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Equatorial Guinea vs. Cameroon

Introduction

Equatorial GuineaCameroon
BackgroundEquatorial Guinea gained independence in 1968 after 190 years of Spanish rule; it is one of the smallest countries in Africa consisting of a mainland territory and five inhabited islands. The capital of Malabo is located on the island of Bioko, approximately 25 km from the Cameroonian coastline in the Gulf of Guinea. Between 1968 and 1979, autocratic President Francisco MACIAS NGUEMA virtually destroyed all of the country's political, economic, and social institutions before being deposed by his nephew Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO in a coup. President OBIANG has ruled since October 1979 and was reelected in 2016. Although nominally a constitutional democracy since 1991, presidential and legislative elections since 1996 have generally been labeled as flawed. The president exerts almost total control over the political system and has placed legal and bureaucratic barriers that prevent political opposition. Equatorial Guinea has experienced rapid economic growth due to the discovery of large offshore oil reserves, and in the last decade has become Sub-Saharan Africa's third largest oil exporter. Despite the country's economic windfall from oil production, resulting in a massive increase in government revenue in recent years, the drop in global oil prices has placed significant strain on the state budget. Equatorial Guinea continues to seek to diversify its economy and to increase foreign investment despite limited improvements in the population's living standards. Equatorial Guinea is the host of major regional and international conferences and continues to seek a greater role in regional affairs.
French Cameroon became independent in 1960 as the Republic of Cameroon. The following year the southern portion of neighboring British Cameroon voted to merge with the new country to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. In 1972, a new constitution replaced the federation with a unitary state, the United Republic of Cameroon. The country has generally enjoyed stability, which has enabled the development of agriculture, roads, and railways, as well as a petroleum industry. Despite slow movement toward democratic reform, political power remains firmly in the hands of President Paul BIYA.

Geography

Equatorial GuineaCameroon
LocationCentral Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Cameroon and Gabon
Central Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria
Geographic coordinates2 00 N, 10 00 E
6 00 N, 12 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 28,051 sq km
land: 28,051 sq km
water: 0 sq km
total: 475,440 sq km
land: 472,710 sq km
water: 2,730 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Maryland
slightly larger than California
Land boundariestotal: 528 km
border countries (2): Cameroon 183 km, Gabon 345 km
total: 5,018 km
border countries (6): Central African Republic 901 km, Chad 1,116 km, Republic of the Congo 494 km, Equatorial Guinea 183 km, Gabon 349 km, Nigeria 1,975 km
Coastline296 km
402 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
Climatetropical; always hot, humid
varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north
Terraincoastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic
diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center, mountains in west, plains in north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 577 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico Basile 3,008 m
mean elevation: 667 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Fako 4,095 m (on Cameroon Mountain)
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, timber, gold, bauxite, diamonds, tantalum, sand and gravel, clay
petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 10.1%
arable land 4.3%; permanent crops 2.1%; permanent pasture 3.7%
forest: 57.5%
other: 32.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 20.6%
arable land 13.1%; permanent crops 3.3%; permanent pasture 4.2%
forest: 41.7%
other: 37.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated landNA
290 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsviolent windstorms; flash floods
volcanism: Santa Isabel (elev. 3,007 m), which last erupted in 1923, is the country's only historically active volcano; Santa Isabel, along with two dormant volcanoes, form Bioko Island in the Gulf of Guinea
volcanic activity with periodic releases of poisonous gases from Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes
volcanism: Mt. Cameroon (elev. 4,095 m), which last erupted in 2000, is the most frequently active volcano in West Africa; lakes in Oku volcanic field have released fatal levels of gas on occasion, killing some 1,700 people in 1986
Environment - current issuestap water is non-potable; deforestation
waterborne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteinsular and continental regions widely separated
sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa because of its central location on the continent and its position at the west-south juncture of the Gulf of Guinea; throughout the country there are areas of thermal springs and indications of current or prior volcanic activity; Mount Cameroon, the highest mountain in Sub-Saharan west Africa, is an active volcano

Demographics

Equatorial GuineaCameroon
Population759,451 (July 2016 est.)
24,360,803
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 40.15% (male 154,896/female 150,010)
15-24 years: 19.63% (male 75,914/female 73,194)
25-54 years: 31.94% (male 120,999/female 121,587)
55-64 years: 4.3% (male 14,052/female 18,583)
65 years and over: 3.98% (male 12,627/female 17,589) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 42.6% (male 5,228,047/female 5,149,228)
15-24 years: 19.55% (male 2,393,598/female 2,368,557)
25-54 years: 30.71% (male 3,762,054/female 3,718,266)
55-64 years: 3.97% (male 471,306/female 495,462)
65 years and over: 3.18% (male 360,386/female 413,899) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 19.6 years
male: 19.1 years
female: 20.1 years (2016 est.)
total: 18.5 years
male: 18.4 years
female: 18.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.48% (2016 est.)
2.58% (2016 est.)
Birth rate32.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
35.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 67.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 68.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 66.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 52.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 55.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 48.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 64.2 years
male: 63.1 years
female: 65.4 years (2016 est.)
total population: 58.5 years
male: 57.1 years
female: 59.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate4.48 children born/woman (2016 est.)
4.7 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate4.88% (2015 est.)
4.46% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean
noun: Cameroonian(s)
adjective: Cameroonian
Ethnic groupsFang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994 census)
Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%, non-African less than 1%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS27,400 (2015 est.)
619,200 (2015 est.)
Religionsnominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan practices
Catholic 38.4%, Protestant 26.3%, other Christian 4.5%, Muslim 20.9%, animist 5.6%, other 1%, non-believer 3.2% (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths1,100 (2015 est.)
33,100 (2015 est.)
LanguagesSpanish (official) 67.6%, other (includes French (official), Fang, Bubi) 32.4% (1994 census)
24 major African language groups, English (official), French (official)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.3%
male: 97.4%
female: 93% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 75%
male: 81.2%
female: 68.9% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria and dengue fever
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Urbanizationurban population: 39.9% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.12% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 54.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 72.5% of population
rural: 31.5% of population
total: 47.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 27.5% of population
rural: 68.5% of population
total: 52.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 94.8% of population
rural: 52.7% of population
total: 75.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5.2% of population
rural: 47.3% of population
total: 24.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 79.9% of population
rural: 71% of population
total: 74.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 20.1% of population
rural: 29% of population
total: 25.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 61.8% of population
rural: 26.8% of population
total: 45.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 38.2% of population
rural: 73.2% of population
total: 54.2% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationMALABO (capital) 145,000 (2014)
YAOUNDE (capital) 3.066 million; Douala 2.943 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate342 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
596 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight5.6% (2010)
14.8% (2014)
Health expenditures3.8% of GDP (2014)
4.1% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
1.3 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate16.2% (2014)
9.6% (2014)
Demographic profileEquatorial Guinea is one of the smallest and least populated countries in continental Africa and is the only independent African country where Spanish is an official language. Despite a boom in oil production in the 1990s, authoritarianism, corruption, and resource mismanagement have concentrated the benefits among a small elite. These practices have perpetuated income inequality and unbalanced development, such as low public spending on education and health care. Unemployment remains problematic because the oil-dominated economy employs a small labor force dependent on skilled foreign workers. The agricultural sector, Equatorial Guinea’s main employer, continues to deteriorate because of a lack of investment and the migration of rural workers to urban areas. About three-quarters of the population lives below the poverty line.
Equatorial Guinea’s large and growing youth population – about 60% are under the age of 25 – is particularly affected because job creation in the non-oil sectors is limited, and young people often do not have the skills needed in the labor market. Equatorial Guinean children frequently enter school late, have poor attendance, and have high dropout rates. Thousands of Equatorial Guineans fled across the border to Gabon in the 1970s to escape the dictatorship of MACIAS NGUEMA; smaller numbers have followed in the decades since. Continued inequitable economic growth and high youth unemployment increases the likelihood of ethnic and regional violence.
Cameroon has a large youth population, with more than 60% of the populace under the age of 25. Fertility is falling but remains at a high level, especially among poor, rural, and uneducated women, in part because of inadequate access to contraception. Life expectancy remains low at about 55 years due to the prevalence of HIV and AIDs and an elevated maternal mortality rate, which has remained high since 1990. Cameroon, particularly the northern region, is vulnerable to food insecurity largely because of government mismanagement, corruption, high production costs, inadequate infrastructure, and natural disasters. Despite economic growth in some regions, poverty is on the rise, and is most prevalent in rural areas, which are especially affected by a shortage of jobs, declining incomes, poor school and health care infrastructure, and a lack of clean water and sanitation. Underinvestment in social safety nets and ineffective public financial management also contribute to Cameroon’s high rate of poverty.
International migration has been driven by unemployment (including fewer government jobs), poverty, the search for educational opportunities, and corruption. The US and Europe are preferred destinations, but, with tighter immigration restrictions in these countries, young Cameroonians are increasingly turning to neighboring states, such as Gabon and Nigeria, South Africa, other parts of Africa, and the Near and Far East. Cameroon’s limited resources make it dependent on UN support to host more than 300,000 refugees and asylum seekers. These refugees and asylum seekers are primarily from the Central African Republic and more recently Nigeria.
Contraceptive prevalence rate12.6% (2011)
34.3% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 72.9
youth dependency ratio: 67.9
elderly dependency ratio: 5
potential support ratio: 20 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 84.3
youth dependency ratio: 78.4
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9
potential support ratio: 16.9 (2015 est.)

Government

Equatorial GuineaCameroon
Country name"conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea
conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea
local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial/Republique de Guinee Equatoriale
local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial/Guinee Equatoriale
former: Spanish Guinea
etymology: the country is named for the Guinea region of West Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea and stretches north to the Sahel; the ""equatorial"" refers to the fact that the country lies just north of the Equator
"
conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon
conventional short form: Cameroon
local long form: Republique du Cameroun/Republic of Cameroon
local short form: Cameroun/Cameroon
former: French Cameroon, British Cameroon, Federal Republic of Cameroon, United Republic of Cameroon
etymology: in the 15th century, Portuguese explorers named the area near the mouth of the Wouri River the Rio dos Camaroes (River of Prawns) after the abundant shrimp in the water; over time the designation became Cameroon in English; this is the only instance where a country is named afer a crustacean
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Malabo; note - a new capital of Oyala is being built on the mainland near Djibloho; Malabo is on the island of Bioko
geographic coordinates: 3 45 N, 8 47 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Yaounde
geographic coordinates: 3 52 N, 11 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas
10 regions (regions, singular - region); Adamaoua, Centre, East (Est), Far North (Extreme-Nord), Littoral, North (Nord), North-West (Nord-Ouest), West (Ouest), South (Sud), South-West (Sud-Ouest)
Independence12 October 1968 (from Spain)
1 January 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
National holidayIndependence Day, 12 October (1968)
State Unification Day (National Day), 20 May (1972)
Constitutionapproved by referendum 17 November 1991; amended several times, last in 2012 (2016)
several previous; latest effective 18 January 1996; amended 2008 (2016)
Legal systemmixed system of civil and customary law
mixed legal system of English common law, French civil law, and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
20 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo (since 3 August 1979 when he seized power in a military coup)
head of government: Prime Minister Francisco Pascual Eyegue OBAMA Asue (since 23 June 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Clemente Engonga NGUEMA Onguene; Second Deputy Prime Minister Alfonso Mesie MIBUY; Third Deputy Prime Minister Alfonso Nsue MOKUY
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 April 2016 (next to be held in 2023); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
election results: Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo reelected president; percent of vote - Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo (PDGE) 93.7%
chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)
head of government: Prime Minister Philemon YANG (since 30 June 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 9 October 2011 (next to be held in October 2018); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Paul BIYA reelected president; percent of vote - Paul BIYA (CPDM) 78.0%, John FRU NDI (SDF) 10.7%, Garga Haman ADJI 3.2%, other 8.1%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Assembly or Asemblea Nacional, formerly the unicameral Parliament, consists of the Senate or Senado (70 seats; 55 members directly elected by simple majority vote and 15 appointed by the president) and the House of People's Representatives or Camara de Representantes del Pueblo (100 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the constitutional referendum of 2011 established the Senate and was implemented at the time of the May 2013 elections
elections: last held on 26 May 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDGE 54, CPDS 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDGE 99, CPDS 1
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (100 seats; 70 members indirectly elected by regional councils and 30 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (180 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the 100-member Senate was formed at the time of the April 2013 election
elections: Senate last held on 14 April 2013 (next to be held in 2018); National Assembly last held on 30 September 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPDM 56, SDF 14; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPDM 73.1%, SDF 17.6%, UNDP 6.1%, UDC 2.5%, other 0.7%; seats by party - CPDM 148, SDF 18, UNDP 5, UDC 4, UPC 3, other 2
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the chief justice - who is also chief of state - and 9 judges and organized into civil, criminal, commercial, labor, administrative, and customary sections); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 4 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president for 5-year terms; Constitutional Court members appointed by the president, 2 of which are nominated by the Chamber of Deputies
subordinate courts: Court of Guarantees; military courts; Courts of Appeal; first instance tribunals; district and county tribunals
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cameroon (consists of 9 titular and 6 surrogate judges and organized into judicial, administrative, and audit chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 11 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president with the advice of the Higher Judicial Council of Cameroon, a body chaired by the president and includes the minister of justice, selected magistrates, and representatives of the National Assembly; judge term NA; Constitutional Council members appointed by the president for single 9-year terms
subordinate courts: Parliamentary Court of Justice (jurisdiction limited to cases involving the president and prime minister); appellate and first instance courts; circuit and magistrate's courts
Political parties and leadersConvergence Party for Social Democracy or CPDS [Andres ESONO ONDO]
Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or PDGE [Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo] (ruling party)
Electoral Coalition or EC
Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea or APGE [Carmelo MBA BACALE]
Popular Union or UP [Daniel MARTINEZ AYECABA]
not officially registered parties: Democratic Republican Force or FDR [Guillermo NGUEMA ELA]
Independent Candidacy or CI [Gabriel NSE OBIANG OBONO]
Party for Progress of Equatorial Guinea or PPGE [Severo MOTO]
Union for the Center Right or UDC [Avelino MOCACHE MEAENGA]
note: in November 2014, the government hosted a National Dialogue process to engage with the political opposition; the opposition particiapated with limited attendance and engagement; on March 18, 2015, the CPDS, FDR, and UP formed a coalition called the Front of Democratic Opposition or FOD
Cameroon People's Democratic Movement or CPDM [Paul BIYA]
Cameroon People's Party or CPP [Edith Kah WALLA]
Cameroon Renaissance Movement or MRC [Maurice KAMTO]
Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou Ndam NJOYA]
Movement for the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]
Movement for the Liberation and Development of Cameroon or MLDC [Marcel YONDO]
National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO BOUBA]
Progressive Movement or MP [Jean-Jacques EKINDI]
Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]
Union of Peoples of Cameroon or UPC [Provisionary Management Bureau]
Political pressure groups and leadersASODEGUE (Madrid-based pressure group for democratic reform)
Coalicion CEIBA (group formed by diverse, exiled political parties)
C.O.R.E.D. (originally led by Raimundo Ela Nsang; based in Paris)
EG Justice (US-based anti-corruption group)
Network of Human Rights Defenders in Central Africa or REDHAC [Maximilliene Ngo MBE]
Tribunal 53 [Patrice NGANANG]
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, CPLP (associate), FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO (observer)
ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, C, CEMAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Miguel Ntutumu EVUNA ANDEME (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2020 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 518-5700
FAX: [1] (202) 518-5252
consulate(s) general: Houston
chief of mission: Ambassador Essomba ETOUNDI (since 27 June 2016)
chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; current temporary address - 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790
FAX: [1] (202) 387-3826
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Julie FURUTA-TOY (since January 2016)
embassy: Carretera Malabo II, Malabo, Guinea Ecuatorial
mailing address: US Embassy Malabo, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520
telephone: [240] 333 09 57 41
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael Stephen HOZA (since 19 September 2014)
embassy: Avenue Rosa Parks, Yaounde
mailing address: P.O. Box 817, Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520
telephone: [237] 22220 1500; Consular: [237] 22220 1603
FAX: [237] 22220 1500 Ext. 4531; Consular FAX: [237] 22220 1752
branch office(s): Douala
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red, with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice); green symbolizes the jungle and natural resources, blue represents the sea that connects the mainland to the islands, white stands for peace, and red recalls the fight for independence
"three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow, with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; the vertical tricolor recalls the flag of France; red symbolizes unity, yellow the sun, happiness, and the savannahs in the north, and green hope and the forests in the south; the star is referred to as the ""star of unity""
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
"
National anthem"name: ""Caminemos pisando la senda"" (Let Us Tread the Path)
lyrics/music: Atanasio Ndongo MIYONO/Atanasio Ndongo MIYONO or Ramiro Sanchez LOPEZ (disputed)
note: adopted 1968
"
"name: ""O Cameroun, Berceau de nos Ancetres"" (O Cameroon, Cradle of Our Forefathers)
lyrics/music: Rene Djam AFAME, Samuel Minkio BAMBA, Moise Nyatte NKO'O [French], Benard Nsokika FONLON [English]/Rene Djam AFAME
note: adopted 1957; Cameroon's anthem, also known as ""Chant de Ralliement"" (The Rallying Song), has been used unofficially since 1948 and officially adopted in 1957; the anthem has French and English versions whose lyrics differ
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)silk cotton tree; national colors: green, white, red, blue
lion; national colors: green, red, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Equatorial Guinea
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cameroon
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

Equatorial GuineaCameroon
Economy - overviewExploitation of oil and gas deposits, beginning in the 1990s, has driven economic growth in Equatorial Guinea; a recent rebasing of GDP resulted in an upward revision of the size of the economy by approximately 30%. Forestry and farming are minor components of GDP. Although preindependence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for hard currency earnings, the neglect of the rural economy since independence has diminished the potential for agriculture-led growth. Subsistence farming is the dominant form of livelihood. Declining revenue from hydrocarbon production, high levels of infrastructure expenditures, lack of economic diversification, and corruption have pushed the economy into decline in recent years and limited improvements in the general population’s living conditions. Equatorial Guinea’s real GDP growth has been weak in recent years, averaging -0.5% per year from 2010-14, because of a declining hydrocarbon sector. Inflation remained very low in 2016, down from an average of 4% in 2014.

Foreign assistance programs by the World Bank and the IMF have been cut since 1993 because of corruption and mismanagement, and as a middle income country Equatorial Guinea is now ineligible for most low-income donor funding. The government has been widely criticized for its lack of transparency and misuse of oil revenues and has attempted to address this issue by working toward compliance with the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. US foreign assistance to Equatorial Guinea is limited in part because of US restrictions pursuant to the Trafficking Victims Protection Act.

Equatorial Guinea hosted two economic diversification symposia in 2014 that focused on attracting investment in five sectors: agriculture and animal ranching, fishing, mining and petrochemicals, tourism, and financial services. Undeveloped mineral resources include gold, zinc, diamonds, columbite-tantalite, and other base metals.
Cameroon’s market-based, diversified economy features oil and gas, timber, aluminum, agriculture, mining and the service sector. Oil remains Cameroon’s main export commodity, and despite falling global oil prices, still accounts for nearly 40% of exports. Cameroon’s economy suffers from factors that often impact underdeveloped countries, such as stagnant per capita income, a relatively inequitable distribution of income, a top-heavy civil service, endemic corruption, continuing inefficiencies of a large parastatal system in key sectors, and a generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise.

Since 1990, the government has embarked on various IMF and World Bank programs designed to spur business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, improve trade, and recapitalize the nation's banks. The IMF continues to press for economic reforms, including increased budget transparency, privatization, and poverty reduction programs. The Government of Cameroon provides subsidies for electricity, food, and fuel that have strained the federal budget and diverted funds from education, healthcare, and infrastructure projects, as low oil prices have led to lower revenues.

Cameroon devotes significant resources to several large infrastructure projects currently under construction, including a deep sea port in Kribi and the Lom Pangar Hydropower Project. Cameroon’s energy sector continues to diversify, recently opening a natural gas powered electricity generating plant. Cameroon continues to seek foreign investment to improve its inadequate infrastructure, create jobs, and improve its economic footprint, but its unfavorable business environment remains a significant deterrent to foreign investment.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$31.77 billion (2016 est.)
$35.25 billion (2015 est.)
$38.08 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$77.24 billion (2016 est.)
$73.7 billion (2015 est.)
$69.66 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate-9.9% (2016 est.)
-7.4% (2015 est.)
-0.5% (2014 est.)
4.8% (2016 est.)
5.8% (2015 est.)
5.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$38,700 (2016 est.)
$44,100 (2015 est.)
$48,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3,300 (2016 est.)
$3,200 (2015 est.)
$3,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 8.8%
industry: 71.7%
services: 16.5% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 21.3%
industry: 30.8%
services: 47.9% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line44% (2011 est.)
30% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
lowest 10%: 37.5%
highest 10%: 35.4% (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3.1% (2016 est.)
11.7% (2015 est.)
2.4% (2016 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
Labor force195,200 (2007 est.)
9.612 million (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate8.6% (2014 est.)
22.3% (2009 est.)
4.3% (2014 est.)
30% (2001 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $2.436 billion
expenditures: $2.862 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: NA
expenditures: $6.497 billion (2016 est.)
Industriespetroleum, natural gas, sawmilling
petroleum production and refining, aluminum production, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber, ship repair
Industrial production growth rate-6.7% (2016 est.)
5.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, cocoa, rice, yams, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, palm oil nuts; livestock; timber
coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, cassava (manioc, tapioca); livestock; timber
Exports$5.064 billion (2016 est.)
$7.41 billion (2015 est.)
$5.559 billion (2016 est.)
$5.756 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiespetroleum products, timber
crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum, coffee, cotton
Exports - partnersChina 17.2%, South Korea 15.6%, Spain 9.4%, Brazil 8.5%, Netherlands 7.1%, India 6.2%, UK 6%, France 5.9%, Italy 4% (2015)
China 16.6%, India 16%, Spain 6.2%, Belgium 6.1%, France 6.1%, Portugal 5.5%, Netherlands 5%, Italy 4.9% (2015)
Imports$3.03 billion (2016 est.)
$3.953 billion (2015 est.)
$6.63 billion (2016 est.)
$6.5 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum sector equipment, other equipment, construction materials, vehicles
machinery, electrical equipment, transport equipment, fuel, food
Imports - partnersNetherlands 17%, Spain 16.5%, China 15%, US 9%, Cote dIvoire 6%, France 4.8% (2015)
China 27.9%, Nigeria 13.9%, France 10.9%, Belgium 4.1% (2015)
Debt - external$1.364 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.194 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.375 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesCooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
605.7 (2016 est.)
591.45 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per dollar -
605.7 (2016 est.)
591.45 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
1 July - 30 June
Public debt24.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
31.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$621.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.205 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.416 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.714 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$2.008 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.855 billion (2015 est.)
-$1.052 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.174 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$11.64 billion (2016 est.)
$30.87 billion (2016 est.)
Central bank discount rate8.5% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate14% (31 December 2016 est.)
14% (31 December 2015 est.)
12.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
13% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$1.443 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.557 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.777 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.448 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.445 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.888 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.973 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.691 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$3.788 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.841 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$6.514 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.993 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues20.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
-5.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 25.6%
government consumption: 5.7%
investment in fixed capital: 69.7%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 53.4%
imports of goods and services: -54.5% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 76.8%
government consumption: 12.1%
investment in fixed capital: 22.7%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 20.3%
imports of goods and services: -32.1% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving19.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
36.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
46.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
17.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
18.6% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

Equatorial GuineaCameroon
Electricity - production98 million kWh (2014 est.)
6.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption91.14 million kWh (2014 est.)
6.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production250,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
95,960 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
37,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports290,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
50,830 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
200 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves36.81 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
135.1 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production6.55 billion cu m (2014 est.)
469 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption1.594 billion cu m (2014 est.)
469 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports4.956 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity200,000 kW (2014 est.)
1.1 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels22.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
28.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants77.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
71.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
51,670 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption5,200 bbl/day (2014 est.)
43,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
14,590 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports5,197 bbl/day (2013 est.)
4,134 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy3.7 million Mt (2013 est.)
6.5 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 300,000
electrification - total population: 66%
electrification - urban areas: 93%
electrification - rural areas: 48% (2013)
population without electricity: 10,100,000
electrification - total population: 55%
electrification - urban areas: 88%
electrification - rural areas: 17% (2013)

Telecommunications

Equatorial GuineaCameroon
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 11,334
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 1,054,978
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 533,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 72 (July 2015 est.)
total: 16.807 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 71 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: digital fixed-line network in most major urban areas and decent mobile cellular coverage
domestic: fixed-line density is about 2 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing and in 2015 stood at about 70 percent of the population
international: country code - 240; international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: system includes cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter; Camtel, the monopoly provider of fixed-line service, provides connections for only about 4 per 100 persons; equipment is old and outdated, and connections with many parts of the country are unreliable
domestic: mobile-cellular usage, in part a reflection of the poor condition and general inadequacy of the fixed-line network, has increased sharply, reaching a subscribership base of 70 per 100 persons
international: country code - 237; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.gq
.cm
Internet userstotal: 158,000
percent of population: 21.3% (July 2015 est.)
total: 4.909 million
percent of population: 20.7% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate maintains control of broadcast media with domestic broadcast media limited to 1 state-owned TV station, 1 private TV station owned by the president's eldest son, 1 state-owned radio station, and 1 private radio station owned by the president's eldest son; satellite TV service is available; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are accessible (2013)
government maintains tight control over broadcast media; state-owned Cameroon Radio Television (CRTV), broadcasting on both a TV and radio network, was the only officially recognized and fully licensed broadcaster until August 2007, when the government finally issued licenses to 2 private TV broadcasters and 1 private radio broadcaster; about 70 privately owned, unlicensed radio stations operating but are subject to closure at any time; foreign news services required to partner with state-owned national station (2007)

Transportation

Equatorial GuineaCameroon
Roadwaystotal: 2,880 km (2000)
total: 51,350 km
paved: 4,108 km
unpaved: 47,242 km
note: there are 28,857 km of national roads (2011)
Pipelinescondensate 42 km; condensate/gas 5 km; gas 79 km; oil 71 km (2013)
gas 53 km; liquid petroleum gas 5 km; oil 1,107 km; water 35 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Bata, Luba, Malabo
LNG terminal(s) (export): Bioko Island
river port(s): Douala (Wouri); Garoua (Benoue)
oil terminal(s): Limboh Terminal
Airports7 (2013)
33 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
total: 22
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 8 (2013)

Military

Equatorial GuineaCameroon
Military branchesEquatorial Guinea Armed Forces (FAGE): Equatorial Guinea National Guard (Guardia Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial, GNGE (Army), Navy, Air Force (2013)
Cameroon Armed Forces (Forces Armees Camerounaises, FAC): Army (L'Armee de Terre), Navy (Marine Nationale Republique, MNR, includes naval infantry), Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Cameroun, AAC), Rapid Intervention Brigade, Fire Fighter Corps, Gendarmerie (2015)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for selective compulsory military service, although conscription is rare in practice; 2-year service obligation; women hold only administrative positions in the Navy (2013)
18-23 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; high school graduation required; service obligation 4 years; periodic government calls for volunteers (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP0.78% of GDP (2014)
1.25% of GDP (2015)
1.25% of GDP (2014)
1.33% of GDP (2013)
1.34% of GDP (2012)
1.31% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Equatorial GuineaCameroon
Disputes - internationalin 2002, ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but a dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River and imprecisely defined maritime coordinates in the ICJ decision delayed final delimitation; UN urged Equatorial Guinea and Gabon to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Gabon-occupied Mbane and lesser islands and to create a maritime boundary in the hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay
Joint Border Commission with Nigeria reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately ceded sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a full phase-out of Nigerian control and patriation of residents in 2008; Cameroon and Nigeria agreed on maritime delimitation in March 2008; sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries

Source: CIA Factbook