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Ecuador vs. Peru

Introduction

EcuadorPeru
Background"What is now Ecuador formed part of the northern Inca Empire until the Spanish conquest in 1533. Quito became a seat of Spanish colonial government in 1563 and part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717. The territories of the Viceroyalty - New Granada (Colombia), Venezuela, and Quito - gained their independence between 1819 and 1822 and formed a federation known as Gran Colombia. When Quito withdrew in 1830, the traditional name was changed in favor of the ""Republic of the Equator."" Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999. Although Ecuador marked 30 years of civilian governance in 2004, the period was marred by political instability. Protests in Quito contributed to the mid-term ouster of three of Ecuador's last four democratically elected presidents. In late 2008, voters approved a new constitution, Ecuador's 20th since gaining independence. General elections were held in February 2013, and voters reelected President Rafael CORREA.
"
Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peru declared its independence in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his resignation in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw a new election in the spring of 2001, which installed Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of indigenous ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, oversaw a robust economic rebound. Former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president in June 2011, and carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceding administrations. Poverty and unemployment levels have fallen dramatically in the last decade, and today Peru boasts one of the best performing economies in Latin America. Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard won a very narrow presidential runoff election in June 2016.

Geography

EcuadorPeru
LocationWestern South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru
Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Geographic coordinates2 00 S, 77 30 W
10 00 S, 76 00 W
Map referencesSouth America
South America
Areatotal: 283,561 sq km
land: 276,841 sq km
water: 6,720 sq km
note: includes Galapagos Islands
total: 1,285,216 sq km
land: 1,279,996 sq km
water: 5,220 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Nevada
almost twice the size of Texas; slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundariestotal: 2,237 km
border countries (2): Colombia 708 km, Peru 1,529 km
total: 7,062 km
border countries (5): Bolivia 1,212 km, Brazil 2,659 km, Chile 168 km, Colombia 1,494 km, Ecuador 1,529 km
Coastline2,237 km
2,414 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 100 nm from 2,500-m isobath
territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climatetropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands
varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
Terraincoastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,117 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m
note: because the earth is not a perfect sphere and has an equatorial bulge, the highest point on the planet farthest from its center is Mount Chimborazo not Mount Everest, which is merely the highest peak above sea level
mean elevation: 1,555 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, fish, timber, hydropower
copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Land useagricultural land: 29.7%
arable land 4.7%; permanent crops 5.6%; permanent pasture 19.4%
forest: 38.9%
other: 31.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 18.8%
arable land 3.1%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 14.6%
forest: 53%
other: 28.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land15,000 sq km (2012)
25,800 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsfrequent earthquakes; landslides; volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts
volcanism: volcanic activity concentrated along the Andes Mountains; Sangay (elev. 5,230 m), which erupted in 2010, is mainland Ecuador's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes in the Andes include Antisana, Cayambe, Chacana, Cotopaxi, Guagua Pichincha, Reventador, Sumaco, and Tungurahua; Fernandina (elev. 1,476 m), a shield volcano that last erupted in 2009, is the most active of the many Galapagos volcanoes; other historically active Galapagos volcanoes include Wolf, Sierra Negra, Cerro Azul, Pinta, Marchena, and Santiago
earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains; Ubinas (elev. 5,672 m), which last erupted in 2009, is the country's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes include El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya, and Yucamane
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin and Galapagos Islands
deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteCotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world
shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
Population distributionnearly half of the population is concentrated in the interior in the Andean intermontane basins and valleys, with large concentrations also found along the western coastal strip; the rainforests of the east remain sparsely populated
approximately one-third of the population resides along the desert coastal belt in the west, with a strong focus on the capital city of Lima; the Andean highlands, or sierra, which is strongly identified with the country's Amerindian population, contains roughly half of the overall population; the eastern slopes of the Andes, and adjoining rainforest, are sparsely populated

Demographics

EcuadorPeru
Population16,080,778 (July 2016 est.)
30,741,062 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 27.52% (male 2,257,535/female 2,168,198)
15-24 years: 18.47% (male 1,508,341/female 1,461,207)
25-54 years: 39.38% (male 3,086,599/female 3,245,266)
55-64 years: 7.39% (male 581,560/female 606,821)
65 years and over: 7.25% (male 554,371/female 610,880) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 26.62% (male 4,164,681/female 4,019,436)
15-24 years: 18.63% (male 2,868,743/female 2,859,476)
25-54 years: 39.91% (male 5,892,065/female 6,377,681)
55-64 years: 7.62% (male 1,135,938/female 1,205,579)
65 years and over: 7.21% (male 1,049,409/female 1,168,054) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 27.4 years
male: 26.7 years
female: 28.1 years (2016 est.)
total: 27.7 years
male: 26.9 years
female: 28.4 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.31% (2016 est.)
0.96% (2016 est.)
Birth rate18.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
18 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate5.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-2.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 16.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 19.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 13.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 19 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 76.8 years
male: 73.8 years
female: 79.9 years (2016 est.)
total population: 73.7 years
male: 71.7 years
female: 75.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.22 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.15 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.29% (2015 est.)
0.33% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Ecuadorian(s)
adjective: Ecuadorian
noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian
Ethnic groupsmestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 71.9%, Montubio 7.4%, Amerindian 7%, white 6.1%, Afroecuadorian 4.3%, mulato 1.9%, black 1%, other 0.4% (2010 est.)
Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS29,100 (2015 est.)
66,200 (2015 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 74%, Evangelical 10.4%, Jehovah's Witness 1.2%, other 6.4% (includes Mormon Buddhist, Jewish, Spiritualist, Muslim, Hindu, indigenous religions, African American religions, Pentecostal), atheist 7.9%, agnostic 0.1%
note: data represent persons at least 16 years of age from five Ecuadoran cities (2012 est.)
Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, none 2.9% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths900 (2015 est.)
1,600 (2015 est.)
LanguagesSpanish (Castilian) 93% (official), Quechua 4.1%, other indigenous 0.7%, foreign 2.2%
note: (Quechua and Shuar are official languages of intercultural relations; other indigenous languages are in official use by indigenous peoples in the areas they inhabit) (2010 est.)
Spanish (official) 84.1%, Quechua (official) 13%, Aymara (official) 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.7%, other (includes foreign languages and sign language) 0.2% (2007 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.5%
male: 95.4%
female: 93.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.5%
male: 97.3%
female: 91.7% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever, malaria, and Bartonellosis (Oroya fever)
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2012)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2010)
Education expenditures4.9% of GDP (2015)
3.9% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 63.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.9% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 78.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.69% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 93.4% of population
rural: 75.5% of population
total: 86.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.6% of population
rural: 24.5% of population
total: 13.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 91.4% of population
rural: 69.2% of population
total: 86.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 8.6% of population
rural: 30.8% of population
total: 13.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 87% of population
rural: 80.7% of population
total: 84.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13% of population
rural: 19.3% of population
total: 15.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 82.5% of population
rural: 53.2% of population
total: 76.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 17.5% of population
rural: 46.8% of population
total: 23.8% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationGuayaquil 2.709 million; QUITO (capital) 1.726 million (2015)
LIMA (capital) 9.897 million; Arequipa 850,000; Trujillo 798,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate64 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
68 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight6.4% (2013)
3.1% (2014)
Health expenditures9.2% of GDP (2014)
5.5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.67 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
1.12 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density1.6 beds/1,000 population (2011)
1.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate18% (2014)
20.4% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 227,599
percentage: 8% (2008 est.)
total number: 2,545,855
percentage: 34%
note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2007 est.)
Demographic profileEcuador's high poverty and income inequality most affect indigenous, mixed race, and rural populations. The government has increased its social spending to ameliorate these problems, but critics question the efficiency and implementation of its national development plan. Nevertheless, the conditional cash transfer program, which requires participants' children to attend school and have medical check-ups, has helped improve educational attainment and healthcare among poor children. Ecuador is stalled at above replacement level fertility and the population most likely will keep growing rather than stabilize.
An estimated 2 to 3 million Ecuadorians live abroad, but increased unemployment in key receiving countries - Spain, the United States, and Italy - is slowing emigration and increasing the likelihood of returnees to Ecuador. The first large-scale emigration of Ecuadorians occurred between 1980 and 2000, when an economic crisis drove Ecuadorians from southern provinces to New York City, where they had trade contacts. A second, nationwide wave of emigration in the late 1990s was caused by another economic downturn, political instability, and a currency crisis. Spain was the logical destination because of its shared language and the wide availability of low-skilled, informal jobs at a time when increased border surveillance made illegal migration to the US difficult. Ecuador has a small but growing immigrant population and is Latin America's top recipient of refugees; 98% are neighboring Colombians fleeing violence in their country.
Peru's urban and coastal communities have benefited much more from recent economic growth than rural, Afro-Peruvian, indigenous, and poor populations of the Amazon and mountain regions. The poverty rate has dropped substantially during the last decade but remains stubbornly high at about 30% (more than 55% in rural areas). After remaining almost static for about a decade, Peru's malnutrition rate began falling in 2005, when the government introduced a coordinated strategy focusing on hygiene, sanitation, and clean water. School enrollment has improved, but achievement scores reflect ongoing problems with educational quality. Many poor children temporarily or permanently drop out of school to help support their families. About a quarter to a third of Peruvian children aged 6 to 14 work, often putting in long hours at hazardous mining or construction sites.
Peru was a country of immigration in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but has become a country of emigration in the last few decades. Beginning in the 19th century, Peru brought in Asian contract laborers mainly to work on coastal plantations. Populations of Chinese and Japanese descent - among the largest in Latin America - are economically and culturally influential in Peru today. Peruvian emigration began rising in the 1980s due to an economic crisis and a violent internal conflict, but outflows have stabilized in the last few years as economic conditions have improved. Nonetheless, more than 2 million Peruvians have emigrated in the last decade, principally to the US, Spain, and Argentina.
Contraceptive prevalence rate80.1% (2012)
74.6% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 55.6
youth dependency ratio: 45.1
elderly dependency ratio: 10.4
potential support ratio: 9.6 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 53.2
youth dependency ratio: 42.7
elderly dependency ratio: 10.5
potential support ratio: 9.6 (2015 est.)

Government

EcuadorPeru
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form: Ecuador
local long form: Republica del Ecuador
local short form: Ecuador
etymology: the country's position on the globe, straddling the Equator, accounts for its Spanish name
"conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
etymology: exact meaning is obscure, but the name may derive from a native word ""biru"" meaning ""river""
"
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Quito
geographic coordinates: 0 13 S, 78 30 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Lima
geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions24 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Santa Elena, Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the Callao region
Independence24 May 1822 (from Spain)
28 July 1821 (from Spain)
National holidayIndependence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)
Independence Day, 28-29 July (1821)
Constitutionmany previous; latest approved 20 October 2008; amended 2011; note - a 2015 constitutional amendment lifting presidential term limits becomes effective May 2017 (2017)
several previous; latest promulgated 29 December 1993, enacted 31 December 1993; amended several times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law based on the Chilean civil code with modifications; traditional law in indigenous communities
civil law system
Suffrage18-65 years of age, universal and compulsory; 16-18, over 65, and other eligible voters, voluntary
18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70
Executive branchchief of state: President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 24 May 2017); Vice President Jorge GLAS Espinel (since 24 May 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 24 May 2017); Vice President Jorge GLAS Espinel (since 24 May 2013)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 19 February 2017, with a runoff election on 2 April 2017 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: Lenin MORENO Garces elected president; percent of vote - Lenin MORENO (Alianza PAIS Movement) 51.1%, Guillermo LASSO (CREO) 48.9%
chief of state: President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (since 28 July 2016); First Vice President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo (since 28 July 2016); Second Vice President Mercedes Rosalba ARAOZ Fernandez (since 28 July 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (since 28 July 2016); First Vice President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo (since 28 July 2016); Second Vice President Mercedes Rosalba ARAOZ Fernandez (since 28 July 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 10 April 2016 with runoff on 5 June 2016 (next to be held in April 2021)
election results: Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard elected president; first round election results from 10 April 2016: percent of vote - Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi 39.85%, Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard 21%, Veronika MENDOZA 18.82%, Alfredo BARNECHEA 6.97%, Alan GARCIA 5.82%; second round election results from 5 June 2016: percent of vote - Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (Peruanos Por el Kambio) 50.1%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi (Fuerza Popular) 49.9%
note: Prime Minister Fernando ZAVALA Lombardi (since 28 July 2016) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (137 seats; 116 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 15 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote, and 6 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies for Ecuadorians living abroad by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 19 February 2017 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PAIS 74, SUMA 34, PSC 15, ID 4, MUPP 4, Independents 3, PSP 2, Fuerza Ecuador 1; note - defections by members of National Assembly are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties
description: unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 10 April 2016 with run-off election on 6 June 2016 (next to be held in April 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - Fuerza Popular 36.34%, PPK 16.47%, Frente Amplio 13.94%, APP 9.23%; APRA 8.31%; AP 7.20%, other 8.51%; seats by party - Fuerza Popular 71, PPK 20, Frente Amplio 20, APP 9; APRA 5; AP 5
Judicial branchhighest court(s): National Court of Justice or Corte Nacional de Justicia (consists of 21 judges including the chief justice and organized into 5 specialized chambers); Constitutional Court or Corte Constitucional (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: justices of National Court of Justice elected by the Judiciary Council, a 9-member independent body of law professionals; judges elected for 9-year, non-renewable terms, with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the executive, legislative, and Citizen Participation branches of government; judges appointed for 9-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: Fiscal Tribunal; Election Dispute Settlement Courts, provincial courts (one for each province); cantonal courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors)
judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Council of the Judiciary or National Judicial Council (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress (all appointments reviewed by the Council every 7 years); justices appointed for life or until age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; 2 types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside
Political parties and leadersAlianza PAIS movement [Rafael Vicente CORREA Delgado]
Avanza Party or AVANZA [Ramiro GONZALEZ]
Creating Opportunities Movement or CREO [Guillermo LASSO]
Democratic Left or ID [Paco MONCAYO]
Forward Ecuador Movement [Alvaro NOBOA]
Fuerza Ecuador [Abdala BUCARAM]
Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement or MUPP [Rafael ANTUNI]
Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua]
Popular Democracy Movement or MPD [Luis VILLACIS]
Roldosist Party or PRE
Social Christian Party or PSC
Socialist Party [Fabian SOLANO]
Society United for More Action or SUMA [Mauricio RODAS]
Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) or APP [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]
Broad Front (Frente Amplio; also known as El Frente Amplio por Justicia, Vida y Libertad), a coalition of left-of-center parties including Nuevo Peru [Veronika Mendoza], Tierra y Libertad [Marco ARANA Zegarra], and Fuerza Social [Susana VILLARAN de la Puente]
Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) [Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi]
National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) or SN [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio]
Peru Posible or PP (a coalition of Accion Popular and Somos Peru) [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]
Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Javier VELASQUEZ Quesquen] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA)
Peruvian Nationalist Party [Ollanta HUMALA]
Peruvians for Change (Peruanos Por el Kambio) or PPK [Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI]
Popular Action (Accion Popular) or AP [Mesias GUEVARA Amasifuen]
Popular Christian Party (Partido Popular Cristiano) or PPC [Lourdes FLORES Nano]
Political pressure groups and leadersConfederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Humberto CHOLANGO]
Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Manuel CHUGCHILAN, president]
National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN
General Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores del Peru) or CGTP [Mario HUAMAN]
Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Victor QUISPE Palomino (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group)
International organization participationCAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
APEC, BIS, CAN, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Francisco Jose BORJA Cevallos (since 18 May 2015)
chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200
FAX: [1] (202) 667-3482
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New Haven (CT), New Orleans, New York, Newark (NJ), Phoenix, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Jose PAREJA Rios (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (NJ), San Francisco, Washington DC
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Todd CHAPMAN (since 14 April 2016)
embassy: Avenida Avigiras E12-170 y Avenida Eloy Alfaro, Quito
mailing address: Avenida Guayacanes N52-205 y Avenida Avigiras
telephone: [593] (2) 398-5000
FAX: [593] (2) 398-5100
consulate(s) general: Guayaquil
chief of mission: Ambassador Brian A. NICHOLS (since 30 June 2014)
embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17 s/n, Surco, Lima 33
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
telephone: [51] (1) 618-2000
FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397
Flag descriptionthree horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; the flag retains the three main colors of the banner of Gran Colombia, the South American republic that broke up in 1830; the yellow color represents sunshine, grain, and mineral wealth, blue the sky, sea, and rivers, and red the blood of patriots spilled in the struggle for freedom and justice
note: similar to the flag of Colombia, which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna (representing fauna), a cinchona tree (the source of quinine, signifying flora), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out coins (denoting mineral wealth); red recalls blood shed for independence, white symbolizes peace
National anthem"name: ""Salve, Oh Patria!"" (We Salute You, Our Homeland)
lyrics/music: Juan Leon MERA/Antonio NEUMANE
note: adopted 1948; Juan Leon MERA wrote the lyrics in 1865; only the chorus and second verse are sung
"
"name: ""Himno Nacional del Peru"" (National Anthem of Peru)
lyrics/music: Jose DE LA TORRE Ugarte/Jose Bernardo ALZEDO
note: adopted 1822; the song won a national anthem contest
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Andean condor; national colors: yellow, blue, red
vicuna (a camelid related to the llama); national colors: red, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years

Economy

EcuadorPeru
Economy - overview"Ecuador is substantially dependent on its petroleum resources, which have accounted for more than half of the country's export earnings and approximately 25% of public sector revenues in recent years.

In 1999/2000, Ecuador's economy suffered from a banking crisis, with GDP contracting by 5.3% and poverty increasing significantly. In March 2000, the Congress approved a series of structural reforms that also provided for the adoption of the US dollar as legal tender. Dollarization stabilized the economy, and positive growth returned in the years that followed, helped by high oil prices, remittances, and increased non-traditional exports. The economy grew an average of 4.3% per year from 2002 to 2006, the highest five-year average in 25 years. After moderate growth in 2007, the economy reached a growth rate of 6.4% in 2008, buoyed by high global petroleum prices and increased public sector investment. President Rafael CORREA Delgado, who took office in January 2007, defaulted in December 2008 on Ecuador's sovereign debt, which, with a total face value of approximately US$3.2 billion, represented about 30% of Ecuador's public external debt. In May 2009, Ecuador bought back 91% of its ""defaulted"" bonds via an international reverse auction.

Economic policies under the CORREA administration - for example, an announcement in late 2009 of its intention to terminate 13 bilateral investment treaties, including one with the US - have generated economic uncertainty and discouraged private investment. China has become Ecuador's largest foreign lender since Quito defaulted in 2008, allowing the government to maintain a high rate of social spending; Ecuador contracted with the Chinese government for more than $9.9 billion in forward oil sales, project financing, and budget support loans as of December 2013.

The level of foreign investment in Ecuador continues to be one of the lowest in the region as a result of an unstable regulatory environment, weak rule of law, and the crowding-out effect of public investments. Faced with a 2013 trade deficit of $1.1 billion, Ecuador erected technical barriers to trade in December 2013, causing tensions with its largest trading partners. Ecuador also decriminalized intellectual property rights violations in February 2014. In March, 2015 Ecuador imposed tariff surcharges from 5% to 45% on an estimated 32% of imports. In 2014, oil output increased slightly and production remained steady in 2015 however the oil price decrease from 2014 onward affected government revenue. Ecuador’s economy fell in to recession in 2015 and remained in recession in 2016. As a result, CORREA cut the budget twice in 2015, and reduced it further in 2016.
"
Peru's economy reflects its varied topography - an arid lowland coastal region, the central high sierra of the Andes, and the dense forest of the Amazon. A wide range of important mineral resources are found in the mountainous and coastal areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. Peru is the world's second largest producer of silver and copper.

The Peruvian economy grew by an average of 5.6% per year from 2009-13 with a stable exchange rate and low inflation, which in 2013 was just below the upper limit of the Central Bank target range of 1% to 3%. This growth was due partly to high international prices for Peru's metals and minerals exports, which account for 55% of the country's total exports. Growth slipped from 2014 to 2016, due to weaker world prices for these resources. Despite Peru's strong macroeconomic performance, dependence on minerals and metals exports and imported foodstuffs makes the economy vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices.

Peru's rapid expansion coupled with cash transfers and other programs have helped to reduce the national poverty rate by over 35 percentage points since 2004, but inequality persists and continued to pose a challenge for the Ollanta HUMALA administration, which championed a policy of social inclusion and a more equitable distribution of income. Poor infrastructure hinders the spread of growth to Peru's non-coastal areas. The HUMALA administration passed several economic stimulus packages in 2014 to bolster growth, including reforms to environmental regulations in order to spur investment in Peru’s lucrative mining sector, a move that was opposed by some environmental groups. However, in 2015, mining investment fell as global commodity prices remained low and social conflicts plagued the sector.

Peru's free trade policy continued under the HUMALA administration; since 2006, Peru has signed trade deals with the US, Canada, Singapore, China, Korea, Mexico, Japan, the EU, the European Free Trade Association, Chile, Thailand, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Honduras, concluded negotiations with Guatemala and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, and begun trade talks with El Salvador, India, and Turkey. Peru also has signed a trade pact with Chile, Colombia, and Mexico, called the Pacific Alliance, that seeks integration of services, capital, investment and movement of people. Since the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement entered into force in February 2009, total trade between Peru and the US has doubled. President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI succeeded HUMALA in July 2016 and is focusing on economic reforms and free market policies aimed at boosting investment in Peru. Mining output increased significantly in 2016, which helped Peru attain one of the highest GDP growth rates in Latin America, and Peru should maintain strong growth in 2017. However, 2016 economic performance fell short of initial projections depressed by delays in infrastructure mega-projects and the start of a corruption scandal associated with a Brazilian firm, which have lowered 2017 growth estimates. Massive flooding in early 2017 may also be a drag on growth, offset somewhat by additional public spending aimed at recovery efforts.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$182.4 billion (2016 est.)
$186.6 billion (2015 est.)
$186.1 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$410.4 billion (2016 est.)
$395 billion (2015 est.)
$382.5 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate-2.3% (2016 est.)
0.3% (2015 est.)
3.7% (2014 est.)
3.9% (2016 est.)
3.3% (2015 est.)
2.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$11,000 (2016 est.)
$11,500 (2015 est.)
$11,600 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$13,000 (2016 est.)
$12,700 (2015 est.)
$12,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 6.2%
industry: 34%
services: 59.8% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 7.3%
industry: 34.2%
services: 58.5% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line25.6% (December 2013 est)
22.7% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 35.4%
note: data for urban households only (2012 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2010 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.4% (2016 est.)
4% (2015 est.)
3.6% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2015 est.)
note: data are for metropolitan Lima, annual average
Labor force4.848 million (2016 est.)
17.12 million
note: individuals older than 14 years of age (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 27.8%
industry: 17.8%
services: 54.4% (2012 est.)
agriculture: 25.8%
industry: 17.4%
services: 56.8% (2011)
Unemployment rate6.1% (2016 est.)
4.8% (2015 est.)
6% (2016 est.)
6% (2015 est.)
note: data are for metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment
Distribution of family income - Gini index48.5 (December 2013)
50.5 (December 2010)
note: data are for urban households
45.3 (2012)
51 (2005)
Budgetrevenues: $30.9 billion
expenditures: $34.9 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $60.84 billion
expenditures: $66.46 billion (2016 est.)
Industriespetroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals
mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction; fishing and fish processing, cement, glass, textiles, clothing, food processing, beer, soft drinks, rubber, machinery, electrical machinery, chemicals, furniture
Industrial production growth rate-3.2%
note: excludes oil refining (2016 est.)
3.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsbananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, cassava (manioc, tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; fish, shrimp; balsa wood
artichokes, asparagus, avocados, blueberries, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mangoes, barley, medicinal plants, quinoa, palm oil, marigold, onion, wheat, dry beans; poultry, beef, pork, dairy products; guinea pigs; fish
Exports$16.77 billion (2016 est.)
$19.05 billion (2015 est.)
$36.84 billion (2016 est.)
$34.24 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiespetroleum, bananas, cut flowers, shrimp, cacao, coffee, wood, fish
copper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver; crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas; coffee, asparagus and other vegetables, fruit, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, alloys
Exports - partnersUS 39.5%, Chile 6.2%, Peru 5.1%, Vietnam 4.3%, Colombia 4.3% (2015)
China 22.1%, US 15.2%, Switzerland 8.1%, Canada 7% (2015)
Imports$17.74 billion (2016 est.)
$20.7 billion (2015 est.)
$35.11 billion (2016 est.)
$37.39 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesindustrial materials, fuels and lubricants, nondurable consumer goods
petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunication equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines
Imports - partnersUS 27.1%, China 15.3%, Colombia 8.3%, Panama 4.9% (2015)
China 22.7%, US 20.7%, Brazil 5.1%, Mexico 4.5% (2015)
Debt - external$33.22 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$30.79 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$69.78 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$67.87 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesthe US dollar became Ecuador's currency in 2001, 1 (2016 est.), 1 (2015 est.)
nuevo sol (PEN) per US dollar -
3.363 (2016 est.)
3.185 (2015 est.)
3.185 (2014 est.)
2.8383 (2013 est.)
2.64 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt33% of GDP (2016 est.)
30.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
26.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
23.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$3.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.29 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$60.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$61.59 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$1.109 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.201 billion (2015 est.)
-$5.463 billion (2016 est.)
-$9.402 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$99.12 billion (2016 est.)
$180.3 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$17.83 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.63 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$94.26 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$86.11 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$6.33 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$6.33 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$2.914 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.815 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$5.911 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$5.779 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$5.263 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$56.56 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$78.84 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$80.98 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate8.17% (31 December 2011)
8.68% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.05% (31 December 2012)
Commercial bank prime lending rate9% (31 December 2016 est.)
8.33% (31 December 2015 est.)
16.1% (31 December 2016 est.)
16.1% (31 December 2015 est.)
note: domestic currency lending rate, 90 day maturity
Stock of domestic credit$33.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$33.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$57.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$49.92 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$20.79 billion (30 September 2016 est.)
$19.04 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$32.72 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$29.86 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$43.25 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$39.65 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$91.26 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$84.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues31.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
33.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 10.9%
male: 8.4%
female: 15.7% (2013 est.)
total: 8.8%
male: 8.3%
female: 9.3% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 62%
government consumption: 13.3%
investment in fixed capital: 25.5%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 19.8%
imports of goods and services: -20.7% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 62.8%
government consumption: 13.6%
investment in fixed capital: 23.5%
investment in inventories: 1.4%
exports of goods and services: 22.3%
imports of goods and services: -23.6% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving23.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
25.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
28.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
20.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
22.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

EcuadorPeru
Electricity - production23 billion kWh (2014 est.)
44 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption21 billion kWh (2014 est.)
39 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports47 million kWh (2014 est.)
13 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports800 million kWh (2014 est.)
5 million kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production543,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
58,010 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
84,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports432,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
14,770 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves8.832 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
700 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves10.99 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
414.1 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production496.9 million cu m (2015 est.)
12.9 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption578 million cu m (2014 est.)
7.66 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2015 est.)
5.24 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity6.3 million kW (2014 est.)
12 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels57.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
63.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants41.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
35.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources1.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production193,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
208,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption282,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
229,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports15,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
103,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports153,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
75,330 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy38 million Mt (2013 est.)
41 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 500,000
electrification - total population: 97%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 92% (2013)
population without electricity: 2,900,000
electrification - total population: 91%
electrification - urban areas: 98%
electrification - rural areas: 73% (2013)

Telecommunications

EcuadorPeru
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 2,512,657
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 2,912,316
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 12.888 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 81 (July 2015 est.)
total: 34.236 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 112 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: elementary fixed-line service but increasingly sophisticated mobile-cellular network
domestic: fixed-line services provided by multiple telecommunications operators; fixed-line teledensity stands at about 15 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular use has surged and subscribership has reached 80 per 100 persons
international: country code - 593; landing points for the PAN-AM and South America-1 submarine cables that provide links to the west coast of South America, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, and extending onward to Aruba and the US Virgin Islands in the Caribbean; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, exceeds 110 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.ec
.pe
Internet userstotal: 7.766 million
percent of population: 48.9% (July 2015 est.)
total: 12.452 million
percent of population: 40.9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediamultiple TV networks and many local channels, as well as more than 300 radio stations; many TV and radio stations are privately owned; the government owns or controls 5 national TV stations and multiple radio stations; broadcast media required by law to give the government free air time to broadcast programs produced by the state (2007)
10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state owned; multi-channel cable TV services are available; in excess of 2,000 radio stations including a substantial number of indigenous language stations (2010)

Transportation

EcuadorPeru
Railwaystotal: 965 km
narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
total: 1,854.4 km
standard gauge: 1,730.4 km 1.435-m gauge (34 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 124 km 0.914-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 43,670 km
paved: 6,472 km
unpaved: 37,198 km (2007)
total: 140,672 km (18,699 km paved)
note: includes 24,593 km of national roads (14,748 km paved), 24,235 km of departmental roads (2,340 km paved), and 91,844 km of local roads (1,611 km paved) (2012)
Waterways1,500 km (most inaccessible) (2012)
8,808 km (8,600 km of navigable tributaries on the Amazon system and 208 km on Lago Titicaca) (2011)
Pipelinesextra heavy crude 527 km; gas 71 km; oil 2,131 km; refined products 1,526 km (2013)
extra heavy crude 786 km; gas 1,526 km; liquid petroleum gas 679 km; oil 1,033 km; refined products 15 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Esmeraldas, Manta, Puerto Bolivar
river port(s): Guayaquil (Guayas)
container port(s) (TEUs): Guayaquil (1,405,762)
major seaport(s): Callao, Matarani, Paita
river port(s): Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas (Amazon)
oil terminal(s): Conchan oil terminal, La Pampilla oil terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Callao (1,616,365)
Merchant marinetotal: 44
by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger 9, petroleum tanker 28, refrigerated cargo 1
registered in other countries: 4 (Panama 3, Peru 1) (2010)
total: 22
by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 13
foreign-owned: 8 (Chile 6, Ecuador 1, Spain 1)
registered in other countries: 9 (Panama 9) (2010)
Airports432 (2013)
191 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 104
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 26
under 914 m: 51 (2013)
total: 59
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 328
914 to 1,523 m: 37
under 914 m: 291 (2013)
total: 132
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 30
under 914 m: 82 (2013)
Heliports2 (2013)
5 (2013)

Military

EcuadorPeru
Military branchesEcuadorian Armed Forces: Ecuadorian Land Force (Fuerza Terrestre Ecuatoriana, FTE), Ecuadorian Navy (Fuerza Naval del Ecuador, FNE, includes Naval Infantry, Naval Aviation, Coast Guard), Ecuadorian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana, FAE) (2012)
Peruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP, includes naval air, naval infantry, and Coast Guard), Air Force of Peru (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP) (2013)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for selective conscript military service; conscription has been suspended; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; Air Force 18-22 years of age, Ecuadorian birth requirement; 1-year service obligation (2012)
18-50 years of age for male and 18-45 years of age for female voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.82% of GDP (2016)
1.86% of GDP (2015)
1.94% of GDP (2014)
2.08% of GDP (2013)
1.97% of GDP (2012)
1.18% of GDP (2016)
1.17% of GDP (2015)
1.48% of GDP (2014)
1.54% of GDP (2013)
1.28% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

EcuadorPeru
Disputes - internationalorganized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia penetrate across Ecuador's shared border, which thousands of Colombians also cross to escape the violence in their home country
Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border
Illicit drugssignificant transit country for cocaine originating in Colombia and Peru, with much of the US-bound cocaine passing through Ecuadorian Pacific waters; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; attractive location for cash-placement by drug traffickers laundering money because of dollarization and weak anti-money-laundering regime; increased activity on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents (2008)
until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru is now the world's second largest producer of coca leaf, though it lags far behind Colombia; cultivation of coca in Peru was estimated at 40,000 hectares in 2009, a slight decrease over 2008; second largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 225 metric tons of potential pure cocaine in 2009; finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil, Chile, Argentina, and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipment to Europe and Africa; increasing domestic drug consumption
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 101,161 (Colombia) (2016)
IDPs: 11,137 (earthquake April 2016) (2016)
IDPs: 62,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions; as of 2011, no new information on the situation of these IDPs) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook