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Ethiopia vs. Djibouti

Introduction

EthiopiaDjibouti
BackgroundUnique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front. A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea in the late 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. In November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission (EEBC) issued specific coordinates as virtually demarcating the border and pronounced its work finished. Alleging that the EEBC acted beyond its mandate in issuing the coordinates, Ethiopia has not accepted them and has not withdrawn troops from previously contested areas pronounced by the EEBC as belonging to Eritrea. In August 2012, longtime leader Prime Minister MELES Zenawi died in office and was replaced by his Deputy Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn, marking the first peaceful transition of power in decades.
The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas became Djibouti in 1977. Hassan Gouled APTIDON installed an authoritarian one-party state and proceeded to serve as president until 1999. Unrest among the Afar minority during the 1990s led to a civil war that ended in 2001 with a peace accord between Afar rebels and the Somali Issa-dominated government. In 1999, Djibouti's first multiparty presidential election resulted in the election of Ismail Omar GUELLEH as president; he was reelected to a second term in 2005 and extended his tenure in office via a constitutional amendment, which allowed him to serve a third term in 2011 and begin a fourth term in 2016. Djibouti occupies a strategic geographic location at the intersection of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden and serves as an important shipping portal for goods entering and leaving the east African highlands and transshipments between Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. The government holds longstanding ties to France, which maintains a significant military presence in the country, and has strong ties with the US. Djibouti hosts several thousand members of US armed services at US-run Camp Lemonnier.

Geography

EthiopiaDjibouti
LocationEastern Africa, west of Somalia
Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, between Eritrea and Somalia
Geographic coordinates8 00 N, 38 00 E
11 30 N, 43 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 1,104,300 sq km
land: 1 million sq km
water: 104,300 sq km
total: 23,200 sq km
land: 23,180 sq km
water: 20 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than twice the size of Texas
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundariestotal: 5,925 km
border countries (6): Djibouti 342 km, Eritrea 1,033 km, Kenya 867 km, Somalia 1,640 km, South Sudan 1,299 km, Sudan 744 km
total: 528 km
border countries (3): Eritrea 125 km, Ethiopia 342 km, Somalia 61 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
314 km
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatetropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation
desert; torrid, dry
Terrainhigh plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,330 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Danakil Depression -125 m
highest point: Ras Dejen 4,533 m
mean elevation: 430 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Lac Assal -155 m
highest point: Moussa Ali 2,028 m
Natural resourcessmall reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower
potential geothermal power, gold, clay, granite, limestone, marble, salt, diatomite, gypsum, pumice, petroleum
Land useagricultural land: 36.3%
arable land 15.2%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 20%
forest: 12.2%
other: 51.5% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 73.4%
arable land 0.1%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 73.3%
forest: 0.2%
other: 26.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land2,900 sq km (2012)
10 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsgeologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Great Rift Valley; Erta Ale (elev. 613 m), which has caused frequent lava flows in recent years, is the country's most active volcano; Dabbahu became active in 2005, forcing evacuations; other historically active volcanoes include Alayta, Dalaffilla, Dallol, Dama Ali, Fentale, Kone, Manda Hararo, and Manda-Inakir
earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods
volcanism: experiences limited volcanic activity; Ardoukoba (elev. 298 m) last erupted in 1978; Manda-Inakir, located along the Ethiopian border, is also historically active
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management
inadequate supplies of potable water; limited arable land; desertification; endangered species
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; Ethiopia is, therefore, the most populous landlocked country in the world; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Ethiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated in Ethiopia: coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean
strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia; mostly wasteland; Lac Assal (Lake Assal) is the lowest point in Africa and the saltiest lake in the world

Demographics

EthiopiaDjibouti
Population102,374,044
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
846,687 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 43.71% (male 22,430,798/female 22,316,910)
15-24 years: 20.04% (male 10,182,973/female 10,332,626)
25-54 years: 29.45% (male 14,970,645/female 15,178,999)
55-64 years: 3.89% (male 1,939,635/female 2,047,041)
65 years and over: 2.91% (male 1,338,985/female 1,635,432) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 31.71% (male 134,604/female 133,840)
15-24 years: 21.54% (male 85,805/female 96,587)
25-54 years: 38.37% (male 134,945/female 189,930)
55-64 years: 4.7% (male 18,257/female 21,538)
65 years and over: 3.68% (male 13,992/female 17,189) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 17.8 years
male: 17.6 years
female: 18 years (2016 est.)
total: 23.5 years
male: 21.8 years
female: 24.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.88% (2016 est.)
2.18% (2016 est.)
Birth rate36.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
23.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
5.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.71 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.84 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 51.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 58.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 43.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 47.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 54.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 40.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 62.2 years
male: 59.8 years
female: 64.7 years (2016 est.)
total population: 63.2 years
male: 60.7 years
female: 65.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate5.07 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.35 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate1.15% (2014 est.)
1.55% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Ethiopian(s)
adjective: Ethiopian
noun: Djiboutian(s)
adjective: Djiboutian
Ethnic groupsOromo 34.4%, Amhara (Amara) 27%, Somali (Somalie) 6.2%, Tigray (Tigrinya) 6.1%, Sidama 4%, Gurage 2.5%, Welaita 2.3%, Hadiya 1.7%, Afar (Affar) 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Silte 1.3%, Kefficho 1.2%, other 8.8% (2007 est.)
Somali 60%, Afar 35%, other 5% (includes French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS730,300 (2014 est.)
9,400 (2015 est.)
ReligionsEthiopian Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.5%, traditional 2.7%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)
Muslim 94%, Christian 6%
HIV/AIDS - deaths23,400 (2014 est.)
600 (2015 est.)
LanguagesOromo (official working language in the State of Oromiya) 33.8%, Amharic (official national language) 29.3%, Somali (official working language of the State of Sumale) 6.2%, Tigrigna (Tigrinya) (official working language of the State of Tigray) 5.9%, Sidamo 4%, Wolaytta 2.2%, Gurage 2%, Afar (official working language of the State of Afar) 1.7%, Hadiyya 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Opuuo 1.2%, Kafa 1.1%, other 8.1%, English (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic (2007 est.)
French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 8 years (2012)
total: 6 years
male: 7 years
female: 6 years (2011)
Education expenditures4.5% of GDP (2013)
4.5% of GDP (2010)
Urbanizationurban population: 19.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.89% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 77.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 93.1% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 57.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.9% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 42.7% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97.4% of population
rural: 64.7% of population
total: 90% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.6% of population
rural: 35.3% of population
total: 10% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 27.2% of population
rural: 28.2% of population
total: 28% of population
unimproved:
urban: 72.8% of population
rural: 71.8% of population
total: 72% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 59.8% of population
rural: 5.1% of population
total: 47.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 40.2% of population
rural: 94.9% of population
total: 52.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationADDIS ABABA (capital) 3.238 million (2015)
DJIBOUTI (capital) 529,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate353 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
229 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight25.2% (2014)
29.8% (2012)
Health expenditures4.9% of GDP (2014)
10.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
0.23 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density6.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
1.4 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate3.3% (2014)
8.5% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 10,693,164
percentage: 53% (2005 est.)
total number: 13,176
percentage: 8% (2006 est.)
Demographic profileEthiopia is a predominantly agricultural country – more than 80% of the population lives in rural areas – that is in the early stages of demographic transition. Infant, child, and maternal mortality have fallen sharply over the past decade, but the total fertility rate has declined more slowly and the population continues to grow. The rising age of marriage and the increasing proportion of women remaining single have contributed to fertility reduction. While the use of modern contraceptive methods among married women has increased significantly from 6 percent in 2000 to 27 percent in 2012, the overall rate is still quite low.
Ethiopia’s rapid population growth is putting increasing pressure on land resources, expanding environmental degradation, and raising vulnerability to food shortages. With more than 40 percent of the population below the age of 15 and a fertility rate of over 5 children per woman (and even higher in rural areas), Ethiopia will have to make further progress in meeting its family planning needs if it is to achieve the age structure necessary for reaping a demographic dividend in the coming decades.
Poverty, drought, political repression, and forced government resettlement have driven Ethiopia’s internal and external migration since the 1960s. Before the 1974 revolution, only small numbers of the Ethiopian elite went abroad to study and then returned home, but under the brutal Derg regime thousands fled the country, primarily as refugees. Between 1982 and 1991 there was a new wave of migration to the West for family reunification. Since the defeat of the Derg in 1991, Ethiopians have migrated to escape violence among some of the country’s myriad ethnic groups or to pursue economic opportunities. Internal and international trafficking of women and children for domestic work and prostitution is a growing problem.
Djibouti is a poor, predominantly urban country, characterized by high rates of illiteracy, unemployment, and childhood malnutrition. More than 75% of the population lives in cities and towns (predominantly in the capital, Djibouti). The rural population subsists primarily on nomadic herding. Prone to droughts and floods, the country has few natural resources and must import more than 80% of its food from neighboring countries or Europe. Health care, particularly outside the capital, is limited by poor infrastructure, shortages of equipment and supplies, and a lack of qualified personnel. More than a third of health care recipients are migrants because the services are still better than those available in their neighboring home countries. The nearly universal practice of female genital cutting reflects Djibouti’s lack of gender equality and is a major contributor to obstetrical complications and its high rates of maternal and infant mortality. A 1995 law prohibiting the practice has never been enforced.
Because of its political stability and its strategic location at the confluence of East Africa and the Gulf States along the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, Djibouti is a key transit point for migrants and asylum seekers heading for the Gulf States and beyond. Each year some hundred thousand people, mainly Ethiopians and some Somalis, journey through Djibouti, usually to the port of Obock, to attempt a dangerous sea crossing to Yemen. However, with the escalation of the ongoing Yemen conflict, Yemenis began fleeing to Djibouti in March 2015, with more than 35,000 arriving by April 2016. Most Yemenis remain unregistered and head for Djibouti City rather than seeking asylum at one of Djibouti’s three spartan refugee camps. Djibouti has been hosting refugees and asylum seekers, predominantly Somalis and lesser numbers of Ethiopians and Eritreans, at camps for 20 years, despite lacking potable water, food shortages, and unemployment.
Contraceptive prevalence rate37.9% (2015)
19% (2012)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 81.6
youth dependency ratio: 75.2
elderly dependency ratio: 6.3
potential support ratio: 15.8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 58.5
youth dependency ratio: 51.9
elderly dependency ratio: 6.6
potential support ratio: 15.1 (2015 est.)

Government

EthiopiaDjibouti
Country name"conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
conventional short form: Ethiopia
local long form: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
local short form: Ityop'iya
former: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa
abbreviation: FDRE
etymology: the country name derives from the Greek word ""Aethiopia,"" which in classical times referred to lands south of Egypt in the Upper Nile region
"
conventional long form: Republic of Djibouti
conventional short form: Djibouti
local long form: Republique de Djibouti/Jumhuriyat Jibuti
local short form: Djibouti/Jibuti
former: French Territory of the Afars and Issas, French Somaliland
etymology: the country name derives from the capital city of Djibouti
Government typefederal parliamentary republic
semi-presidential republic
Capitalname: Addis Ababa
geographic coordinates: 9 02 N, 38 42 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Djibouti
geographic coordinates: 11 35 N, 43 09 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions9 ethnically based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)
6 districts (cercles, singular - cercle); Ali Sabieh, Arta, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjourah
Independenceoldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years (may be traced to the Aksumite Kingdom, which coalesced in the first century B.C.)
27 June 1977 (from France)
National holidayDerg Downfall Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)
Independence Day, 27 June (1977)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest drafted June 1994, adopted 8 December 1994, entered into force 21 August 1995 (2016)
approved by referendum 4 September 1992; amended 2006, 2008, 2010 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system
mixed legal system based primarily on the French civil code (as it existed in 1997), Islamic religious law (in matters of family law and successions), and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President MULATU Teshome Wirtu (since 7 October 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn (since 21 September 2012); Deputy Prime Minister DEMEKE Mekonnen Hassen
cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by both chambers of Parliament for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister designated by the majority party following legislative elections
election results: MULATU Teshome Wirtu (OPDO) elected president by acclamation
chief of state: President Ismail Omar GUELLEH (since 8 May 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdoulkader Kamil MOHAMED (since 1 April 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term; (constitution amended in 2010 to allow a third term); election last held on 8 April 2016 (next to be held by 2021); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Ismail Omar GUELLEH reelected president for a fourth term; percent of vote - Ismail Omar GUELLEH (RPP) 87%, Omar Elmi KHAIREH (represented the USN) 7.3%, other 5.6%
Legislative branchbicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation or Yefedereshein Mikir Bete (153 seats; members indirectly elected by state assemblies to serve 5-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives or Yehizb Tewokayoch Mekir Bete (547 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; 22 seats reserved for minorities; all members serve 5-year terms); note - the House of Federation is responsible for interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues and the House of People's Representatives is responsible for passing legislation
elections: last held on 24 May 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: House of Representatives percent of vote - NA; seats by party - EPRDF 501, SPDP 24, BGPDP 9, ANDP 8, GPUDM 3, APDO 1, HNL 1
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale, formerly the Chamber of Deputies (65 seats; 52 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 13 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 22 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UMP 55, USN 10
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Federal Supreme Court (consists of 11 judges); note - the House of Federation has jurisdiction for all constitutional issues
judge selection and term of office: president and vice president of Federal Supreme Court recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; other Supreme Court judges nominated by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council (a 10-member body chaired by the president of the Federal Supreme Court) and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; judges serve until retirement at age 60
subordinate courts: federal high courts and federal courts of first instance; state court systems (mirror structure of federal system); sharia courts and customary and traditional courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of NA magistrates); Constitutional Council (consists of 6 magistrates)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court magistrates appointed by the president with the advice of the Superior Council of the Magistracy or CSM, a 10-member body consisting of 4 judges, 3 members (non parliamentarians and judges) appointed by the president, and 3 appointed by the National Assembly president or speaker; magistrates appointed for life with retirement at age 65; Constitutional Council magistrate appointments - 2 by the president of the republic, 2 by the president of the National Assembly, and 2 by the CSM; magistrates appointed for 8-year, non-renewable terms
subordinate courts: High Court of Appeal; 5 Courts of First Instance; customary courts; State Court (replaced sharia courts in 2003)
Political parties and leadersAfar National Democratic Party or ANDP [Taha AHMED]
Argoba People Democratic Organization or APDO
Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Party or BGPDP
Blue Party (Semayawi Party) [Solomon TESSEMA, spokesman]
Ethiopian Federal Democratic Unity Forum or MEDREK [Beyene PETROS] (a 4-party alliance)
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [Hailemarian DESALEGN] (including the following organizations: Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM; Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO; Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement or SEPDM; Tigray People's Liberation Front or TPLF)
Gambella Peoples Unity Democratic Movement or GPUDM
Harari National League or HNL [Murad ABDULHADI]
Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP
Alliance of Movements for the Alternation and the Nation or AMAN (CDU, RADDE, ARD)
Democratic National Party or PND [Abdallah Mohamed DABALEH]
Democratic National Party or PND (Abdourahman Mohamed ALLALEH)
Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Abdillahi HAMARITEH]
Djibouti Development Party or PDD [Mohamed Daoud CHEHEM]
Front pour la Restauration de l'Unite Democratique or FRUD [Ali Mohamed DAOUD]
Movement for Development and Liberty or MODEL [Ismail Ahmed WABERI]
People's Rally for Progress or RPP [Ismail Omar GUELLEH] (governing party)
Peoples Social Democratic Party or PPSD [Hasna Moumin BAHDON]
Republican Alliance for Democracy or ARD [Ahmed YOUSSOUF]
Republican Alliance for Democracy or ARD (Kassim Ahmed DINI)
Union for a Presidential Majority or UMP (a coalition of parties including RPP, FRUD, PND, and PPSD)
Union for Democracy and Justice or UDJ [Ilya Ismail GUEDI Hared]
Union for National Salvation or USN (an umbrella coalition comprising PDD, PND, ARD-DINI faction, and UDJ) [Ahmed Youssouf HOUMED]
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU (candidates), COMESA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador GIRMA Birru Geda (since 6 January 2011)
chancery: 3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 364-1200
FAX: [1] (202) 587-0195
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Seattle
consulate(s): Houston, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge D’Affaires Mark BOULWARE (since February 2017)
chancery: 1156 15th Street NW, Suite 515, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 331-0270
FAX: [1] (202) 331-0302
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Peter H. VROOMAN (since 2016)
embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
mailing address: P.O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
telephone: [251] 11 130-6000
FAX: 124-2401 [251] 11 124 2401
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Mark BOULWARE (since February 2017)
embassy: Lot 350-B, Haramouss
mailing address: B.P. 185, Djibouti
telephone: [253] 21 45 30 00
FAX: [253] 21 45 31 29
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red, with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; green represents hope and the fertility of the land, yellow symbolizes justice and harmony, while red stands for sacrifice and heroism in the defense of the land; the blue of the disk symbolizes peace and the pentagram represents the unity and equality of the nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia
note: Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag (adopted ca. 1895) were so often appropriated by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the Pan-African colors; the emblem in the center of the current flag was added in 1996
two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red five-pointed star in the center; blue stands for sea and sky and the Issa Somali people; green symbolizes earth and the Afar people; white represents peace; the red star recalls the struggle for independence and stands for unity
National anthem"name: ""Whedefit Gesgeshi Woud Enat Ethiopia"" (March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia)
lyrics/music: DEREJE Melaku Mengesha/SOLOMON Lulu
note: adopted 1992
"
"name: ""Jabuuti"" (Djibouti)
lyrics/music: Aden ELMI/Abdi ROBLEH
note: adopted 1977
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Abyssinian lion (traditional), yellow pentagram with five rays of light on a blue field (promoted by current government); national colors: green, yellow, red
red star; national colors: light blue, green, white, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ethiopia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the mother must be a citizen of Djibouti
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

EthiopiaDjibouti
Economy - overviewEthiopia - the second most populous country in Africa - is a one-party state with a planned economy. For more than a decade before 2016, Ethiopia grew at a rate between 8% and 11% annually – one of the fastest growing states among the 188 IMF member countries. This growth was driven by government investment in infrastructure, as well as sustained progress in the agricultural and service sectors. More than 70% of Ethiopia’s population is still employed in the agricultural sector, but services have surpassed agriculture as the principal source of GDP.

Ethiopia has the lowest level of income-inequality in Africa and one of the lowest in the world, with a Gini coefficient comparable to that of the Scandinavian countries. Yet despite progress toward eliminating extreme poverty, Ethiopia remains one of the poorest countries in the world, due both to rapid population growth and a low starting base. Changes in rainfall associated with world-wide weather patterns resulted in the worst drought in thirty years in 2015/2016, creating food insecurity for millions of Ethiopians.

The state is heavily engaged in the economy. Ongoing infrastructure projects include power production and distribution, roads, rails, airports and industrial parks. Key sectors are state-owned, including telecommunications, banking and insurance, and power distribution. Under Ethiopia's constitution, the state owns all land and provides long-term leases to tenants. Title rights in urban areas, particularly Addis Ababa, are poorly regulated, and subject to corruption.

Ethiopia’s foreign exchange earnings are led by the services sector - primarily the state-run Ethiopian Airlines - followed by exports of several commodities. While coffee remains the largest foreign exchange earner, Ethiopia is diversifying exports, and commodities such as gold, sesame, khat, livestock and horticulture products are becoming increasingly important. Manufacturing represented less than 8% of total exports in 2016, but manufacturing exports should increase due to a growing international presence.

The banking, insurance, telecommunications, and micro-credit industries are restricted to domestic investors, but Ethiopia has attracted roughly $8.5 billion in foreign direct investment, mostly from China, Turkey, India and the EU; US FDI is $567 million. Investment has been primarily in infrastructure, construction, agriculture/horticulture, agricultural processing, textiles, leather and leather products.

In the fall of 2015, the government finalized and published the current 2016-2020 five-year plan, known as the Growth and Transformation Plan II, which emphasizes developing manufacturing in sectors where Ethiopia has a comparative advantage, such as textiles and garments, leather goods, and processed agricultural products. To support industrialization, Ethiopia plans to increase installed power generation capacity by 8,320 MW, up from a capacity of 2,000 MW, by building three more major dams and expanding to other sources of renewable energy.
Djibouti's economy is based on service activities connected with the country's strategic location as a deepwater port on the Red Sea. Three-fourths of Djibouti's inhabitants live in the capital city; the remainder are mostly nomadic herders. Scant rainfall and less than 4% arable land limits crop production to small quantities of fruits and vegetables, and most food must be imported.

Djibouti provides services as both a transit port for the region and an international transshipment and refueling center. Imports, exports, and re-exports represent 70% of port activity at Djibouti's container terminal. Reexports consist primarily of coffee from landlocked neighbor Ethiopia. Djibouti has few natural resources and little industry. The nation is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance to help support its balance of payments and to finance development projects. An official unemployment rate of nearly 50% - with youth unemployment near 80% - continues to be a major problem. Inflation was at 3% in 2014-2016, due to low international food prices and a decline in electricity tariffs.

Djibouti’s reliance on diesel-generated electricity and imported food and water leave average consumers vulnerable to global price shocks, though in mid-2015 Djibouti passed new legislation to liberalize the energy sector. The government has emphasized infrastructure development for transportation and energy and Djibouti – with the help of foreign partners, particularly China – has begun to increase and modernize its port capacity.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$174.7 billion (2016 est.)
$164.1 billion (2015 est.)
$148.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3.345 billion (2016 est.)
$3.141 billion (2015 est.)
$2.949 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate6.5% (2016 est.)
10.2% (2015 est.)
10.3% (2014 est.)
6.5% (2016 est.)
6.5% (2015 est.)
6% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$1,900 (2016 est.)
$1,800 (2015 est.)
$1,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3,400 (2016 est.)
$3,300 (2015 est.)
$3,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 36.2%
industry: 17%
services: 46.8% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 2.9%
industry: 20.8%
services: 76.3% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line29.6% (2014 est.)
23%
note: percent of population below $1.25 per day at purchasing power parity (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 25.6% (2005)
lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 30.9% (2002)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)7.7% (2016 est.)
10.1% (2015 est.)
3% (2016 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
Labor force50.97 million (2016 est.)
294,600 (2012)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 72.7%
industry: 7.4%
services: 19.9% (2013 est.)
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate17.5% (2012 est.)
18% (2011 est.)
60% (2014 est.)
48.4% (2012 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index33 (2011)
30 (2000)
40.9 (2002)
Budgetrevenues: $10.07 billion
expenditures: $11.85 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $685.7 million
expenditures: $885.9 million (2016 est.)
Industriesfood processing, beverages, textiles, leather, garments, chemicals, metals processing, cement
construction, agricultural processing, shipping
Industrial production growth rate9% (2016 est.)
4.7% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscereals, coffee, oilseed, cotton, sugarcane, vegetables, khat, cut flowers; hides, cattle, sheep, goats; fish
fruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels, animal hides
Exports$2.932 billion (2016 est.)
$2.935 billion (2015 est.)
$146.1 million (2016 est.)
$141.9 million (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiescoffee (27%, by value), oilseeds (17%), edible vegetables including khat (17%), gold (13%), flowers (7%), live animals (7%), raw leather products (3%), meat products (3%)
reexports, hides and skins, coffee (in transit), scrap metal
Exports - partnersSwitzerland 14.3%, China 11.7%, US 9.5%, Netherlands 8.7%, Saudi Arabia 5.9%, Germany 5.7% (2015)
Somalia 79.7%, US 5.4%, Yemen 4.6%, UAE 4% (2015)
Imports$14.7 billion (2016 est.)
$15.87 billion (2015 est.)
$992 million (2016 est.)
$1.038 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and aircraft (14%, by value), metal and metal products, (14%), electrical materials, (13%), petroleum products (12%), motor vehicles, (10%), chemicals and fertilizers (4%)
foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, clothing
Imports - partnersChina 20.5%, US 9.2%, Saudi Arabia 6.5%, India 4.5% (2015)
China 41.8%, Saudi Arabia 14.2%, Indonesia 5.9%, India 4.3% (2015)
Debt - external$22.49 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$19.04 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.339 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.09 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesbirr (ETB) per US dollar -
23.25 (2016 est.)
21.55 (2015 est.)
21.55 (2014 est.)
19.8 (2013 est.)
17.71 (2012 est.)
Djiboutian francs (DJF) per US dollar -
177.7 (2016 est.)
177.72 (2015 est.)
177.72 (2014 est.)
177.72 (2013 est.)
177.72 (2012 est.)
Fiscal year8 July - 7 July
calendar year
Public debt54.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
49.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: official data cover central government debt, including debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury and treasury debt owned by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
60.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
38.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
Current Account Balance-$7.206 billion (2016 est.)
-$7.483 billion (2015 est.)
-$542 million (2016 est.)
-$549 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$69.22 billion (2016 est.)
$1.894 billion (2016 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate12.2% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
11.7% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.62% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$36.33 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$28.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$652 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$597.6 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$14.43 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$11.97 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.207 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.182 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$28 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$24.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.71 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.572 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues14.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
36.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
-10.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 65.9%
government consumption: 10.2%
investment in fixed capital: 37.6%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 8.7%
imports of goods and services: -22.3% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 60.5%
government consumption: 32%
investment in fixed capital: 42.2%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 34.8%
imports of goods and services: -69.9% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving29% of GDP (2016 est.)
31.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
30.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
10.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
18.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

EthiopiaDjibouti
Electricity - production9.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
400 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption6.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
400 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports1.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves430,000 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity2.4 million kW (2014 est.)
100,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels8.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
98.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants88.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources3.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
1.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption61,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
6,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
403 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports58,740 bbl/day (2013 est.)
6,509 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy9.3 million Mt (2013 est.)
1.8 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 71,200,000
electrification - total population: 24%
electrification - urban areas: 85%
electrification - rural areas: 10% (2013)
population without electricity: 400,000
electrification - total population: 50%
electrification - urban areas: 61%
electrification - rural areas: 14% (2013)

Telecommunications

EthiopiaDjibouti
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 890,642
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 23,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 42.312 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 43 (July 2015 est.)
total: 312,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 38 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: Ethio Telecom maintains a monopoly over telecommunication services; open-wire, microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; 2 domestic satellites provide the national trunk service
domestic: the number of mobile telephones is increasing steadily from a small base and now stands at over 40 per 100 persons
international: country code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate, as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country
domestic: Djibouti Telecom is the sole provider of telecommunications services and utilizes mostly a microwave radio relay network; fiber-optic cable is installed in the capital; rural areas connected via wireless local loop radio systems; mobile cellular coverage is primarily limited to the area in and around Djibouti city
international: country code - 253; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable systems providing links to Asia, the Middle East, Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean and 1 Arabsat); Medarabtel regional microwave radio relay telephone network (2015)
Internet country code.et
.dj
Internet userstotal: 11.538 million
percent of population: 11.6% (July 2015 est.)
total: 99,000
percent of population: 11.9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast media6 public TV stations broadcasting nationally and 10 public radio broadcasters; 7 private radio stations and 19 community radio stations (2017)
state-owned Radiodiffusion-Television de Djibouti operates the sole terrestrial TV station, as well as the only 2 domestic radio networks; no private TV or radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)

Transportation

EthiopiaDjibouti
Railwaystotal: 659 km (Ethiopian segment of the 756 km Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
standard gauge: 659 km 1.435-m gauge
note: electric railway with redundant power supplies; under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia and managed by a Chinese contractor (2017)
total: 97 km (Djibouti segment of the 756 km Addis Ababa-Djibouti railway)
standard gauge: 97 km 1.435-m gauge (2017)
Roadwaystotal: 110,414 km
paved: 14,354 km
unpaved: 96,060 km (2015)
total: 3,065 km
paved: 1,379 km
unpaved: 1,686 km (2000)
Ports and terminalsEthiopia is landlocked and uses the ports of Djibouti in Djibouti and Berbera in Somalia
major seaport(s): Djibouti
Airports57 (2013)
13 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 17
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 40
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Military

EthiopiaDjibouti
Military branchesEthiopian National Defense Force (ENDF): Ground Forces, Ethiopian Air Force (Ye Ityopya Ayer Hayl, ETAF) (2013)
Djibouti Armed Forces (Forces Armees Djiboutiennes, FAD): Djibouti National Army (includes Navy, Djiboutian Air Force (Force Aerienne Djiboutienne, FAD), National Gendarmerie (GN)) (2013)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but the military can conduct callups when necessary and compliance is compulsory (2012)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; 16-25 years of age for voluntary military training; no conscription (2012)

Transnational Issues

EthiopiaDjibouti
Disputes - international"Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; ""Somaliland"" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera and trade ties to landlocked Ethiopia; civil unrest in eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia
"
"Djibouti maintains economic ties and border accords with ""Somaliland"" leadership while maintaining some political ties to various factions in Somalia; Kuwait is chief investor in the 2008 restoration and upgrade of the Ethiopian-Djibouti rail link; in 2008, Eritrean troops moved across the border on Ras Doumera peninsula and occupied Doumera Island with undefined sovereignty in the Red Sea
"
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 375,685 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 249,903 (Somalia) (refugees); 161,398 (Eritrea) (refugees and asylum seekers); 41,588 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2017)
IDPs: 258,000 (border war with Eritrea from 1998-2000; ethnic clashes; and ongoing fighting between the Ethiopian military and separatist rebel groups in the Sumale and Oromiya regions; natural disasters; intercommunal violence; most IDPs live in Sumale state) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 13,021 (Somalia); 19,636 (Yemen) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook