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Egypt vs. Gaza Strip

Introduction

EgyptGaza Strip
BackgroundThe regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Completion of the Suez Canal in 1869 elevated Egypt as an important world transportation hub. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty from Britain in 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt's population through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.
Inspired by the 2010 Tunisian revolution, Egyptian opposition groups led demonstrations and labor strikes countrywide, culminating in President Hosni MUBARAK's ouster in 2011. Egypt's military assumed national leadership until a new parliament was in place in early 2012; later that same year, Mohammed MORSI won the presidential election. Following often violent protests throughout the spring of 2013 against MORSI's government and the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian Armed Forces intervened and removed MORSI from power in July 2013 and replaced him with interim president Adly MANSOUR. In January 2014, voters approved a new constitution by referendum and in May 2014 elected Abdelfattah ELSISI president. Egypt elected a new legislature in December 2015, the first parliament since 2012.
"Inhabited since at least the 15th century B.C., Gaza has been dominated by many different peoples and empires throughout its history; it was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in the early 16th century. Gaza fell to British forces during World War I, becoming a part of the British Mandate of Palestine. Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Egypt administered the newly formed Gaza Strip; it was captured by Israel in the Six-Day War in 1967. Under a series of agreements known as the Oslo accords signed between 1994 and 1999, Israel transferred to the newly-created Palestinian Authority (PA) security and civilian responsibility for many Palestinian-populated areas of the Gaza Strip as well as the West Bank. Negotiations to determine the permanent status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip stalled in 2001, after which the area witnessed a violent intifada or uprising.

In early 2003, the ""Quartet"" of the US, EU, UN, and Russia presented a roadmap to a final peace settlement by 2005, calling for two states. Following PA President Yasir ARAFAT's death in late 2004 and the subsequent election of Mahmud ABBAS (head of the Fatah political faction) as the PA president in 2005, Israel and the Palestinians agreed to move the peace process forward. Israel by late 2005 unilaterally withdrew all of its settlers and soldiers and dismantled its military facilities in the Gaza Strip, but it continues to control the Gaza Strip’s land and maritime borders and airspace. In early 2006, the Islamic Resistance Movement (HAMAS) won a majority in the Palestinian Legislative Council election. Attempts to form a unity government between Fatah and HAMAS failed and violent clashes between their respective supporters ensued, culminating in HAMAS's violent seizure of all military and governmental institutions in the Gaza Strip in June 2007. Since HAMAS’s takeover, Israel and Egypt have enforced tight restrictions on movement and access of goods and individuals into and out of the territory. Fatah and HAMAS have since reached a series of agreements aimed at restoring political unity between the Gaza Strip and the West Bank but have struggled to implement them. In April 2014, the two factions signed an agreement and two months later President ABBAS formed an interim government of independent technocrats, none of whom were affiliated with HAMAS. The factions have since met periodically for further negotiations, but they continue to disagree over how to implement the deal and HAMAS remains in de facto control of the Gaza Strip.

In July 2014, HAMAS and other Gaza-based militant groups engaged in a 51-day conflict with Israel — the third conflict since HAMAS’s takeover in 2007 — culminating in late August with an open-ended truce that continues to hold despite the absence of a negotiated cease-fire and occasional violations by both sides. Reconstruction efforts since the end of the conflict have been hampered by Israeli restrictions on goods entering the Gaza Strip and inadequate donor aid. The UN in 2015 published a study assessing that the Gaza Strip could become uninhabitable by 2020 absent a substantial easing on border restrictions. In an attempt to reenergize peace talks between the Israelis and Palestinians, France in June 2016 hosted a ministerial meeting that included participants from 29 countries, although not Israel or the Palestinians, to lay the groundwork for an envisioned ""multilateral peace conference"" later in the year.
"

Geography

EgyptGaza Strip
LocationNorthern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula
Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Israel
Geographic coordinates27 00 N, 30 00 E
31 25 N, 34 20 E
Map referencesAfrica
Middle East
Areatotal: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km
total: 360 sq km
land: 360 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativemore than eight times the size of Ohio; slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundariestotal: 2,612 km
border countries (4): Gaza Strip 13 km, Israel 208 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,276 km
total: 72 km
border countries (2): Egypt 13 km, Israel 59 km
Coastline2,450 km
40 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or the equidistant median line with Cyprus
continental shelf: 200 nm
see entry for Israel
note: effective 3 January 2009, the Gaza maritime area is closed to all maritime traffic and is under blockade imposed by Israeli Navy until further notice
Climatedesert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers
Terrainvast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
flat to rolling, sand- and dune-covered coastal plain
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 321 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m
mean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Abu 'Awdah (Joz Abu 'Awdah) 105 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc
arable land, natural gas
Irrigated land36,500 sq km (2012)
240 sq km; note - includes West Bank (2012)
Natural hazardsperiodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving windstorms called khamsin occur in spring; dust storms; sandstorms
droughts
Environment - current issuesagricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; limited natural freshwater resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources
desertification; salination of fresh water; sewage treatment; water-borne disease; soil degradation; depletion and contamination of underground water resources
Geography - notecontrols Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees from Sudan and the Palestinian territories
strategic strip of land along Mideast-North African trade routes has experienced an incredibly turbulent history; the town of Gaza itself has been besieged countless times in its history; there are no Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip; the Gaza Strip settlements were evacuated in 2005 (2014)
Population distributionapproximately 95% of the population lives within 20 km of the Nile River and its delta; vast areas of the country remain sparsely populated or uninhabited
population concentrated in major cities, particularly Gaza City in the north

Demographics

EgyptGaza Strip
Population94,666,993 (July 2016 est.)
1,753,327 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 33.21% (male 16,268,862/female 15,169,039)
15-24 years: 19.24% (male 9,371,819/female 8,839,999)
25-54 years: 37.47% (male 18,020,332/female 17,448,871)
55-64 years: 5.91% (male 2,771,399/female 2,826,094)
65 years and over: 4.17% (male 1,937,119/female 2,013,459) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 45.4% (male 408,601/female 387,463)
15-24 years: 21.21% (male 187,229/female 184,619)
25-54 years: 27.56% (male 237,162/female 246,021)
55-64 years: 3.32% (male 30,575/female 27,717)
65 years and over: 2.51% (male 22,613/female 21,327) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 23.8 years
male: 23.5 years
female: 24.1 years (2016 est.)
total: 16.9 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 17.2 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.51% (2016 est.)
2.39% (2016 est.)
Birth rate30.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
32.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate4.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
3.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-5.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 19.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 17.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 18.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 72.7 years
male: 71.4 years
female: 74.2 years (2016 est.)
total population: 73.9 years
male: 72.3 years
female: 75.7 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate3.53 children born/woman (2016 est.)
4.3 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.02% (2015 est.)
NA
Nationalitynoun: Egyptian(s)
adjective: Egyptian
noun: NA
adjective: NA
Ethnic groupsEgyptian 99.6%, other 0.4% (2006 census)
Palestinian Arab
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS11,500 (2015 est.)
NA
ReligionsMuslim (predominantly Sunni) 90%, Christian (majority Coptic Orthodox, other Christians include Armenian Apostolic, Catholic, Maronite, Orthodox, and Anglican) 10% (2015 est.)
Muslim 98.0 - 99.0% (predominantly Sunni), Christian <1.0%, other, unaffiliated, unspecified <1.0% (2012 est.)
note: dismantlement of Israeli settlements was completed in September 2005; Gaza has had no Jewish population since then
HIV/AIDS - deaths300 (2015 est.)
NA
LanguagesArabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by many Palestinians), English (widely understood)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73.8%
male: 82.2%
female: 65.4% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.5%
male: 98.4%
female: 94.5%
note: estimates are for Gaza and the West Bank (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)
total: 13 years
male: 12 years
female: 14 years
note: data represent Gaza and the West Bank (2015)
Education expenditures3.8% of GDP (2008)
1.3% of GDP
note: includes West Bank (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 43.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.68% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 75.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.81% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
note: data represent Gaza Strip and West Bank
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 50.7% of population
rural: 81.5% of population
total: 58.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 49.3% of population
rural: 18.5% of population
total: 41.6% of population
note: includes Gaza Strip and the West Bank (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 96.8% of population
rural: 93.1% of population
total: 94.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 6.9% of population
total: 5.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 93% of population
rural: 90.2% of population
total: 92.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7% of population
rural: 9.8% of population
total: 7.7% of population
note: includes Gaza Strip and the West Bank (2015 est.)
Maternal mortality rate33 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
45 deaths/100,000 live births
note: data represent Gaza Strip and West Bank (2015 est.)
Physicians density0.81 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
2.1 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density0.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
1.4 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth22.7 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)
19 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2004 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate58.5% (2014)
57.2% (includes Gaza Strip and West Bank) (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 62.3
youth dependency ratio: 53.8
elderly dependency ratio: 8.5
potential support ratio: 11.8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 76
youth dependency ratio: 70.8
elderly dependency ratio: 5.2
potential support ratio: 19.2
note: data represent Gaza Strip and the West Bank (2015 est.)

Government

EgyptGaza Strip
Country name"conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: Misr
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)
etymology: the English name ""Egypt"" derives from the ancient Greek name for the country ""Aigyptos""; the Arabic name ""Misr"" can be traced to the ancient Akkadian ""misru"" meaning border or frontier
"
"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Gaza Strip
local long form: none
local short form: Qita' Ghazzah
etymology: named for the largest city in the region, Gaza, whose settlement can be traced back to at least the 15th century B.C. (as ""Ghazzat"")
"

Economy

EgyptGaza Strip
Economy - overviewOccupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. Egypt's economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel NASSER but opened up considerably under former Presidents Anwar EL-SADAT and Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK.

Cairo from 2004 to 2008 pursued business climate reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate growth. Poor living conditions and limited job opportunities for the average Egyptian contribute to public discontent, a major factor leading to the January 2011 revolution that ousted MUBARAK. The uncertain political, security, and policy environment since 2011 caused economic growth to slow significantly, hurting tourism, manufacturing, and other sectors and pushing up unemployment, which remains above 10%.

Weak growth and limited foreign exchange earnings have made public finances unsustainable, leaving authorities dependent on expensive borrowing for deficit finance and on Gulf allies to help cover the import bill. In 2015-16, higher levels of foreign investment contributed to a slight rebound in GDP growth after a particularly depressed post-revolution period. In 2016, Cairo enacted a value-added tax, implemented fuel and electricity subsidy cuts, and floated its currency, which led to a sharp depreciation of the pound and corresponding inflation. In November 2016, the IMF approved a $12 billion, three-year loan for Egypt and disbursed the first $2.75 billion tranche.
Israeli security measures and Israeli-Palestinian violence continue to degrade economic conditions in the Gaza Strip, the smaller of the two areas comprising the Palestinian territories. Israeli-imposed border controls became more restrictive after HAMAS seized control of the territory in June 2007. They have produced high unemployment, elevated poverty rates, and a sharp contraction of the private sector, which had relied primarily on export markets.

Egypt’s ongoing crackdown on the Gaza Strip’s extensive tunnel-based smuggling network has exacerbated fuel, construction material, and consumer goods shortages in the territory. The 51-day conflict in July 2014 that HAMAS and other Gaza-based militant groups fought with Israel further depressed the Gaza Strip’s already aid-dependent economy. Donor support for reconstruction and relaxed Israeli import restrictions in 2014 and 2015 have fallen short of postconflict needs, with almost 100,000 people remaining internally displaced because their homes have yet to be rebuilt or repaired.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$1.105 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.064 trillion (2015 est.)
$1.021 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
see entry for the West Bank
GDP - real growth rate3.8% (2016 est.)
4.2% (2015 est.)
2.2% (2014 est.)
-15.2% (2014 est.)
5.6% (2013)
7% (2012)
note: excludes the West Bank
GDP - per capita (PPP)$12,100 (2016 est.)
$12,000 (2015 est.)
$11,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
see entry for the the West Bank
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 11.3%
industry: 35.8%
services: 52.9% (2016 est.)
3.3%
21.7%
61.9%
note: data exclude the West Bank (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line25.2% (2011 est.)
30%
note: data exclude the West Bank (2011 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)12.1% (2016 est.)
10.4% (2015 est.)
0.1% (2016 est.)
1.4% (2015 est.)
note: 2.9% excludes the West Bank
Labor force31.96 million (2016 est.)
1.157 million
note: excludes the West Bank (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 29.2%
industry: 23.5%
services: 47.3% (2013 est.)
agriculture: 5.2%
industry: 10%
services: 84.8%
note: data exclude the West Bank (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate13.1% (2016 est.)
12.8% (2015 est.)
26.1% (2016 est.)
25.9% (2015 est.)
note: data exclude the West Bank
Budgetrevenues: $60.09 billion
expenditures: $92.37 billion (2016 est.)
see entry for the West Bank (2016 est.)
Industriestextiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures
textiles, food processing, furniture
Industrial production growth rate0.6% (2016 est.)
4.5% see entry for the West Bank (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats
olives, fruit, vegetables, flowers; beef, dairy products
Exports$14.73 billion (2016 est.)
$19.03 billion (2015 est.)
$1.37 billion (2016 est.)
$1.343 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiescrude oil and petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food
strawberries, carnations, vegetables, fish (small and irregular shipments, as permitted to transit the Israeli-controlled Kerem Shalom crossing)
Imports$50.07 billion (2016 est.)
$57.17 billion (2015 est.)
see entry for the West Bank
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels
food, consumer goods, fuel
Debt - external$50.67 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$44.61 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
see entry for the West Bank
Exchange ratesEgyptian pounds (EGP) per US dollar -
9.71 (2016 est.)
7.7133 (2015 est.)
7.7133 (2014 est.)
7.08 (2013 est.)
6.06 (2012 est.)
see entry for the West Bank
Fiscal year1 July - 30 June
calendar year
Current Account Balance-$18.66 billion (2016 est.)
-$12.18 billion (2015 est.)
-$2.894 billion (2014 est.)
-$1.412 billion (2013 est.)
note: excludes the West Bank
GDP (official exchange rate)$342.8 billion (2016 est.)
$2.938 billion (2014 est.)
note: excludes the West Bank
Commercial bank prime lending rate12.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.63% (31 December 2015 est.)
see entry for the West Bank
Stock of domestic credit$260.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$297.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.551 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.418 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$55.96 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$66.49 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
see entry for the West Bank
Stock of broad money$210.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$243.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.356 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$2.16 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 34.3%
male: 28.7%
female: 52.2% (2013 est.)
total: 41%
male: 37%
female: 64.7%
note: includes the West Bank (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 84.4%
government consumption: 12%
investment in fixed capital: 12.1%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 12.7%
imports of goods and services: -21.6% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 90%
government consumption: 25.6%
investment in fixed capital: 24.8%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 16.5%
imports of goods and services: -56.8%
note: data exclude the West Bank (2016 est.)

Energy

EgyptGaza Strip
Electricity - production162 billion kWh (2014 est.)
51,000 kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - consumption143 billion kWh (2014 est.)
202,000 kWh (2009)
Electricity - exports500 million kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - imports81 million kWh (2014 est.)
193,000 kWh (2011 est.)
Oil - proved reserves4.4 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 300,000
electrification - total population: 99.6%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 99.3% (2013)
population without electricity: 80,930
electrification - total population: 98%
electrification - urban areas: 99%
electrification - rural areas: 93%
note: data for Gaza Strip and West Bank combined (2012)

Telecommunications

EgyptGaza Strip
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 6,235,133
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 7 (July 2015 est.)
406,500 (includes the West Bank) (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 94.016 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (July 2015 est.)
total: 3,531,000 (includes the West Bank)
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 76 (includes the West Bank) (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: Telecom Egypt remains largely state owned; principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
domestic: largest fixed-line system in Africa and the Arab region; multiple mobile-cellular networks with a near 100-percent penetration of the market
international: country code - 20; landing point for Aletar, the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks, Link Around the Globe (FLAG) Falcon and FLAG FEA; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat); tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel (2015)
general assessment: Gaza continues to repair the damage to its telecommunications infrastructure caused by fighting in 2009
domestic: Israeli company BEZEK and the Palestinian company PALTEL are responsible for fixed-line services; the Palestinian JAWWAL company provides cellular services
international: country code - 970 (2010)
Internet country code.eg
.ps; note - same as the West Bank
Internet userstotal: 31.767 million
percent of population: 35.9% (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.673 million (includes the West Bank)
percent of population: 57.4% (includes the West Bank) (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediamix of state-run and private broadcast media; state-run TV operates 2 national and 6 regional terrestrial networks, as well as a few satellite channels; about 20 private satellite channels and a large number of Arabic satellite channels are available via subscription; state-run radio operates about 70 stations belonging to 8 networks; 2 privately owned radio stations operational (2008)
1 TV station and about 10 radio stations; satellite TV accessible (2008)

Transportation

EgyptGaza Strip
Roadwaystotal: 137,430 km
paved: 126,742 km (includes 838 km of expressways)
unpaved: 10,688 km (2010)
note: see entry for the West Bank
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Mediterranean Sea - Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said; Gulf of Suez - Suez
oil terminal(s): Ain Sukhna terminal, Sidi Kerir terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Alexandria (1,108,826), Port Said (East) (2,617,043), Port Said (West) (1,138,753)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Damietta, Idku (Abu Qir Bay)
major seaport(s): Gaza
Airports83 (2013)
1 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 72
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports7 (2013)
1 (2013)

Military

EgyptGaza Strip
Military branchesArmy, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Forces (2015)
HAMAS does not have a conventional military in the Gaza Strip but maintains security forces in addition to its military wing, the 'Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades; the military wing reports to the Hamas Political Bureau leadership, which remains scattered throughout the region since relocating from its Damascus headquarters in early 2012 (2015)

Transnational Issues

EgyptGaza Strip
Disputes - internationalSudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; Egypt no longer shows its administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Sudan on its maps; Gazan breaches in the security wall with Egypt in January 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai border; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir
the status of the Gaza Strip is a final status issue to be resolved through negotiations; Israel removed settlers and military personnel from Gaza Strip in September 2005
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 70,027 (West Bank and Gaza Strip); 6,835 (Somalia) (2016); 15,053 (Sudan); 122,228 (Syria) (2017)
IDPs: 78,000 (2016)
stateless persons: 19 (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 1,311,920 (Palestinian refugees) (2016)
IDPs: 193,000 (includes persons displaced within the Gaza strip due to the intensification of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict since June 2014 and other Palestinian IDPs in the Gaza Strip and West Bank who fled as long ago as 1967, although confirmed cumulative data do not go back beyond 2006) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook