Marshall Islands 7, Mexico 1, Morocco 3, Netherlands 2, Norway 5, Panama 7, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Singapore 3, South Korea 2, Taiwan 2, UK 39, US 4, unknown 1) (2010)
total: 681
by type: bulk carrier 105, cargo 42, carrier 1, chemical tanker 164, container 21, liquefied gas 28, passenger 25, passenger/cargo 154, petroleum tanker 59, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 39, specialized tanker 9, vehicle carrier 30
foreign-owned: 90 (Denmark 4, France 2, Greece 7, Luxembourg 14, Netherlands 2, Nigeria 1, Norway 6, Singapore 1, Sweden 1, Switzerland 13, Taiwan 10, Turkey 4, UK 2, US 23)
registered in other countries: 201 (Bahamas 1, Belize 3, Cayman Islands 7, Cyprus 6, Georgia 2, Gibraltar 4, Greece 5, Liberia 47, Malta 45, Marshall Islands 1, Morocco 1, Netherlands 6, Panama 25, Portugal 12, Russia 14, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4, Singapore 5, Slovakia 2, Spain 1, Sweden 5, Turkey 1, UK 3, unknown 1) (2010)
Airports464 (2013)
129 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 294
over 3,047 m: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 25
1,524 to 2,437 m: 97
914 to 1,523 m: 83
under 914 m: 75 (2013)
total: 98
over 3,047 m: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 31
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 29
under 914 m: 11 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 170
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 64
under 914 m: 105 (2013)
total: 31
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 20 (2013)
Heliports1 (2013)
5 (2013)

Military

FranceItaly
Military branchesArmy (Armee de Terre; includes Marines, Foreign Legion, Army Light Aviation), Navy (Marine Nationale), Air Force (Armee de l'Air (AdlA); includes Air Defense) (2011)
Italian Armed Forces: Army (Esercito Italiano, EI), Navy (Marina Militare Italiana, MMI), Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana, AMI), Carabinieri Corps (Arma dei Carabinieri, CC), Financial Guard (Guardia di Finanza) (2015)
Military service age and obligation18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; 1-year service obligation; women serve in noncombat posts (2013)
18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; women may serve in any military branch; Italian citizenship required; 1-year service obligation (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.78% of GDP (2016)
2.1% of GDP (2015)
2.24% of GDP (2014)
2.22% of GDP (2013)
2.24% of GDP (2012)
1.31% of GDP (2015)
1.47% of GDP (2014)
1.59% of GDP (2013)
1.63% of GDP (2012)
1.68% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

FranceItaly
Disputes - internationalMadagascar claims the French territories of Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; territorial dispute between Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana; France asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land); France and Vanuatu claim Matthew and Hunter Islands, east of New Caledonia
Italy's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern Africa
Illicit drugsmetropolitan France: transshipment point for South American cocaine, Southwest Asian heroin, and European synthetics
French Guiana: small amount of marijuana grown for local consumption; minor transshipment point to Europe
Martinique: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and Europe
important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; money laundering by organized crime and from smuggling
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 24,326 (Sri Lanka); 15,232 (Russia); 15,037 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 13,154 (Serbia and Kosovo); 11,566 (Cambodia); 10,615 (Turkey); 8,991 (Syria); 8,008 (Vietnam); 7,685 (Afghanistan); 7,049 (Sudan); 6,841 (Laos); 6,823 (Guinea); 6,043 (Iraq); 5,183 (Mauritania) (2016)
stateless persons: 1,370 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 16,033 (Afghanistan); 14,336 (Somalia); 14,247 (Nigeria); 13,412 (Pakistan); 11,327 (Mali); 10,049 (Eritrea); 7,723 (Gambia); 5,805 (Cote d'Ivoire) (2016)
stateless persons: 701 (2016)
note: 420,461 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals by sea (January 2015 - July 2017)

Source: CIA Factbook