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Ecuador vs. Colombia

Introduction

EcuadorColombia
Background"What is now Ecuador formed part of the northern Inca Empire until the Spanish conquest in 1533. Quito became a seat of Spanish colonial government in 1563 and part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717. The territories of the Viceroyalty - New Granada (Colombia), Venezuela, and Quito - gained their independence between 1819 and 1822 and formed a federation known as Gran Colombia. When Quito withdrew in 1830, the traditional name was changed in favor of the ""Republic of the Equator."" Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999. Although Ecuador marked 30 years of civilian governance in 2004, the period was marred by political instability. Protests in Quito contributed to the mid-term ouster of three of Ecuador's last four democratically elected presidents. In late 2008, voters approved a new constitution, Ecuador's 20th since gaining independence. General elections were held in February 2013, and voters reelected President Rafael CORREA.
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Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged after the dissolution of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and Venezuela). A decades-long conflict between government forces and antigovernment insurgent groups, principally the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) heavily funded by the drug trade, escalated during the 1990s. More than 31,000 former paramilitaries demobilized by the end of 2006 and the United Self Defense Forces of Colombia as a formal organization ceased to operate. In the wake of the paramilitary demobilization, organized criminal groups arose, whose members include some former paramilitaries. After four years of formal peace negotiations, the Colombian Government signed a revised final peace accord with the FARC in November 2016, which was subsequently ratified by the Colombian Congress. The accord calls for members of the FARC to demobilize, disarm, and reincorporate into society and politics, and it creates an alternative system for transitional justice that includes a “Special Jurisdiction for Peace” to address accountability for conflict-related crimes and established truth-telling mechanisms. The Colombian Government has stepped up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country, and now has a presence in every one of its administrative departments. Despite decades of internal conflict and drug related security challenges, Colombia maintains relatively strong democratic institutions characterized by peaceful, transparent elections and the protection of civil liberties.

Geography

EcuadorColombia
LocationWestern South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru
Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama
Geographic coordinates2 00 S, 77 30 W
4 00 N, 72 00 W
Map referencesSouth America
South America
Areatotal: 283,561 sq km
land: 276,841 sq km
water: 6,720 sq km
note: includes Galapagos Islands
total: 1,138,910 sq km
land: 1,038,700 sq km
water: 100,210 sq km
note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, and Serrana Bank
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Nevada
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 2,237 km
border countries (2): Colombia 708 km, Peru 1,529 km
total: 6,672 km
border countries (5): Brazil 1,790 km, Ecuador 708 km, Panama 339 km, Peru 1,494 km, Venezuela 2,341 km
Coastline2,237 km
3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 100 nm from 2,500-m isobath
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatetropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands
tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Terraincoastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains (Llanos)
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,117 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m
note: because the earth is not a perfect sphere and has an equatorial bulge, the highest point on the planet farthest from its center is Mount Chimborazo not Mount Everest, which is merely the highest peak above sea level
mean elevation: 593 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m
note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation
Natural resourcespetroleum, fish, timber, hydropower
petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 29.7%
arable land 4.7%; permanent crops 5.6%; permanent pasture 19.4%
forest: 38.9%
other: 31.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 37.5%
arable land 1.4%; permanent crops 1.6%; permanent pasture 34.5%
forest: 54.4%
other: 8.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land15,000 sq km (2012)
10,900 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsfrequent earthquakes; landslides; volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts
volcanism: volcanic activity concentrated along the Andes Mountains; Sangay (elev. 5,230 m), which erupted in 2010, is mainland Ecuador's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes in the Andes include Antisana, Cayambe, Chacana, Cotopaxi, Guagua Pichincha, Reventador, Sumaco, and Tungurahua; Fernandina (elev. 1,476 m), a shield volcano that last erupted in 2009, is the most active of the many Galapagos volcanoes; other historically active Galapagos volcanoes include Wolf, Sierra Negra, Cerro Azul, Pinta, Marchena, and Santiago
highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts
volcanism: Galeras (elev. 4,276 m) is one of Colombia's most active volcanoes, having erupted in 2009 and 2010 causing major evacuations; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Nevado del Ruiz (elev. 5,321 m), 129 km (80 mi) west of Bogota, erupted in 1985 producing lahars (mudflows) that killed 23,000 people; the volcano last erupted in 1991; additionally, after 500 years of dormancy, Nevado del Huila reawakened in 2007 and has experienced frequent eruptions since then; other historically active volcanoes include Cumbal, Dona Juana, Nevado del Tolima, and Purace
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin and Galapagos Islands
deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - noteCotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world
only South American country with coastlines on both the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea
Population distributionnearly half of the population is concentrated in the interior in the Andean intermontane basins and valleys, with large concentrations also found along the western coastal strip; the rainforests of the east remain sparsely populated
the majority of people live in the north and west where agricultural opportunities and natural resources are found; the vast grasslands of the llanos to the south and east, which make up approximately 60% of the country, are sparsely populated

Demographics

EcuadorColombia
Population16,080,778 (July 2016 est.)
47,220,856 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 27.52% (male 2,257,535/female 2,168,198)
15-24 years: 18.47% (male 1,508,341/female 1,461,207)
25-54 years: 39.38% (male 3,086,599/female 3,245,266)
55-64 years: 7.39% (male 581,560/female 606,821)
65 years and over: 7.25% (male 554,371/female 610,880) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 24.57% (male 5,940,903/female 5,659,594)
15-24 years: 17.54% (male 4,216,437/female 4,066,079)
25-54 years: 41.82% (male 9,788,057/female 9,958,982)
55-64 years: 8.9% (male 1,973,215/female 2,230,609)
65 years and over: 7.17% (male 1,412,209/female 1,974,771) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 27.4 years
male: 26.7 years
female: 28.1 years (2016 est.)
total: 29.6 years
male: 28.7 years
female: 30.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.31% (2016 est.)
1.02% (2016 est.)
Birth rate18.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
16.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate5.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
5.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 16.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 19.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 13.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 14.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 17.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 76.8 years
male: 73.8 years
female: 79.9 years (2016 est.)
total population: 75.7 years
male: 72.6 years
female: 79 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.22 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.02 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.29% (2015 est.)
0.48% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Ecuadorian(s)
adjective: Ecuadorian
noun: Colombian(s)
adjective: Colombian
Ethnic groupsmestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 71.9%, Montubio 7.4%, Amerindian 7%, white 6.1%, Afroecuadorian 4.3%, mulato 1.9%, black 1%, other 0.4% (2010 est.)
mestizo and white 84.2%, Afro-Colombian (includes mulatto, Raizal, and Palenquero) 10.4%, Amerindian 3.4%, Romani <.01, unspecified 2.1% (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS29,100 (2015 est.)
146,000 (2015 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 74%, Evangelical 10.4%, Jehovah's Witness 1.2%, other 6.4% (includes Mormon Buddhist, Jewish, Spiritualist, Muslim, Hindu, indigenous religions, African American religions, Pentecostal), atheist 7.9%, agnostic 0.1%
note: data represent persons at least 16 years of age from five Ecuadoran cities (2012 est.)
Catholic 79%, Protestant 14% (includes Pentecostal 6%, mainline Protestant 2%, other 6%), other 2%, unspecified 5% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths900 (2015 est.)
2,300 (2015 est.)
LanguagesSpanish (Castilian) 93% (official), Quechua 4.1%, other indigenous 0.7%, foreign 2.2%
note: (Quechua and Shuar are official languages of intercultural relations; other indigenous languages are in official use by indigenous peoples in the areas they inhabit) (2010 est.)
Spanish (official)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.5%
male: 95.4%
female: 93.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.7%
male: 94.6%
female: 94.8% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2012)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2015)
Education expenditures4.9% of GDP (2015)
4.5% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 63.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.9% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 76.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 93.4% of population
rural: 75.5% of population
total: 86.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.6% of population
rural: 24.5% of population
total: 13.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 96.8% of population
rural: 73.8% of population
total: 91.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 26.2% of population
total: 8.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 87% of population
rural: 80.7% of population
total: 84.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13% of population
rural: 19.3% of population
total: 15.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 85.2% of population
rural: 67.9% of population
total: 81.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 14.8% of population
rural: 32.1% of population
total: 18.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationGuayaquil 2.709 million; QUITO (capital) 1.726 million (2015)
BOGOTA (capital) 9.765 million; Medellin 3.911 million; Cali 2.646 million; Barranquilla 1.991 million; Bucaramanga 1.215 million; Cartagena 1.092 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate64 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
64 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight6.4% (2013)
3.4% (2010)
Health expenditures9.2% of GDP (2014)
7.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.67 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
1.57 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density1.6 beds/1,000 population (2011)
1.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate18% (2014)
20.7% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 227,599
percentage: 8% (2008 est.)
total number: 988,362
percentage: 9%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2009 est.)
Demographic profileEcuador's high poverty and income inequality most affect indigenous, mixed race, and rural populations. The government has increased its social spending to ameliorate these problems, but critics question the efficiency and implementation of its national development plan. Nevertheless, the conditional cash transfer program, which requires participants' children to attend school and have medical check-ups, has helped improve educational attainment and healthcare among poor children. Ecuador is stalled at above replacement level fertility and the population most likely will keep growing rather than stabilize.
An estimated 2 to 3 million Ecuadorians live abroad, but increased unemployment in key receiving countries - Spain, the United States, and Italy - is slowing emigration and increasing the likelihood of returnees to Ecuador. The first large-scale emigration of Ecuadorians occurred between 1980 and 2000, when an economic crisis drove Ecuadorians from southern provinces to New York City, where they had trade contacts. A second, nationwide wave of emigration in the late 1990s was caused by another economic downturn, political instability, and a currency crisis. Spain was the logical destination because of its shared language and the wide availability of low-skilled, informal jobs at a time when increased border surveillance made illegal migration to the US difficult. Ecuador has a small but growing immigrant population and is Latin America's top recipient of refugees; 98% are neighboring Colombians fleeing violence in their country.
Colombia is in the midst of a demographic transition resulting from steady declines in its fertility, mortality, and population growth rates. The birth rate has fallen from more than 6 children per woman in the 1960s to just above replacement level today as a result of increased literacy, family planning services, and urbanization. However, income inequality is among the worst in the world, and more than a third of the population lives below the poverty line.
Colombia experiences significant legal and illegal economic emigration and refugee flows. Large-scale labor emigration dates to the 1960s; Venezuela and the United States continue to be the main host countries. Colombia is the largest source of Latin American refugees in Latin America, nearly 400,000 of whom live primarily in Venezuela and Ecuador. Forced displacement remains prevalent because of violence among guerrillas, paramilitary groups, and Colombian security forces. Afro-Colombian and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. As of February 2017, an estimated 7.4 million persons have been internally displaced since 1985, the highest amount in the world. These estimates may undercount actual numbers because not all internally displaced persons are registered. Historically, Colombia also has one of the world's highest levels of forced disappearances. About 30,000 cases have been recorded over the last four decades - although the number is likely to be much higher - including human rights activists, trade unionists, Afro-Colombians, indigenous people, and farmers in rural conflict zones.
Forced displacement continues to be prevalent because of violence among guerrillas, paramilitary groups, and Colombian security forces. Afro-Colombian and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Even with the Colombian Government’s December 2016 peace agreement with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the risk of displacement remains as other rebel groups fill the void left by the FARC. As of February 2017, an estimated 7.4 million persons have been internally displaced since 1985, the highest total in the world. These estimates may undercount actual numbers because many internally displaced persons are not registered. Historically, Colombia also has one of the world’s highest levels of forced disappearances. About 30,000 cases have been recorded over the last four decades—although the number is likely to be much higher—including human rights activists, trade unionists, Afro-Colombians, indigenous people, and farmers in rural conflict zones.
Because of political violence and economic problems, Colombia received limited numbers of immigrants during the 19th and 20th centuries, mostly from the Middle East, Europe, and Japan. More recently, growth in the oil, mining, and manufacturing sectors has attracted increased labor migration; the primary source countries are Venezuela, the US, Mexico, and Argentina. Colombia has also become a transit area for illegal migrants from Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean who are en route to the US or Canada.
Contraceptive prevalence rate80.1% (2012)
79.1% (2009/10)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 55.6
youth dependency ratio: 45.1
elderly dependency ratio: 10.4
potential support ratio: 9.6 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 45.6
youth dependency ratio: 35.4
elderly dependency ratio: 10.2
potential support ratio: 9.8 (2015 est.)

Government

EcuadorColombia
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form: Ecuador
local long form: Republica del Ecuador
local short form: Ecuador
etymology: the country's position on the globe, straddling the Equator, accounts for its Spanish name
conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
conventional short form: Colombia
local long form: Republica de Colombia
local short form: Colombia
etymology: the country is named after explorer Christopher COLUMBUS
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Quito
geographic coordinates: 0 13 S, 78 30 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Bogota
geographic coordinates: 4 36 N, 74 05 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions24 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Santa Elena, Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, Archipielago de San Andres, Providencia y Santa Catalina (colloquially San Andres y Providencia), Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada
Independence24 May 1822 (from Spain)
20 July 1810 (from Spain)
National holidayIndependence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)
Independence Day, 20 July (1810)
Constitutionmany previous; latest approved 20 October 2008; amended 2011; note - a 2015 constitutional amendment lifting presidential term limits becomes effective May 2017 (2017)
several previous; latest promulgated 5 July 1991; amended many times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law based on the Chilean civil code with modifications; traditional law in indigenous communities
civil law system influenced by the Spanish and French civil codes
Suffrage18-65 years of age, universal and compulsory; 16-18, over 65, and other eligible voters, voluntary
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 24 May 2017); Vice President Jorge GLAS Espinel (since 24 May 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 24 May 2017); Vice President Jorge GLAS Espinel (since 24 May 2013)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 19 February 2017, with a runoff election on 2 April 2017 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: Lenin MORENO Garces elected president; percent of vote - Lenin MORENO (Alianza PAIS Movement) 51.1%, Guillermo LASSO (CREO) 48.9%
chief of state: President Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (since 7 August 2010); Vice President Ret. Gen. Oscar Adolfo NARANJO Trujillo (since 30 March 2017); note - Vice President German VARGAS Lleras' resignation on 15 March 2017 became effective on 21 March 2017, the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (since 7 August 2010); Vice President Ret. Gen. Oscar Adolfo NARANJO Trujillo (since 30 March 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term; election last held on 25 May 2014 with a runoff held on 15 June 2014 (next to be held on 27 May 2018); note - recent political reform eliminated presidential reelection; beginning in 2018, presidents can only serve one 4-year term
election results: Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon reelected president in runoff; percent of vote - Juan Manuel SANTOS Calderon (U Party) 51.0%, Oscar Ivan ZULUAGA (CD) 45.0%, other 4.0%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (137 seats; 116 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 15 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote, and 6 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies for Ecuadorians living abroad by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 19 February 2017 (next to be held in 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PAIS 74, SUMA 34, PSC 15, ID 4, MUPP 4, Independents 3, PSP 2, Fuerza Ecuador 1; note - defections by members of National Assembly are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties
description: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado (102 seats; 100 members elected nationally - not by district or state - and two elected on a special ballot for indigenous communities to serve 4-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (166 seats; members elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 9 March 2014 (next to be held in March 2018); Chamber of Representatives - last held on 9 March 2014 (next to be held in March 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - U Party 21, CD 20, PC 18, PL 17, CR 9, PDA 5, Green Party 5, other 7; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PL 39, U Party 37, PC 27, CD 19, CR 16, Green Party 6, PDA 3, other 19
Judicial branchhighest court(s): National Court of Justice or Corte Nacional de Justicia (consists of 21 judges including the chief justice and organized into 5 specialized chambers); Constitutional Court or Corte Constitucional (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: justices of National Court of Justice elected by the Judiciary Council, a 9-member independent body of law professionals; judges elected for 9-year, non-renewable terms, with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the executive, legislative, and Citizen Participation branches of government; judges appointed for 9-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: Fiscal Tribunal; Election Dispute Settlement Courts, provincial courts (one for each province); cantonal courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of the Civil-Agrarian and Labor Chambers each with 7 judges, and the Penal Chamber with 9 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 magistrates); Council of State (consists of 31 members); Superior Judiciary Council (consists of 13 magistrates)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Supreme Court members from candidates submitted by the Superior Judiciary Council; judges elected for individual 8-year terms; Constitutional Court magistrates - nominated by the president, by the Supreme Court, and elected by the Senate; judges elected for individual 8-year terms; Council of State members appointed by the State Council plenary from lists nominated by the Superior Judiciary Council
subordinate courts: Superior Tribunals (appellate courts for each of the judicial districts); regional courts; civil municipal courts; Superior Military Tribunal; first instance administrative courts
Political parties and leadersAlianza PAIS movement [Rafael Vicente CORREA Delgado]
Avanza Party or AVANZA [Ramiro GONZALEZ]
Creating Opportunities Movement or CREO [Guillermo LASSO]
Democratic Left or ID [Paco MONCAYO]
Forward Ecuador Movement [Alvaro NOBOA]
Fuerza Ecuador [Abdala BUCARAM]
Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement or MUPP [Rafael ANTUNI]
Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua]
Popular Democracy Movement or MPD [Luis VILLACIS]
Roldosist Party or PRE
Social Christian Party or PSC
Socialist Party [Fabian SOLANO]
Society United for More Action or SUMA [Mauricio RODAS]
Alternative Democratic Pole or PDA [Clara LOPEZ]
Conservative Party or PC [David BARGUIL]
Democratic Center Party or CD [Alvaro URIBE Velez, Oscar Ivan ZULUAGA, Carlos HOLMES TRUJILLO, Ivan DUQUE]
Green Alliance [Jorge LONDONO, Antonio SANGUINO, Luis AVELLANEDA, Camilo ROMERO]
Liberal Party or PL [Horacio SERPA]
Citizens Option (Opcion Ciudadana) or OC (formerly known as the National Integration Party or PIN) [Angel ALIRIO Moreno]
Radical Change or CR [Carlos Fernando GALAN]
Social National Unity Party or U Party [Roy BARRERAS, Jose David NAME]
note: Colombia has eight major political parties, and numerous smaller movements
Political pressure groups and leadersConfederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Humberto CHOLANGO]
Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Manuel CHUGCHILAN, president]
National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN
Central Union of Workers or CUT
Colombian Confederation of Workers or CTC
General Confederation of Workers or CGT
National Liberation Army or ELN
International organization participationCAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
BCIE, BIS, CAN, Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CELAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-3, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Francisco Jose BORJA Cevallos (since 18 May 2015)
chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200
FAX: [1] (202) 667-3482
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New Haven (CT), New Orleans, New York, Newark (NJ), Phoenix, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338
FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Newark (NJ), Orlando, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Boston, Chicago, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Todd CHAPMAN (since 14 April 2016)
embassy: Avenida Avigiras E12-170 y Avenida Eloy Alfaro, Quito
mailing address: Avenida Guayacanes N52-205 y Avenida Avigiras
telephone: [593] (2) 398-5000
FAX: [593] (2) 398-5100
consulate(s) general: Guayaquil
chief of mission: Ambassador Kevin WHITAKER (since 11 June 2014)
embassy: Calle 24 Bis No. 48-50, Bogota, D.C.
mailing address: Carrera 45 No. 24B-27, Bogota, D.C.
telephone: [57] (1) 275-2000
FAX: [57] (1) 275-4600
Flag descriptionthree horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; the flag retains the three main colors of the banner of Gran Colombia, the South American republic that broke up in 1830; the yellow color represents sunshine, grain, and mineral wealth, blue the sky, sea, and rivers, and red the blood of patriots spilled in the struggle for freedom and justice
note: similar to the flag of Colombia, which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; the flag retains the three main colors of the banner of Gran Colombia, the short-lived South American republic that broke up in 1830; various interpretations of the colors exist and include: yellow for the gold in Colombia's land, blue for the seas on its shores, and red for the blood spilled in attaining freedom; alternatively, the colors have been described as representing more elemental concepts such as sovereignty and justice (yellow), loyalty and vigilance (blue), and valor and generosity (red); or simply the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity
note: similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center
National anthem"name: ""Salve, Oh Patria!"" (We Salute You, Our Homeland)
lyrics/music: Juan Leon MERA/Antonio NEUMANE
note: adopted 1948; Juan Leon MERA wrote the lyrics in 1865; only the chorus and second verse are sung
"
"name: ""Himno Nacional de la Republica de Colombia"" (National Anthem of the Republic of Colombia)
lyrics/music: Rafael NUNEZ/Oreste SINDICI
note: adopted 1920; the anthem was created from an inspirational poem written by President Rafael NUNEZ
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Andean condor; national colors: yellow, blue, red
Andean condor; national colors: yellow, blue, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: least one parent must be a citizen or permanent resident of Colombia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

EcuadorColombia
Economy - overview"Ecuador is substantially dependent on its petroleum resources, which have accounted for more than half of the country's export earnings and approximately 25% of public sector revenues in recent years.

In 1999/2000, Ecuador's economy suffered from a banking crisis, with GDP contracting by 5.3% and poverty increasing significantly. In March 2000, the Congress approved a series of structural reforms that also provided for the adoption of the US dollar as legal tender. Dollarization stabilized the economy, and positive growth returned in the years that followed, helped by high oil prices, remittances, and increased non-traditional exports. The economy grew an average of 4.3% per year from 2002 to 2006, the highest five-year average in 25 years. After moderate growth in 2007, the economy reached a growth rate of 6.4% in 2008, buoyed by high global petroleum prices and increased public sector investment. President Rafael CORREA Delgado, who took office in January 2007, defaulted in December 2008 on Ecuador's sovereign debt, which, with a total face value of approximately US$3.2 billion, represented about 30% of Ecuador's public external debt. In May 2009, Ecuador bought back 91% of its ""defaulted"" bonds via an international reverse auction.

Economic policies under the CORREA administration - for example, an announcement in late 2009 of its intention to terminate 13 bilateral investment treaties, including one with the US - have generated economic uncertainty and discouraged private investment. China has become Ecuador's largest foreign lender since Quito defaulted in 2008, allowing the government to maintain a high rate of social spending; Ecuador contracted with the Chinese government for more than $9.9 billion in forward oil sales, project financing, and budget support loans as of December 2013.

The level of foreign investment in Ecuador continues to be one of the lowest in the region as a result of an unstable regulatory environment, weak rule of law, and the crowding-out effect of public investments. Faced with a 2013 trade deficit of $1.1 billion, Ecuador erected technical barriers to trade in December 2013, causing tensions with its largest trading partners. Ecuador also decriminalized intellectual property rights violations in February 2014. In March, 2015 Ecuador imposed tariff surcharges from 5% to 45% on an estimated 32% of imports. In 2014, oil output increased slightly and production remained steady in 2015 however the oil price decrease from 2014 onward affected government revenue. Ecuador’s economy fell in to recession in 2015 and remained in recession in 2016. As a result, CORREA cut the budget twice in 2015, and reduced it further in 2016.
"
Colombia’s economy benefits from free trade and sound fiscal policies but it has slowed in 2016 because of falling global oil prices, a strong dollar, and moderate inflation. Colombia heavily depends on energy and mining exports, making it vulnerable to a drop in commodity prices. Colombia is the world's fourth largest coal exporter, the world’s second largest coffee and cut flowers exporter, and Latin America’s fourth largest oil producer. Economic development is hampered by inadequate infrastructure, poverty, narcotrafficking, and an uncertain security situation.

Although real GDP growth averaged 4.7% for the past decade, growth fell to 2.0% in 2016. The El Ni?o weather pattern in early 2016 and a 40 day truckers strike caused food and energy prices to rise, with inflation spiking to a high of nearly 9% in July 2016. Declining oil prices have reduced government revenues. Colombia received about $1 billion in oil revenue in 2016, compared with $6 billion in 2014; oil accounts for 20% of government revenues. President Juan Manuel SANTOS signed into law a tax reform bill in December 2016 aimed at offsetting lost revenue from the drop in oil prices by decreasing corporate taxes to incentivize investment and by increasing the value added tax. The enactment of the tax reform bill was key to maintaining Colombia’s BBB investment-grade credit rating. Foreign investment has been hampered by Colombia’s struggle to address its fiscal problems. As of September 2016, FDI in Colombia had risen to $10.2 billion, up from $9.3 billion over the same period in 2015.

Colombia has signed or is negotiating Free Trade Agreements (FTA) with more than a dozen countries; the US-Colombia FTA went into force in May 2012. The US and Colombia have benefitted from the FTA, but Colombia’s ability to take full advantage of its enhanced access to American markets continues to be constrained by lack of export diversification. Nontariff measures remain a point of contention for bilateral trade relations. The Colombian government acted in 2016 to address several bilateral trade irritants with the US, including truck scrappage, distilled spirits, pharmaceuticals, ethanol imports, and labor rights. US and industry stakeholders are still evaluating the implementation of recent reforms. Colombia is a founding member of the Pacific Alliance - a regional trade block formed in 2012 by Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru to promote regional trade and economic integration. In 2013, Colombia began its accession process to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$182.4 billion (2016 est.)
$186.6 billion (2015 est.)
$186.1 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$688 billion (2016 est.)
$674.5 billion (2015 est.)
$654.2 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate-2.3% (2016 est.)
0.3% (2015 est.)
3.7% (2014 est.)
2% (2016 est.)
3.1% (2015 est.)
4.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$11,000 (2016 est.)
$11,500 (2015 est.)
$11,600 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$14,100 (2016 est.)
$13,800 (2015 est.)
$13,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 6.2%
industry: 34%
services: 59.8% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 6.8%
industry: 34%
services: 59.2% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line25.6% (December 2013 est)
27.8% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 35.4%
note: data for urban households only (2012 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.1%
highest 10%: 42.2% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.4% (2016 est.)
4% (2015 est.)
5.8% (2016 est.)
6.8% (2015 est.)
Labor force4.848 million (2016 est.)
24.43 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 27.8%
industry: 17.8%
services: 54.4% (2012 est.)
agriculture: 17%
industry: 21%
services: 62% (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate6.1% (2016 est.)
4.8% (2015 est.)
9.2% (2016 est.)
8.9% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index48.5 (December 2013)
50.5 (December 2010)
note: data are for urban households
53.5 (2014)
56.9 (1996)
Budgetrevenues: $30.9 billion
expenditures: $34.9 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $78.1 billion
expenditures: $88 billion (2016 est.)
Industriespetroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals
textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds
Industrial production growth rate-3.2%
note: excludes oil refining (2016 est.)
1.9% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsbananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, cassava (manioc, tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; fish, shrimp; balsa wood
coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; shrimp; forest products
Exports$16.77 billion (2016 est.)
$19.05 billion (2015 est.)
$32.7 billion (2016 est.)
$35.7 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiespetroleum, bananas, cut flowers, shrimp, cacao, coffee, wood, fish
petroleum, coal, emeralds, coffee, nickel, cut flowers, bananas, apparel
Exports - partnersUS 39.5%, Chile 6.2%, Peru 5.1%, Vietnam 4.3%, Colombia 4.3% (2015)
US 27.5%, Panama 7.2%, China 5.2%, Spain 4.4%, Ecuador 4% (2015)
Imports$17.74 billion (2016 est.)
$20.7 billion (2015 est.)
$44.89 billion (2016 est.)
$54.06 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesindustrial materials, fuels and lubricants, nondurable consumer goods
industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity
Imports - partnersUS 27.1%, China 15.3%, Colombia 8.3%, Panama 4.9% (2015)
US 28.8%, China 18.6%, Mexico 7.1%, Germany 4.2% (2015)
Debt - external$33.22 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$30.79 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$109.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$110.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesthe US dollar became Ecuador's currency in 2001, 1 (2016 est.), 1 (2015 est.)
Colombian pesos (COP) per US dollar -
3,051.1 (2016 est.)
2,741.8 (2015 est.)
2,001 (2014 est.)
2,001.1 (2013 est.)
1,798 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt33% of GDP (2016 est.)
30.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
44.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
41.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$3.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.29 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$46.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$46.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$1.109 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.201 billion (2015 est.)
-$12.54 billion (2016 est.)
-$18.78 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$99.12 billion (2016 est.)
$274.1 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$17.83 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.63 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$161.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$163.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$6.33 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$6.33 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$50.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$47.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$5.911 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$5.779 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$5.263 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$85.96 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$146.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$202.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Central bank discount rate8.17% (31 December 2011)
8.68% (31 December 2010)
7.5% (31 December 2016)
6.5% (31 December 2014)
Commercial bank prime lending rate9% (31 December 2016 est.)
8.33% (31 December 2015 est.)
14.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.45% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$33.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$33.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$140.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$140.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$20.79 billion (30 September 2016 est.)
$19.04 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$38.29 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$34.43 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$43.25 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$39.65 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$138.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$123.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues31.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 10.9%
male: 8.4%
female: 15.7% (2013 est.)
total: 18.7%
male: 14.6%
female: 24.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 62%
government consumption: 13.3%
investment in fixed capital: 25.5%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 19.8%
imports of goods and services: -20.7% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 63.3%
government consumption: 18.8%
investment in fixed capital: 26.3%
investment in inventories: 0.9%
exports of goods and services: 13.5%
imports of goods and services: -22.8% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving23.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
25.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
28.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
21.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

EcuadorColombia
Electricity - production23 billion kWh (2014 est.)
68 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption21 billion kWh (2014 est.)
60 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports47 million kWh (2014 est.)
800 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports800 million kWh (2014 est.)
47 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production543,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.019 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - exports432,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
859,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves8.832 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
2.3 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves10.99 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
134.7 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production496.9 million cu m (2015 est.)
11.86 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption578 million cu m (2014 est.)
10.9 billion cu m (1 June 2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2015 est.)
1.102 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity6.3 million kW (2014 est.)
16 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels57.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
28.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants41.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
68.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources1.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
3.1% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production193,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
323,700 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption282,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
299,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports15,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
97,820 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports153,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
76,180 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy38 million Mt (2013 est.)
74 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 500,000
electrification - total population: 97%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 92% (2013)
population without electricity: 1,200,000
electrification - total population: 97%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 88% (2013)

Telecommunications

EcuadorColombia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 2,512,657
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 7,109,254
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 12.888 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 81 (July 2015 est.)
total: 57.327 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 123 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: elementary fixed-line service but increasingly sophisticated mobile-cellular network
domestic: fixed-line services provided by multiple telecommunications operators; fixed-line teledensity stands at about 15 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular use has surged and subscribership has reached 80 per 100 persons
international: country code - 593; landing points for the PAN-AM and South America-1 submarine cables that provide links to the west coast of South America, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, and extending onward to Aruba and the US Virgin Islands in the Caribbean; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: modern system in many respects with a nationwide microwave radio relay system, a domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations, and a fiber-optic network linking 50 cities; telecommunications sector liberalized during the 1990s; multiple providers of both fixed-line and mobile-cellular services
domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 15 per 100 persons; mobile cellular telephone subscribership is about 120 per 100 persons; competition among cellular service providers is resulting in falling local and international calling rates and contributing to the steep decline in the market share of fixed-line services
international: country code - 57; multiple submarine cable systems provide links to the US, parts of the Caribbean, and Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 10 (6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 3 fully digitalized international switching centers) (2011)
Internet country code.ec
.co
Internet userstotal: 7.766 million
percent of population: 48.9% (July 2015 est.)
total: 26.128 million
percent of population: 55.9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediamultiple TV networks and many local channels, as well as more than 300 radio stations; many TV and radio stations are privately owned; the government owns or controls 5 national TV stations and multiple radio stations; broadcast media required by law to give the government free air time to broadcast programs produced by the state (2007)
combination of state-owned and privately owned broadcast media provide service; more than 500 radio stations and many national, regional, and local TV stations (2007)

Transportation

EcuadorColombia
Railwaystotal: 965 km
narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
total: 2,141 km
standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,991 km 0.914-m gauge (2015)
Roadwaystotal: 43,670 km
paved: 6,472 km
unpaved: 37,198 km (2007)
total: 204,855 km (2015)
Waterways1,500 km (most inaccessible) (2012)
24,725 km (18,300 km navigable; the most important waterway, the River Magdalena, of which 1,488 km is navigable, is dredged regularly to ensure safe passage of cargo vessels and container barges) (2012)
Pipelinesextra heavy crude 527 km; gas 71 km; oil 2,131 km; refined products 1,526 km (2013)
gas 4,991 km; oil 6,796 km; refined products 3,429 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Esmeraldas, Manta, Puerto Bolivar
river port(s): Guayaquil (Guayas)
container port(s) (TEUs): Guayaquil (1,405,762)
major seaport(s): Atlantic Ocean (Caribbean) - Cartagena, Santa Marta, Turbo; Pacific Ocean - Buenaventura
river port(s): Barranquilla (Rio Magdalena)
oil terminal(s): Covenas offshore terminal
dry bulk cargo port(s): Puerto Bolivar (coal)
container port(s) (TEUs): Cartagena (1,853,342)
Merchant marinetotal: 44
by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger 9, petroleum tanker 28, refrigerated cargo 1
registered in other countries: 4 (Panama 3, Peru 1) (2010)
total: 12
by type: cargo 9, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 2
registered in other countries: 4 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Panama 2, Portugal 1) (2010)
Airports432 (2013)
836 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 104
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 26
under 914 m: 51 (2013)
total: 121
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 39
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 328
914 to 1,523 m: 37
under 914 m: 291 (2013)
total: 715
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 201
under 914 m: 488 (2013)
Heliports2 (2013)
3 (2013)

Military

EcuadorColombia
Military branchesEcuadorian Armed Forces: Ecuadorian Land Force (Fuerza Terrestre Ecuatoriana, FTE), Ecuadorian Navy (Fuerza Naval del Ecuador, FNE, includes Naval Infantry, Naval Aviation, Coast Guard), Ecuadorian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana, FAE) (2012)
National Army (Ejercito Nacional), Republic of Colombia Navy (Armada Republica de Colombia, ARC, includes Naval Aviation, Naval Infantry (Infanteria de Marina, IM), and Coast Guard), Colombian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Colombia, FAC) (2012)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for selective conscript military service; conscription has been suspended; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; Air Force 18-22 years of age, Ecuadorian birth requirement; 1-year service obligation (2012)
18-24 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; service obligation is 18 months (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.82% of GDP (2016)
1.86% of GDP (2015)
1.94% of GDP (2014)
2.08% of GDP (2013)
1.97% of GDP (2012)
3.24% of GDP (2016)
3.38% of GDP (2015)
3.13% of GDP (2014)
3.29% of GDP (2013)
3.17% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

EcuadorColombia
Disputes - internationalorganized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia penetrate across Ecuador's shared border, which thousands of Colombians also cross to escape the violence in their home country
in December 2007, ICJ allocated San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina islands to Colombia under 1928 Treaty but did not rule on 82 degrees W meridian as maritime boundary with Nicaragua; managed dispute with Venezuela over maritime boundary and Venezuelan-administered Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, and paramilitary activities penetrate all neighboring borders and have caused Colombian citizens to flee mostly into neighboring countries; Colombia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Jamaica, and the US assert various claims to Bajo Nuevo and Serranilla Bank
Illicit drugssignificant transit country for cocaine originating in Colombia and Peru, with much of the US-bound cocaine passing through Ecuadorian Pacific waters; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; attractive location for cash-placement by drug traffickers laundering money because of dollarization and weak anti-money-laundering regime; increased activity on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents (2008)
illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator with 83,000 hectares in coca cultivation in 2011, a 17% decrease over 2010, producing a potential of 195 mt of pure cocaine; the world's largest producer of coca derivatives; supplies cocaine to nearly all of the US market and the great majority of other international drug markets; in 2012, aerial eradication dispensed herbicide to treat over 100,549 hectares combined with manual eradication of 30,486 hectares; a significant portion of narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested in Colombia through the black market peso exchange; important supplier of heroin to the US market; opium poppy cultivation is estimated to have fallen to 1,100 hectares in 2009 while pure heroin production declined to 2.1 mt; most Colombian heroin is destined for the US market (2013)
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 101,161 (Colombia) (2016)
IDPs: 11,137 (earthquake April 2016) (2016)
IDPs: 7,401,031 (conflict between government and illegal armed groups and drug traffickers since 1985; about 300,000 new IDPs each year since 2000) (2017)
stateless persons: 11 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook