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Dominican Republic vs. Haiti

Introduction

Dominican RepublicHaiti
BackgroundThe Taino - indigenous inhabitants of Hispaniola prior to the arrival of the Europeans - divided the island into five chiefdoms and territories. Christopher COLUMBUS explored and claimed the island on his first voyage in 1492; it became a springboard for Spanish conquest of the Caribbean and the American mainland. In 1697, Spain recognized French dominion over the western third of the island, which in 1804 became Haiti. The remainder of the island, by then known as Santo Domingo, sought to gain its own independence in 1821 but was conquered and ruled by the Haitians for 22 years; it finally attained independence as the Dominican Republic in 1844. In 1861, the Dominicans voluntarily returned to the Spanish Empire, but two years later they launched a war that restored independence in 1865. A legacy of unsettled, mostly non-representative rule followed, capped by the dictatorship of Rafael Leonidas TRUJILLO from 1930 to 1961. Juan BOSCH was elected president in 1962 but was deposed in a military coup in 1963. In 1965, the US led an intervention in the midst of a civil war sparked by an uprising to restore BOSCH. In 1966, Joaquin BALAGUER defeated BOSCH in the presidential election. BALAGUER maintained a tight grip on power for most of the next 30 years when international reaction to flawed elections forced him to curtail his term in 1996. Since then, regular competitive elections have been held in which opposition candidates have won the presidency. Former President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (first term 1996-2000) won election to a new term in 2004 following a constitutional amendment allowing presidents to serve more than one term, and was later reelected to a second consecutive term. In 2012, Danilo MEDINA Sanchez became president; he was reelected in 2016.
The native Taino - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when it was discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 - were virtually annihilated by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola. In 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean but only through the heavy importation of African slaves and considerable environmental degradation. In the late 18th century, Haiti's nearly half million slaves revolted under Toussaint L'OUVERTURE. After a prolonged struggle, Haiti became the first post-colonial black-led nation in the world, declaring its independence in 1804. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti has experienced political instability for most of its history. A massive magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti in January 2010 with an epicenter about 25 km (15 mi) west of the capital, Port-au-Prince. Estimates are that over 300,000 people were killed and some 1.5 million left homeless. The earthquake was assessed as the worst in this region over the last 200 years. President Michel MARTELLY resigned in February 2016 and was replaced by Interim President Jocelerme PRIVERT. President-elect Jovenel MOISE won the November 2016 elections and assumed office in February 2017.

Geography

Dominican RepublicHaiti
LocationCaribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti
Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic
Geographic coordinates19 00 N, 70 40 W
19 00 N, 72 25 W
Map referencesCentral America and the Caribbean
Central America and the Caribbean
Areatotal: 48,670 sq km
land: 48,320 sq km
water: 350 sq km
total: 27,750 sq km
land: 27,560 sq km
water: 190 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly more than twice the size of New Jersey
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundariestotal: 376 km
border countries (1): Haiti 376 km
total: 376 km
border countries (1): Dominican Republic 376 km
Coastline1,288 km
1,771 km
Maritime claimsmeasured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
Climatetropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal variation in rainfall
tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds
Terrainrugged highlands and mountains interspersed with fertile valleys
mostly rough and mountainous
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 424 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Lago Enriquillo -46 m
highest point: Pico Duarte 3,175 m
mean elevation: 470 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Chaine de la Selle 2,680 m
Natural resourcesnickel, bauxite, gold, silver, arable land
bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 51.5%
arable land 16.6%; permanent crops 10.1%; permanent pasture 24.8%
forest: 40.8%
other: 7.7% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 66.4%
arable land 38.5%; permanent crops 10.2%; permanent pasture 17.7%
forest: 3.6%
other: 30% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land3,070 sq km (2012)
970 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardslies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding; periodic droughts
lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts
Environment - current issueswater shortages; soil eroding into the sea damages coral reefs; deforestation
extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes
Geography - noteshares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern two-thirds makes up the Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti)
shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)
Population distributioncoastal development is significant, especially in the southern coastal plains and the Cibao Valley, where population density is highest; smaller population clusters exist in the interior mountains (Cordillera Central)
fairly even distribution; largest concentrations located near coastal areas

Demographics

Dominican RepublicHaiti
Population10,606,865 (July 2016 est.)
10,485,800
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 27.06% (male 1,460,389/female 1,410,226)
15-24 years: 18.3% (male 989,020/female 952,375)
25-54 years: 39.54% (male 2,146,082/female 2,047,860)
55-64 years: 7.67% (male 409,166/female 403,977)
65 years and over: 7.43% (male 363,791/female 423,979) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 33.39% (male 1,744,599/female 1,756,155)
15-24 years: 21.35% (male 1,120,532/female 1,118,278)
25-54 years: 36.24% (male 1,885,478/female 1,914,078)
55-64 years: 4.94% (male 246,453/female 271,455)
65 years and over: 4.09% (male 189,098/female 239,674) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 27.8 years
male: 27.6 years
female: 28 years (2016 est.)
total: 22.6 years
male: 22.4 years
female: 22.8 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.21% (2016 est.)
1.71% (2016 est.)
Birth rate18.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
23.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate4.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 18.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 20 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 48.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 54.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 41.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 78.1 years
male: 75.9 years
female: 80.5 years (2016 est.)
total population: 63.8 years
male: 61.2 years
female: 66.4 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.31 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.79 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate1.03% (2015 est.)
1.71% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Dominican(s)
adjective: Dominican
noun: Haitian(s)
adjective: Haitian
Ethnic groupsmixed 73%, white 16%, black 11%
black 95%, mulatto and white 5%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS67,900 (2015 est.)
133,500 (2015 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 95%, other 5%
Roman Catholic (official) 54.7%, Protestant 28.5% (Baptist 15.4%, Pentecostal 7.9%, Adventist 3%, Methodist 1.5%, other 0.7%), voodoo (official) 2.1%, other 4.6%, none 10.2%
note: many Haitians practice elements of voodoo in addition to another religion, most often Roman Catholicism; voodoo was recognized as an official religion in 2003
HIV/AIDS - deaths3,100 (2015 est.)
8,000 (2015 est.)
LanguagesSpanish (official)
French (official), Creole (official)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.8%
male: 91.2%
female: 92.3% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.7%
male: 64.3%
female: 57.3% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
Education expenditures2.1% of GDP (2007)
NA
Urbanizationurban population: 79% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 58.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.78% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 85.4% of population
rural: 81.9% of population
total: 84.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 14.6% of population
rural: 18.1% of population
total: 15.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 64.9% of population
rural: 47.6% of population
total: 57.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 35.1% of population
rural: 52.4% of population
total: 42.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 86.2% of population
rural: 75.7% of population
total: 84% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13.8% of population
rural: 24.3% of population
total: 16% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 33.6% of population
rural: 19.2% of population
total: 27.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 66.4% of population
rural: 80.8% of population
total: 72.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationSANTO DOMINGO (capital) 2.945 million (2015)
PORT-AU-PRINCE (capital) 2.44 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate92 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
359 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight4% (2013)
11.6% (2012)
Health expenditures4.4% of GDP (2014)
7.6% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density1.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
1.3 beds/1,000 population (2007)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate23% (2014)
10.7% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth21.3 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)
22.7 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate69.5% (2014)
34.5% (2012)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 57.8
youth dependency ratio: 47.3
elderly dependency ratio: 10.5
potential support ratio: 9.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 62.3
youth dependency ratio: 54.8
elderly dependency ratio: 7.5
potential support ratio: 13.3 (2015 est.)

Government

Dominican RepublicHaiti
Country nameconventional long form: Dominican Republic
conventional short form: The Dominican
local long form: Republica Dominicana
local short form: La Dominicana
etymology: the country name derives from the capital city of Santo Domingo (Saint Dominic)
"conventional long form: Republic of Haiti
conventional short form: Haiti
local long form: Republique d'Haiti/Repiblik d Ayiti
local short form: Haiti/Ayiti
etymology: the native Taino name means ""Land of High Mountains"" and was originally applied to the entire island of Hispaniola
"
Government typepresidential republic
semi-presidential republic
Capitalname: Santo Domingo
geographic coordinates: 18 28 N, 69 54 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Port-au-Prince
geographic coordinates: 18 32 N, 72 20 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: none in 2016
Administrative divisions10 regions (regiones, singular - region); Cibao Nordeste, Cibao Noroeste, Cibao Norte, Cibao Sur, El Valle, Enriquillo, Higuamo, Ozama, Valdesia, Yuma
10 departments (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nippes, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est
Independence27 February 1844 (from Haiti)
1 January 1804 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day, 27 February (1844)
Independence Day, 1 January (1804)
Constitution"many previous (38 total); latest proclaimed 26 January 2010; note - the Dominican Republic Government has a practice of promulgating a ""new"" constitution whenever an amendment is ratified (2016)
"
many previous (23 total); latest adopted 10 March 1987; amended 2012 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system based on the French civil code; Criminal Procedures Code modified in 2004 to include important elements of an accusatory system
civil law system strongly influenced by Napoleonic Code
Suffrage18 years of age, universal and compulsory; married persons regardless of age can vote; note - members of the armed forces and national police by law cannot vote
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Danilo MEDINA Sanchez (since 16 August 2012); Vice President Margarita CEDENO DE FERNANDEZ (since 16 August 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Danilo MEDINA Sanchez (since 16 August 2012); Vice President Margarita CEDENO DE FERNANDEZ (since 16 August 2012)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for consecutive terms); election last held on 15 May 2016 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: Danilo MEDINA Sanchez reelected president; percent of vote - Danilo MEDINA Sanchez (PLD) 61.7%, Luis Rodolfo ABINADER Corona (PRM) 35%, other 3.3%; Margarita CEDENO DE FERNANDEZ (PLD) reelected vice president
chief of state: President Jovenel MOISE (since 7 February 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Jack Guy LAFONTANT (since 21 March 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president; parliament must ratify the Cabinet and Prime Minister's governing policy
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a single non-consecutive term); election last held 20 November 2016 after the Hurricane Matthew forced a postponement from the original first round presidential election date of 9 October 2016; a second round was not needed because Jovenel MOISE won an outright majority of votes cast in the first round; next regular election may be held in 2021
election results: 2016 election - Jovenel MOISE elected president; percent of vote - Jovenel MOISE (PHTK) 55.60%, Jude CELESTIN (LAPEH) 19.57%, Jean-Charles MOISE (PPD) 11.04%, Maryse NARCISSE (FL) 9.01%; other 0.75%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (32 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Diputados (190 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 15 May 2016 (next to be held in May 2020); House of Representatives - last held on 15 May 2016 (next to be held in May 2020)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PLD 26, 2PRM, 1 BIS, 1 PLRD, 1 PRD, PRSC 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PLD 106, PRM 42, PRSC 18, PRD 16, PLRD 3, other 5
"description: bicameral legislature or ""le Corps Legislatif ou parlement"" consists of le Senat or Senate (30 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years) and la Chambre de deputes or Chamber of Deputies (118 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed; members serve 4-year terms); note - when the two chambers meet collectively it is known as L'Assemblee Nationale or the National Assembly that is convened for specific purposes spelled out in the constitution
elections: Senate - last held on 9 August 2015 with run-off election on 25 October 2015 (next possible election in 2017); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 9 August 2015 with run-off election on 25 October 2015 (next regular election may be held in 2017)
election results: 2015 Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; 2015 Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; note - official results pending
"
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia (consists of a minimum of 16 magistrates); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 13 judges); note - the Constitutional Court was established in 2010 by constitutional amendment
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary comprised of the president, the leaders of both chambers of congress, the president of the Supreme Court, and a non-governing party congressional representative; Supreme Court judges appointed for 7-year terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 9-year terms
subordinate courts: courts of appeal; courts of first instance; justices of the peace; special courts for juvenile, labor, and land cases; Contentious Administrative Court for cases filed against the government
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour de Cassation (consists of a chief judge and other judges); note - Haiti is a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president from candidate lists submitted by the Senate of the National Assembly; note - Article 174 of the Haiti Constitution states that judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for 10 years, whereas Article 177 states that judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for life
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; magistrates' courts; special courts
Political parties and leadersDominican Liberation Party or PLD [Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna]
Dominican Revolutionary Party or PRD [Miguel VARGAS Maldonado]
Institutional Social Democratic Bloc or BIS
Liberal Reformist Party or PLRD
Modern Revolutionary Party or PRM [Andres BAUTISTA Garcia]
National Progressive Front [Vinicio CASTILLO, Pelegrin CASTILLO]
Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Federico ANTUN]
Alternative League for Haitian Progress and Empowerment or LAPEH [Jude CELESTIN]
Assembly of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Mirlande MANIGAT]
Christian and Citizen For Haiti's Reconstruction or ACCRHA [Chavannes JEUNE]
Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MCNH [Luc MESADIEU]
Christian National Movement for the Reconstruction of Haiti or UNCRH
Convention for Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]
Cooperative Action to Rebuild Haiti or KONBA [Jean William JEANTY]
December 16 Platform or Platfom 16 Desanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]
Democratic Alliance or ALYANS [Evans PAUL] (coalition composed of KID and PPRH)
Democratic Centers's National Council or CONACED [Osner FEVRY]
Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Haiti-Revolutionary Party of Haiti or MODELH-PRDH
Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative for the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]
Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE]
For Us All or PONT [Jean-Marie CHERESTAL]
Fusion of Haitian Social Democrats or FHSD [Edmonde Supplice BEAUZILE]
Grouping of Citizens for Hope or RESPE [Charles-Henri BAKER]
Haiti in Action or AAA [Youri LATORTUE]
Haitian Tet Kale Party or PHTK [Ann Valerie Timothee MILFORT]
Haitians for Haiti [Yvon NEPTUNE]
Independent Movement for National Reconstruction or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]
Konbit Pou refe Ayiti or KONBIT
Lavni Organization or LAVNI [Yves CRISTALIN]
Liberal Party of Haiti or PLH [Jean Andre VICTOR]
Liberation Platform or PLATFORME LIBERATION
Love Haiti or Renmen Ayiti [Jean-Henry CEANT and Camille LEBLANC]
Merging of Haitian Social Democratics or FUSION [Edmonde Supplice BEAUZILE] (coalition of Ayiti Capable, Haitian National Revolutionary Party, and National Congress of Democratic Movements)
Mobilization for National Development or MDN [Hubert de RONCERAY]
National Front for the Reconstruction of Haiti or FRN [Guy PHILIPPE]
New Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]
Organization for the Advancement of Haiti and Haitians or OLAHH
Party for the Integral Advancement of the Haitian People or PAIPH
Patriotic Movement of the Democratic Opposition or MOPOD
Patriotic Unity or IP [Marie Denise CLAUDE]
Peasant Platform or PP
Peasant's Response or Repons Peyizan [Michel MARTELLY]
Platform Alternative for Progress and Democracy or ALTENATIV [Victor BENOIT and Evans PAUL]
Platform of Haitian Patriots or PLAPH [Dejean BELISAIRE and Himmler REBU]
Platform Pitit Dessalines or PPD [Jean-Charles MOISE]
Pont
Popular Party for the Renewal of Haiti or PPRH [Claude ROMAIN]
PPG18
Rally or RASAMBLE
Renmen Ayiti or RA [Jean-Henry CEANT]
Respect or RESPE
Socialist Action Movement or MAS
Strength in Unity or Ansanm Nou Fo [Leslie VOLTAIRE]
Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Sauveur PIERRE-ETIENNE]
Truth (Verite)
Union [Chavannes JEUNE]
Union of Haitian Citizens for Democracy, Development, and Education or UCADDE [Jeantel JOSEPH]
Union of Nationalist and Progressive Haitians or UNPH [Edouard FRANCISQUE]
Unity or Inite [Levaillant LOUIS-JEUNE] (coalition that includes Front for Hope or L'ESPWA)
Vigilance or Veye Yo [Lavarice GAUDIN]
Youth for People's Power or JPP [Rene CIVIL]
Political pressure groups and leadersCitizen Participation Group (Participacion Ciudadania)
Collective of Popular Organizations or COP
Foundation for Institution-Building and Justice or FINJUS
Autonomous Organizations of Haitian Workers or CATH [Fignole ST-CYR]
Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH
Economic Forum of the Private Sector or EF [Reginald BOULOS]
Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS
General Organization of Independent Haitian Workers [Patrick NUMAS]
Grand-Anse Resistance Committee or KOREGA
Haitian Association of Industries or ADIH [Georges SASSINE]
National Popular Assembly or APN
Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP [Chavannes JEAN-BAPTISTE]
Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP
Protestant Federation of Haiti
Roman Catholic Church
International organization participationACP, AOSIS, BCIE, Caricom (observer), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OAS, OIF (observer), OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA (associated member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AOSIS, Caricom, CD, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OIF, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Jose Tomas PEREZ Vazquez(since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-6280
FAX: [1] (202) 265-8057
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico), Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador Paul Getty ALTIDOR (since 17 April 2012)
chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090
FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Miami, Orlando (FL), New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Patrick DUNN (since 20 January 2017)
mailing address: Unit 5500, APO AA 34041-5500
telephone: [1] (809) 567-7775
FAX: [1] (809) 686-7437
embassy: Av. Republica de Colombia
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter MULREAN (since 6 October 2015)
embassy: Tabarre 41, Route de Tabarre, Port-au-Prince
mailing address: (in Haiti) P.O. Box 1634, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; (from abroad) 3400 Port-au-Prince, State Department, Washington, DC 20521-3400
telephone: [509] 2229-8000
FAX: [509] 229-8028
Flag description"a centered white cross that extends to the edges divides the flag into four rectangles - the top ones are ultramarine blue (hoist side) and vermilion red, and the bottom ones are vermilion red (hoist side) and ultramarine blue; a small coat of arms featuring a shield supported by a laurel branch (left) and a palm branch (right) is at the center of the cross; above the shield a blue ribbon displays the motto, DIOS, PATRIA, LIBERTAD (God, Fatherland, Liberty), and below the shield, REPUBLICA DOMINICANA appears on a red ribbon; in the shield a bible is opened to a verse that reads ""Y la verdad nos hara libre"" (And the truth shall set you free); blue stands for liberty, white for salvation, and red for the blood of heroes
"
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength); the colors are taken from the French Tricolor and represent the union of blacks and mulattoes
National anthem"name: ""Himno Nacional"" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Emilio PRUD'HOMME/Jose REYES
note: adopted 1934; also known as ""Quisqueyanos valientes"" (Valient Sons of Quisqueye); the anthem never refers to the people as Dominican but rather calls them ""Quisqueyanos,"" a reference to the indigenous name of the island
"
"name: ""La Dessalinienne"" (The Dessalines Song)
lyrics/music: Justin LHERISSON/Nicolas GEFFRARD
note: adopted 1904; named for Jean-Jacques DESSALINES, a leader in the Haitian Revolution and first ruler of an independent Haiti
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)palmchat (bird); national colors: red, white, blue
Hispaniolan trogon (bird), hibiscus flower; national colors: blue, red
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Dominican Republic
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Haiti
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Economy

Dominican RepublicHaiti
Economy - overviewThe Dominican Republic was for most of its history primarily an exporter of sugar, coffee, and tobacco, but in recent years the service sector has overtaken agriculture as the economy's largest employer, due to growth in construction, tourism, and free trade zones. The mining sector has also played a greater role in the export market since late 2012 with the commencement of the extraction phase of the Pueblo Viejo Gold and Silver mine, one of the largest gold mines in the world. The country suffers from marked income inequality; the poorest half of the population receives less than one-fifth of GDP, while the richest 10% enjoys nearly 40% of GDP. High unemployment, a large informal sector, and underemployment remain important long-term challenges.

The economy is highly dependent upon the US, the destination for approximately half of exports. Remittances from the US amount to about 7% of GDP, equivalent to about a third of exports and two-thirds of tourism receipts. The Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) came into force in March 2007, boosting investment and manufacturing exports.

The Dominican Republic's economy rebounded from the global recession in 2010-16, and the fiscal situation is improving. A tax reform package passed in November 2012, a reduction in government spending, and lower energy costs helped to narrow the central government budget deficit from 6.6% of GDP in 2012 to 2.6% in 2016. A liability management operation in January 2015, in which the government paid down over $4 billion of the country’s Petrocaribe debt at a discount of 52% with proceeds from the sale of $2.5 billion in global bonds, reduced the country’s debt load by approximately by 4% of GDP. Since 2015 the Dominican Republic has posted the fastest economic growth in Latin America.
Haiti is a free market economy with low labor costs and tariff-free access to the US for many of its exports. Two-fifths of all Haitians depend on the agricultural sector, mainly small-scale subsistence farming, which remains vulnerable to damage from frequent natural disasters. Poverty, corruption, vulnerability to natural disasters, and low levels of education for much of the population represent some of the most serious impediments to Haiti’s economic growth. Remittances are the primary source of foreign exchange, equivalent to more than one quarter of GDP, and nearly double the combined value of Haitian exports and foreign direct investment.

Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, with close to 60% of the population living under the national poverty line, Haiti’s GDP growth rose to 5.5% in 2011 as the Haitian economy began recovering from the devastating January 2010 earthquake that destroyed much of its capital city, Port-au-Prince, and neighboring areas. However, growth slowed to below 2% in 2015 and 2016 as political uncertainty, drought conditions, decreasing foreign aid, and the depreciation of the national currency took a toll on investment and economic growth. Hurricane Matthew, the fiercest Caribbean storm in nearly a decade, made landfall in Haiti on 4 October 2016, with 140 mile-per-hour winds, creating a new humanitarian emergency. An estimated 2.1 million people were affected by the category 4 storm, which caused extensive damage to crops, houses, livestock, and infrastructure across Haiti’s southern peninsula.

US economic engagement under the Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (CBTPA) and the 2008 Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement Act (HOPE II) have contributed to an increase in apparel exports and investment by providing duty-free access to the US. The Haiti Economic Lift Program (HELP) Act of 2010 extended the CBTPA and HOPE II until 2020, while the Trade Preferences Extension Act of 2015 extended trade benefits provided to Haiti in the HOPE and HELP Acts through September 2025. Apparel sector exports in 2016 reached approximately $850 million and account for over 90% of Haitian exports and more than 10% of the GDP.

Investment in Haiti is hampered by the difficulty of doing business and weak infrastructure, including access to electricity. Haiti's outstanding external debt was cancelled by donor countries following the 2010 earthquake, but has since risen to above $2 billion as of December 2016, the majority of which is owed to Venezuela under the PetroCaribe program. Although the government has increased its revenue collection, it continues to rely on formal international economic assistance for fiscal sustainability, with over 20% of its annual budget coming from foreign aid or direct budget support.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$161.9 billion (2016 est.)
$151.9 billion (2015 est.)
$142 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$19.34 billion (2016 est.)
$19.07 billion (2015 est.)
$18.85 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate6.6% (2016 est.)
7% (2015 est.)
7.3% (2014 est.)
1.4% (2016 est.)
1.2% (2015 est.)
2.8% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$15,900 (2016 est.)
$15,200 (2015 est.)
$14,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1,800 (2016 est.)
$1,800 (2015 est.)
$1,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 5.1%
industry: 32.8%
services: 62.2% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 21.5%
industry: 20.3%
services: 58.2% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line30.5% (2016 est.)
58.5% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 37.4% (2013 est.)
lowest 10%: 0.7%
highest 10%: 47.7% (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.6% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2015 est.)
12.4% (2016 est.)
9% (2015 est.)
Labor force5.113 million (2016 est.)
4.594 million
note: shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (2014 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 14.4%
industry: 20.8%
services: 64.7% (2014 est.)
agriculture: 38.1%
industry: 11.5%
services: 50.4% (2010)
Unemployment rate13.8% (2016 est.)
14% (2015 est.)
40.6% (2010 est.)
note: widespread unemployment and underemployment; more than two-thirds of the labor force do not have formal jobs
Distribution of family income - Gini index47.1 (2013 est.)
45.7 (2012 est.)
60.8 (2012)
59.2 (2001)
Budgetrevenues: $10.29 billion
expenditures: $11.9 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $1.563 billion
expenditures: $1.819 billion (2016 est.)
Industriestourism, sugar processing, gold mining, textiles, cement, tobacco, electrical components, medical devices
textiles, sugar refining, flour milling, cement, light assembly using imported parts
Industrial production growth rate7% (2016 est.)
0.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscocoa, tobacco, sugarcane, coffee, cotton, rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products, beef, eggs
coffee, mangoes, cocoa, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum; wood, vetiver
Exports$9.822 billion (2016 est.)
$9.523 billion (2015 est.)
$933.2 million (2016 est.)
$1.029 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesgold, silver, cocoa, sugar, coffee, tobacco, meats, consumer goods
apparel, manufactures, oils, cocoa, mangoes, coffee
Exports - partnersUS 42.2%, Haiti 16.4%, Canada 8%, India 5.4% (2015)
US 85.7% (2015)
Imports$16.67 billion (2016 est.)
$16.86 billion (2015 est.)
$3.149 billion (2016 est.)
$3.445 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum, foodstuffs, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals
food, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, raw materials
Imports - partnersUS 43.4%, China 9.5%, Trinidad and Tobago 4.7%, Mexico 4.3% (2015)
Dominican Republic 35.4%, US 24.6%, Netherlands Antilles 9.5%, China 9.4% (2015)
Debt - external$26.05 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$25.71 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.022 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.969 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesDominican pesos (DOP) per US dollar -
46.2 (2016 est.)
45.052 (2015 est.)
45.052 (2014 est.)
43.556 (2013 est.)
39.34 (2012 est.)
gourdes (HTG) per US dollar -
63.16 (2016 est.)
50.71 (2015 est.)
50.71 (2014 est.)
45.22 (2013 est.)
41.95 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
1 October - 30 September
Public debt44% of GDP (2016 est.)
44.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
26.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
26.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$6.924 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.852 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.936 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.919 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$1.066 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.335 billion (2015 est.)
-$73 million (2016 est.)
-$271 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$71.46 billion (2016 est.)
$8.259 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$33.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$31.05 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$1.384 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.269 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$NA
Commercial bank prime lending rate5.87% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.86% (31 December 2015 est.)
12.9% (31 December 2016 est.)
12.9% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$33.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$30.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.61 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.404 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$6.536 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.986 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$988.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.073 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$20.13 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$18.43 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.818 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.793 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues14.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
-3.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 67.4%
government consumption: 10.7%
investment in fixed capital: 24.8%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 24%
imports of goods and services: -26.8% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 97.1%
government consumption: 0%
investment in fixed capital: 32%
investment in inventories: -5.3%
exports of goods and services: 14.9%
imports of goods and services: -44%
note: figure for household consumption also includes government consumption (2015 est.)

Energy

Dominican RepublicHaiti
Electricity - production18.46 billion kWh (2015 est.)
1.048 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption15.54 billion kWh (2015 est.)
400 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2015 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports5,990 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption1.069 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports1.069 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity3.8 million kW (2014 est.)
313,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels85.2% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
77.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants13.2% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
22.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources1.6% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production25,390 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption116,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
18,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports57,940 bbl/day (2015 est.)
17,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy22 million Mt (2013 est.)
2.1 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 300,000
electrification - total population: 98%
electrification - urban areas: 99%
electrification - rural areas: 97% (2013)
population without electricity: 7,400,000
electrification - total population: 38%
electrification - urban areas: 72%
electrification - rural areas: 15% (2013)

Telecommunications

Dominican RepublicHaiti
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 1,304,968
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 41,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 8.797 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 84 (July 2015 est.)
total: 7.412 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 73 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: relatively efficient system based on island-wide microwave radio relay network
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 10 per 100 persons; multiple providers of mobile-cellular service with a subscribership of nearly 85 per 100 persons
international: country code - 1-809; 1-829; 1-849; landing point for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1), Antillas 1, AMX-1, and the Fibralink submarine cables that provide links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is among the least-developed in Latin America and the Caribbean; domestic cell service is functional
domestic: mobile-cellular telephone services have expanded greatly in the last five years due to low-cost GSM phones and pay-as-you-go plans; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 70 per 100 persons
international: country code - 509; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.do
.ht
Internet userstotal: 5.442 million
percent of population: 51.9% (July 2015 est.)
total: 1.233 million
percent of population: 12.2% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediacombination of state-owned and privately owned broadcast media; 1 state-owned TV network and a number of private TV networks; networks operate repeaters to extend signals throughout country; combination of state-owned and privately owned radio stations with more than 300 radio stations operating (2015)
130 television stations throughout the country, including 1 government-owned; cable TV subscription service available; 495 radio stations (of them, only 135 are licensed), including 1 government-owned; more than 250 private and community radio stations; over 50 FM stations in Port-au-Prince alone (2015)

Transportation

Dominican RepublicHaiti
Roadwaystotal: 19,705 km
paved: 9,872 km
unpaved: 9,833 km (2002)
total: 4,266 km
paved: 768 km
unpaved: 3,498 km (2009)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Puerto Haina, Puerto Plata, Santo Domingo
oil terminal(s): Punta Nizao oil terminal
LNG terminal(s) (import): Andres LNG terminal (Boca Chica)
major seaport(s): Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jacmel, Port-au-Prince
Airports36 (2013)
14 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 16
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
total: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 8 (2013)

Military

Dominican RepublicHaiti
Military branchesArmy (Ejercito Nacional, EN), Navy (Marina de Guerra, MdG, includes naval infantry), Dominican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Dominicana, FAD) (2017)
no regular military forces - small Coast Guard; a Ministry of National Defense established May 2012; the regular Haitian Armed Forces (FAdH) - Army, Navy, and Air Force - have been demobilized but still exist on paper until or unless they are constitutionally abolished (2011)

Transnational Issues

Dominican RepublicHaiti
Disputes - internationalHaitian migrants cross the porous border into the Dominican Republic to find work; illegal migrants from the Dominican Republic cross the Mona Passage each year to Puerto Rico to find better work
since 2004, peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti have assisted in maintaining civil order in Haiti; the mission currently includes 6,685 military, 2,607 police, and 443 civilian personnel; despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians cross into the Dominican Republic and sail to neighboring countries; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island
Illicit drugstransshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; has become a transshipment point for ecstasy from the Netherlands and Belgium destined for US and Canada; substantial money laundering activity in particular by Colombian narcotics traffickers; significant amphetamine consumption (2008)
Caribbean transshipment point for cocaine en route to the US and Europe; substantial bulk cash smuggling activity; Colombian narcotics traffickers favor Haiti for illicit financial transactions; pervasive corruption; significant consumer of cannabis
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 133,770 (2015); note - a September 2013 Constitutional Court ruling revoked the citizenship of those born after 1929 to immigrants without proper documentation, even though the constitution at the time automatically granted citizenship to children born in the Dominican Republic and the 2010 constitution provides that constitutional provisions cannot be applied retroactively; the decision overwhelmingly affected people of Haitian descent whose relatives had come to the Dominican Republic since the 1890s as a cheap source of labor for sugar plantations; a May 2014 law passed by the Dominican Congress will regularize the status of those with birth certificates but will require those without them to prove they were born in the Dominican Republic and to apply for naturalization
note: revised estimate includes only individuals born to parents who were both born abroad; it does not include individuals born in the country to one Dominican-born and one foreign-born parent or subsequent generations of individuals of foreign descent; the estimate, as such, does not include all stateless persons (2015)
IDPs: 46,691 (includes only IDPs from the 2010 earthquake living in camps or camp-like situations; information is lacking about IDPs living outside camps or who have left camps) (2017)
stateless persons: 2,302 (2016)
note: stateless persons are individuals without a nationality who were born in the Dominican Republic prior to January 2010

Source: CIA Factbook