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Djibouti vs. Somalia

Introduction

DjiboutiSomalia
BackgroundThe French Territory of the Afars and the Issas became Djibouti in 1977. Hassan Gouled APTIDON installed an authoritarian one-party state and proceeded to serve as president until 1999. Unrest among the Afar minority during the 1990s led to a civil war that ended in 2001 with a peace accord between Afar rebels and the Somali Issa-dominated government. In 1999, Djibouti's first multiparty presidential election resulted in the election of Ismail Omar GUELLEH as president; he was reelected to a second term in 2005 and extended his tenure in office via a constitutional amendment, which allowed him to serve a third term in 2011 and begin a fourth term in 2016. Djibouti occupies a strategic geographic location at the intersection of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden and serves as an important shipping portal for goods entering and leaving the east African highlands and transshipments between Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. The government holds longstanding ties to France, which maintains a significant military presence in the country, and has strong ties with the US. Djibouti hosts several thousand members of US armed services at US-run Camp Lemonnier.
Britain withdrew from British Somaliland in 1960 to allow its protectorate to join with Italian Somaliland and form the new nation of Somalia. In 1969, a coup headed by Mohamed SIAD Barre ushered in an authoritarian socialist rule characterized by the persecution, jailing, and torture of political opponents and dissidents. After the regime's collapse early in 1991, Somalia descended into turmoil, factional fighting, and anarchy. In May 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence and continues efforts to establish a constitutional democracy, including holding municipal, parliamentary, and presidential elections. The regions of Bari, Nugaal, and northern Mudug comprise a neighboring semi-autonomous state of Puntland, which has been self-governing since 1998 but does not aim at independence; it has also made strides toward reconstructing a legitimate, representative government but has suffered some civil strife. Puntland disputes its border with Somaliland as it also claims the regions of Sool and Sanaag, and portions of Togdheer. Beginning in 1993, a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in south-central Somalia) was able to alleviate famine conditions, but when the UN withdrew in 1995, having suffered significant casualties, order still had not been restored. In 2000, the Somalia National Peace Conference (SNPC) held in Djibouti resulted in the formation of an interim government, known as the Transitional National Government (TNG). When the TNG failed to establish adequate security or governing institutions, the Government of Kenya, under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), led a subsequent peace process that concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed as President of a second interim government, known as the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of the Somali Republic. The TFG included a 275-member parliamentary body, known as the Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP). President YUSUF resigned late in 2008 while United Nations-sponsored talks between the TFG and the opposition Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (ARS) were underway in Djibouti. In January 2009, following the creation of a TFG-ARS unity government, Ethiopian military forces, which had entered Somalia in December 2006 to support the TFG in the face of advances by the opposition Islamic Courts Union (ICU), withdrew from the country. The TFP was doubled in size to 550 seats with the addition of 200 ARS and 75 civil society members of parliament. The expanded parliament elected Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed, the former ICU and ARS chairman as president in January 2009. The creation of the TFG was based on the Transitional Federal Charter (TFC), which outlined a five-year mandate leading to the establishment of a new Somali constitution and a transition to a representative government following national elections. In 2009, the TFP amended the TFC to extend TFG's mandate until 2011 and in 2011 Somali principals agreed to institute political transition by August 2012. The transition process ended in September 2012 when clan elders replaced the TFP by appointing 275 members to a new parliament who subsequently elected a new president.

Geography

DjiboutiSomalia
LocationEastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, between Eritrea and Somalia
Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia
Geographic coordinates11 30 N, 43 00 E
10 00 N, 49 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 23,200 sq km
land: 23,180 sq km
water: 20 sq km
total: 637,657 sq km
land: 627,337 sq km
water: 10,320 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than New Jersey
almost five times the size of Alabama; slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundariestotal: 528 km
border countries (3): Eritrea 125 km, Ethiopia 342 km, Somalia 61 km
total: 2,385 km
border countries (3): Djibouti 61 km, Ethiopia 1,640 km, Kenya 684 km
Coastline314 km
3,025 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 200 nm
Climatedesert; torrid, dry
principally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons
Terraincoastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains
mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 430 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Lac Assal -155 m
highest point: Moussa Ali 2,028 m
mean elevation: 410 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Shimbiris 2,416 m
Natural resourcespotential geothermal power, gold, clay, granite, limestone, marble, salt, diatomite, gypsum, pumice, petroleum
uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves
Land useagricultural land: 73.4%
arable land 0.1%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 73.3%
forest: 0.2%
other: 26.4% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 70.3%
arable land 1.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 68.5%
forest: 10.6%
other: 19.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land10 sq km (2012)
2,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsearthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods
volcanism: experiences limited volcanic activity; Ardoukoba (elev. 298 m) last erupted in 1978; Manda-Inakir, located along the Ethiopian border, is also historically active
recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season
Environment - current issuesinadequate supplies of potable water; limited arable land; desertification; endangered species
famine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notestrategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia; mostly wasteland; Lac Assal (Lake Assal) is the lowest point in Africa and the saltiest lake in the world
strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

Demographics

DjiboutiSomalia
Population846,687 (July 2016 est.)
10,817,354
note: this estimate was derived from an official census taken in 1975 by the Somali Government; population counting in Somalia is complicated by the large number of nomads and by refugee movements in response to famine and clan warfare (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 31.71% (male 134,604/female 133,840)
15-24 years: 21.54% (male 85,805/female 96,587)
25-54 years: 38.37% (male 134,945/female 189,930)
55-64 years: 4.7% (male 18,257/female 21,538)
65 years and over: 3.68% (male 13,992/female 17,189) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 43.42% (male 2,345,536/female 2,351,886)
15-24 years: 18.87% (male 1,031,804/female 1,009,831)
25-54 years: 31.47% (male 1,762,093/female 1,641,699)
55-64 years: 4.02% (male 213,259/female 221,520)
65 years and over: 2.22% (male 92,966/female 146,760) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 23.5 years
male: 21.8 years
female: 24.9 years (2016 est.)
total: 17.9 years
male: 18.1 years
female: 17.8 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.18% (2016 est.)
1.92% (2016 est.)
Birth rate23.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
40 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
13.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate5.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-7.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.71 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.84 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 47.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 54.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 40.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 96.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 105.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 87.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 63.2 years
male: 60.7 years
female: 65.8 years (2016 est.)
total population: 52.4 years
male: 50.3 years
female: 54.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.35 children born/woman (2016 est.)
5.89 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate1.55% (2015 est.)
0.5% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Djiboutian(s)
adjective: Djiboutian
noun: Somali(s)
adjective: Somali
Ethnic groupsSomali 60%, Afar 35%, other 5% (includes French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian)
Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including 30,000 Arabs)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS9,400 (2015 est.)
30,200 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 94%, Christian 6%
Sunni Muslim (Islam) (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter)
HIV/AIDS - deaths600 (2015 est.)
2,000 (2015 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar
Somali (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter), Arabic (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter), Italian, English
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Rift Valley fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Education expenditures4.5% of GDP (2010)
NA
Urbanizationurban population: 77.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 39.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.06% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 97.4% of population
rural: 64.7% of population
total: 90% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.6% of population
rural: 35.3% of population
total: 10% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 69.6% of population
rural: 8.8% of population
total: 31.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 30.4% of population
rural: 91.2% of population
total: 68.3% of population (2011 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 59.8% of population
rural: 5.1% of population
total: 47.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 40.2% of population
rural: 94.9% of population
total: 52.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 52% of population
rural: 6.3% of population
total: 23.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 48% of population
rural: 93.7% of population
total: 76.4% of population (2011 est.)
Major cities - populationDJIBOUTI (capital) 529,000 (2015)
MOGADISHU (capital) 2.138 million; Hargeysa 760,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate229 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
732 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight29.8% (2012)
23% (2009)
Physicians density0.23 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate8.5% (2014)
3.9% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 13,176
percentage: 8% (2006 est.)
total number: 1,148,265
percentage: 49% (2006 est.)
Demographic profileDjibouti is a poor, predominantly urban country, characterized by high rates of illiteracy, unemployment, and childhood malnutrition. More than 75% of the population lives in cities and towns (predominantly in the capital, Djibouti). The rural population subsists primarily on nomadic herding. Prone to droughts and floods, the country has few natural resources and must import more than 80% of its food from neighboring countries or Europe. Health care, particularly outside the capital, is limited by poor infrastructure, shortages of equipment and supplies, and a lack of qualified personnel. More than a third of health care recipients are migrants because the services are still better than those available in their neighboring home countries. The nearly universal practice of female genital cutting reflects Djibouti’s lack of gender equality and is a major contributor to obstetrical complications and its high rates of maternal and infant mortality. A 1995 law prohibiting the practice has never been enforced.
Because of its political stability and its strategic location at the confluence of East Africa and the Gulf States along the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, Djibouti is a key transit point for migrants and asylum seekers heading for the Gulf States and beyond. Each year some hundred thousand people, mainly Ethiopians and some Somalis, journey through Djibouti, usually to the port of Obock, to attempt a dangerous sea crossing to Yemen. However, with the escalation of the ongoing Yemen conflict, Yemenis began fleeing to Djibouti in March 2015, with more than 35,000 arriving by April 2016. Most Yemenis remain unregistered and head for Djibouti City rather than seeking asylum at one of Djibouti’s three spartan refugee camps. Djibouti has been hosting refugees and asylum seekers, predominantly Somalis and lesser numbers of Ethiopians and Eritreans, at camps for 20 years, despite lacking potable water, food shortages, and unemployment.
Somalia scores very low for most humanitarian indicators, suffering from poor governance, protracted internal conflict, underdevelopment, economic decline, poverty, social and gender inequality, and environmental degradation. Despite civil war and famine raising its mortality rate, Somalia’s high fertility rate and large proportion of people of reproductive age maintain rapid population growth, with each generation being larger than the prior one. More than 60% of Somalia’s population is younger than 25, and the fertility rate is among the world’s highest at almost 6 children per woman – a rate that has decreased little since the 1970s.
A lack of educational and job opportunities is a major source of tension for Somalia’s large youth cohort, making them vulnerable to recruitment by extremist and pirate groups. Somalia has one of the world’s lowest primary school enrollment rates – just over 40% of children are in school – and one of world’s highest youth unemployment rates. Life expectancy is low as a result of high infant and maternal mortality rates, the spread of preventable diseases, poor sanitation, chronic malnutrition, and inadequate health services.
During the two decades of conflict that followed the fall of the SIAD regime in 1991, hundreds of thousands of Somalis fled their homes. Today Somalia is the world’s third highest source country for refugees, after Syria and Afghanistan. Insecurity, drought, floods, food shortages, and a lack of economic opportunities are the driving factors.
As of 2016, more than 1.1 million Somali refugees were hosted in the region, mainly in Kenya, Yemen, Egypt, Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Uganda, while more than 1.1 million Somalis were internally displaced. Since the implementation of a tripartite voluntary repatriation agreement among Kenya, Somalia, and the UNHCR in 2013, nearly 40,000 Somali refugees have returned home from Kenya’s Dadaab refugee camp – still houses to approximately 260,000 Somalis. The flow sped up rapidly after the Kenyan Government in May 2016 announced its intention to close the camp, worsening security and humanitarian conditions in receiving communities in south-central Somalia. Despite the conflict in Yemen, thousands of Somalis and other refugees and asylum seekers from the Horn of Africa risk their lives crossing the Gulf of Aden to reach Yemen and beyond (often Saudi Arabia). Bossaso in Puntland overtook Obock, Djibouti, as the primary departure point in mid-2014.
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 58.5
youth dependency ratio: 51.9
elderly dependency ratio: 6.6
potential support ratio: 15.1 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 98.1
youth dependency ratio: 92.5
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6
potential support ratio: 17.9 (2015 est.)

Government

DjiboutiSomalia
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Djibouti
conventional short form: Djibouti
local long form: Republique de Djibouti/Jumhuriyat Jibuti
local short form: Djibouti/Jibuti
former: French Territory of the Afars and Issas, French Somaliland
etymology: the country name derives from the capital city of Djibouti
"conventional long form: Federal Republic of Somalia
conventional short form: Somalia
local long form: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalkaa Soomaaliya
local short form: Soomaaliya
former: Somali Republic, Somali Democratic Republic
etymology: ""Land of the Somali"" (ethnic group)
"
Government typesemi-presidential republic
federal parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Djibouti
geographic coordinates: 11 35 N, 43 09 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Mogadishu
geographic coordinates: 2 04 N, 45 20 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions6 districts (cercles, singular - cercle); Ali Sabieh, Arta, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjourah
18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe (Middle Jubba), Jubbada Hoose (Lower Jubba), Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe (Middle Shabeelle), Shabeellaha Hoose (Lower Shabeelle), Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed
Independence27 June 1977 (from France)
1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland that became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960 and Italian Somaliland that became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960 to form the Somali Republic)
National holidayIndependence Day, 27 June (1977)
Foundation of the Somali Republic, 1 July (1960); note - 26 June (1960) in Somaliland
Constitutionapproved by referendum 4 September 1992; amended 2006, 2008, 2010 (2016)
previous 1961, 1979; latest drafted 12 June 2012, approved 1 August 2012 (provisional) (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system based primarily on the French civil code (as it existed in 1997), Islamic religious law (in matters of family law and successions), and customary law
mixed legal system of civil law, Islamic law, and customary law (referred to as Xeer)
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Ismail Omar GUELLEH (since 8 May 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdoulkader Kamil MOHAMED (since 1 April 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term; (constitution amended in 2010 to allow a third term); election last held on 8 April 2016 (next to be held by 2021); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Ismail Omar GUELLEH reelected president for a fourth term; percent of vote - Ismail Omar GUELLEH (RPP) 87%, Omar Elmi KHAIREH (represented the USN) 7.3%, other 5.6%
"chief of state: President Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed ""Farmaajo"" (since 8 February 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Hassan Ali KHAYRE (since 1 March 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister, approved by the House of the People
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Federal Parliament by two-thirds majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term; election last held on 8 February 2017 (previously scheduled for 30 September 2016 but postponed repeatedly); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the House of the People
election results: Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed ""Farmaajo"" elected president; Federal Parliament second round vote - Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed ""Farmaajo"" (TPP) 184, HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (PDP) 97, Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed (ARS) 46
"
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale, formerly the Chamber of Deputies (65 seats; 52 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 13 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 22 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UMP 55, USN 10
description: bicameral Federal Parliament to consist of an Upper House (54 seats; senators elected by state assemblies to serve 4-year terms) and the House of the People (275 seats; members elected by regional delegates to serve 4-year terms)
note: the inaugural House of the People was appointed in September 2012 by clan elders; in elections in 2016 and 2017, the Federal Parliament became bicameral with elections scheduled for 10 October 2016 for the Upper House and 23 October to 10 November 2016 for the House of the People; while the elections were delayed, they were eventually held in most regions despite voting irregularites; on 27 December 2016, 41 Upper House senators and 242 House of the People members were sworn in
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of NA magistrates); Constitutional Council (consists of 6 magistrates)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court magistrates appointed by the president with the advice of the Superior Council of the Magistracy or CSM, a 10-member body consisting of 4 judges, 3 members (non parliamentarians and judges) appointed by the president, and 3 appointed by the National Assembly president or speaker; magistrates appointed for life with retirement at age 65; Constitutional Council magistrate appointments - 2 by the president of the republic, 2 by the president of the National Assembly, and 2 by the CSM; magistrates appointed for 8-year, non-renewable terms
subordinate courts: High Court of Appeal; 5 Courts of First Instance; customary courts; State Court (replaced sharia courts in 2003)
highest court(s): the provisional constitution stipulates the establishment of the Constitutional Court (consists of 5 judges including the chief judge and deputy chief judge); note - under the terms of the 2004 Transitional National Charter, a Supreme Court based in Mogadishu and an Appeal Court were established; yet most regions have reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either secular, traditional Somali customary law, or sharia Islamic law
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president upon proposal of the Judicial Service Commission, a 9-member judicial and administrative body; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: federal- and federal member state-level courts; military courts; sharia Islamic courts
Political parties and leadersAlliance of Movements for the Alternation and the Nation or AMAN (CDU, RADDE, ARD)
Democratic National Party or PND [Abdallah Mohamed DABALEH]
Democratic National Party or PND (Abdourahman Mohamed ALLALEH)
Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Abdillahi HAMARITEH]
Djibouti Development Party or PDD [Mohamed Daoud CHEHEM]
Front pour la Restauration de l'Unite Democratique or FRUD [Ali Mohamed DAOUD]
Movement for Development and Liberty or MODEL [Ismail Ahmed WABERI]
People's Rally for Progress or RPP [Ismail Omar GUELLEH] (governing party)
Peoples Social Democratic Party or PPSD [Hasna Moumin BAHDON]
Republican Alliance for Democracy or ARD [Ahmed YOUSSOUF]
Republican Alliance for Democracy or ARD (Kassim Ahmed DINI)
Union for a Presidential Majority or UMP (a coalition of parties including RPP, FRUD, PND, and PPSD)
Union for Democracy and Justice or UDJ [Ilya Ismail GUEDI Hared]
Union for National Salvation or USN (an umbrella coalition comprising PDD, PND, ARD-DINI faction, and UDJ) [Ahmed Youssouf HOUMED]
CADHI [Abdirahman IBRAHIM]
Cosmopolitan Democratic Party [Yarow Sharef ADEN]
Daljir Party or DP [Hassan MOALIM, chairperson]
Democratic Green Party of Somalia or DGPS [Abdullahi Y. MAHAMOUD]
Democratic Party of Somalia or DPS [Maslah Mohamed SIAD]
Green Leaf for Democracy or GLED
Hiil Qaran
Justice and Communist Party [Mohamed NUR]
Liberal Party of Somalia
National Unity Party (Xisbiga MIdnimo-Quaran) [Abdurahman BAADIYOW]
Peace and Development Party or PDP
Somali National Party or SNP [Mohammed Ameen Saeed AHMED]
Somali People's Party [Mahamud Hassan RAGE]
Somali Green Party (local chapter of Federation of Green Parties of Africa)
Tayo or TPP [Mohamed Abdullahi MOHAMED]
Tiir Party [Fadhil Sheik MOHAMUD]
United and Democratic Party [Salad Ali JELLE]
United Somali Parliamentarians
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU (candidates), COMESA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU (candidate), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, LAS, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge D’Affaires Mark BOULWARE (since February 2017)
chancery: 1156 15th Street NW, Suite 515, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 331-0270
FAX: [1] (202) 331-0302
chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmed Issa AWAD (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 425 East 61st Street, Suite 702, New York City, NY 10021
telephone: [1] (212) 688-9410, 688-5046
FAX: [1] (212) 759-0651
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Mark BOULWARE (since February 2017)
embassy: Lot 350-B, Haramouss
mailing address: B.P. 185, Djibouti
telephone: [253] 21 45 30 00
FAX: [253] 21 45 31 29
the US Mission to Somalia, operating out of the US Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya, is headed by Ambassador Stephen M. SCHWARTZ (since 9 August 2016)
Flag descriptiontwo equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red five-pointed star in the center; blue stands for sea and sky and the Issa Somali people; green symbolizes earth and the Afar people; white represents peace; the red star recalls the struggle for independence and stands for unity
light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; the blue field was originally influenced by the flag of the UN, but today is said to denote the sky and the neighboring Indian Ocean; the five points of the star represent the five regions in the horn of Africa that are inhabited by Somali people: the former British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland (which together make up Somalia), Djibouti, Ogaden (Ethiopia), and the North East Province (Kenya)
National anthem"name: ""Jabuuti"" (Djibouti)
lyrics/music: Aden ELMI/Abdi ROBLEH
note: adopted 1977
"
"name: ""Qolobaa Calankeed"" (Every Nation Has its own Flag)
lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Abdullahi QARSHE
note: adopted 2012; written in 1959
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)red star; national colors: light blue, green, white, red
leopard; national colors: blue, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the mother must be a citizen of Djibouti
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Somalia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Economy

DjiboutiSomalia
Economy - overviewDjibouti's economy is based on service activities connected with the country's strategic location as a deepwater port on the Red Sea. Three-fourths of Djibouti's inhabitants live in the capital city; the remainder are mostly nomadic herders. Scant rainfall and less than 4% arable land limits crop production to small quantities of fruits and vegetables, and most food must be imported.

Djibouti provides services as both a transit port for the region and an international transshipment and refueling center. Imports, exports, and re-exports represent 70% of port activity at Djibouti's container terminal. Reexports consist primarily of coffee from landlocked neighbor Ethiopia. Djibouti has few natural resources and little industry. The nation is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance to help support its balance of payments and to finance development projects. An official unemployment rate of nearly 50% - with youth unemployment near 80% - continues to be a major problem. Inflation was at 3% in 2014-2016, due to low international food prices and a decline in electricity tariffs.

Djibouti’s reliance on diesel-generated electricity and imported food and water leave average consumers vulnerable to global price shocks, though in mid-2015 Djibouti passed new legislation to liberalize the energy sector. The government has emphasized infrastructure development for transportation and energy and Djibouti – with the help of foreign partners, particularly China – has begun to increase and modernize its port capacity.
Despite the lack of effective national governance, Somalia maintains an informal economy largely based on livestock, remittance/money transfer companies, and telecommunications. Somalia's government lacks the ability to collect domestic revenue and external debt – mostly in arrears – was estimated at 93% of GDP in 2014.

Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock normally accounting for about 40% of GDP and more than 50% of export earnings. Nomads and semi-pastoralists, who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large portion of the population. Economic activity is estimated to have increased by 3.7% in 2016 because of growth in the agriculture, construction and telecommunications sector. Somalia's small industrial sector, based on the processing of agricultural products, has largely been looted and the machinery sold as scrap metal.

In recent years, Somalia's capital city, Mogadishu, has witnessed the development of the city's first gas stations, supermarkets, and airline flights to Turkey since the collapse of central authority in 1991. Mogadishu's main market offers a variety of goods from food to electronic gadgets. Hotels continue to operate and are supported with private-security militias. Formalized economic growth has yet to expand outside of Mogadishu and a few regional capitals, and within the city, security concerns dominate business. Telecommunication firms provide wireless services in most major cities and offer the lowest international call rates on the continent. In the absence of a formal banking sector, money transfer/remittance services have sprouted throughout the country, handling up to $1.6 billion in remittances annually, although international concerns over the money transfers into Somalia continues to threaten these services’ ability to operate in Western nations.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$3.345 billion (2016 est.)
$3.141 billion (2015 est.)
$2.949 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$4.719 billion (2016 est.)
$4.551 billion (2015 est.)
$4.431 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP - real growth rate6.5% (2016 est.)
6.5% (2015 est.)
6% (2014 est.)
3.7% (2016 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
3.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,400 (2016 est.)
$3,300 (2015 est.)
$3,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$400 (2016 est.)
$400 (2015 est.)
$400 (2014 est.)
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 2.9%
industry: 20.8%
services: 76.3% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 60.2%
industry: 7.4%
services: 32.5% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line23%
note: percent of population below $1.25 per day at purchasing power parity (2015 est.)
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 30.9% (2002)
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices)3% (2016 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
1.5% (2016 est.)
-0.5% (2015 est.)
Labor force294,600 (2012)
3.109 million (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
agriculture: 71%
industry and services: 29% (1975)
Unemployment rate60% (2014 est.)
48.4% (2012 est.)
NA%
Budgetrevenues: $685.7 million
expenditures: $885.9 million (2016 est.)
revenues: $145.3 million
expenditures: $151.1 million (2014 est.)
Industriesconstruction, agricultural processing, shipping
light industries, including sugar refining, textiles, wireless communication
Industrial production growth rate4.7% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2014 est.)
Agriculture - productsfruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels, animal hides
bananas, sorghum, corn, coconuts, rice, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans; cattle, sheep, goats; fish
Exports$146.1 million (2016 est.)
$141.9 million (2015 est.)
$819 million (2014 est.)
$779 million (2013 est.)
Exports - commoditiesreexports, hides and skins, coffee (in transit), scrap metal
livestock, bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal
Exports - partnersSomalia 79.7%, US 5.4%, Yemen 4.6%, UAE 4% (2015)
UAE 36.1%, Oman 33.4%, Yemen 15.5% (2015)
Imports$992 million (2016 est.)
$1.038 billion (2015 est.)
$3.482 billion (2014 est.)
$3.322 billion (2013 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfoods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, clothing
manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, qat
Imports - partnersChina 41.8%, Saudi Arabia 14.2%, Indonesia 5.9%, India 4.3% (2015)
Oman 17.1%, Djibouti 17%, India 15%, China 10.7%, Kenya 5.5%, Pakistan 4% (2015)
Debt - external$1.339 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.09 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$5.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.054 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange ratesDjiboutian francs (DJF) per US dollar -
177.7 (2016 est.)
177.72 (2015 est.)
177.72 (2014 est.)
177.72 (2013 est.)
177.72 (2012 est.)
Somali shillings (SOS) per US dollar -
20,227 (2014 est.)
20,227 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
NA
Current Account Balance-$542 million (2016 est.)
-$549 million (2015 est.)
-$644 million (2014 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$1.894 billion (2016 est.)
$5.925 billion (2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$1.767 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.368 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$NA
Commercial bank prime lending rate11.7% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.62% (31 December 2015 est.)
NA%
Taxes and other revenues36.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
2.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-10.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
-0.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 60.5%
government consumption: 32%
investment in fixed capital: 42.2%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 34.8%
imports of goods and services: -69.9% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 72.1%
government consumption: 8.7%
investment in fixed capital: 19.8%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 0.3%
imports of goods and services: -1.7% (2015 est.)

Energy

DjiboutiSomalia
Electricity - production400 million kWh (2014 est.)
300 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption400 million kWh (2014 est.)
300 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2013 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity100,000 kW (2014 est.)
81,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels98.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources1.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption6,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
5,700 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports403 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports6,509 bbl/day (2013 est.)
5,679 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy1.8 million Mt (2013 est.)
900,000 Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 400,000
electrification - total population: 50%
electrification - urban areas: 61%
electrification - rural areas: 14% (2013)
population without electricity: 8,900,000
electrification - total population: 15%
electrification - urban areas: 33%
electrification - rural areas: 4% (2013)

Telecommunications

DjiboutiSomalia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 23,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 51,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 312,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 38 (July 2015 est.)
total: 5.836 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 55 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate, as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country
domestic: Djibouti Telecom is the sole provider of telecommunications services and utilizes mostly a microwave radio relay network; fiber-optic cable is installed in the capital; rural areas connected via wireless local loop radio systems; mobile cellular coverage is primarily limited to the area in and around Djibouti city
international: country code - 253; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable systems providing links to Asia, the Middle East, Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean and 1 Arabsat); Medarabtel regional microwave radio relay telephone network (2015)
general assessment: the public telecommunications system was almost completely destroyed or dismantled during the civil war; private companies offer limited local fixed-line service, and private wireless companies offer service in most major cities, while charging the lowest international rates on the continent
domestic: local cellular telephone systems have been established in Mogadishu and in several other population centers with one company beginning to provide 3G services in late 2012
international: country code - 252; Mogadishu is a landing point for the EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa with Europe and North America (2012)
Internet country code.dj
.so
Internet userstotal: 99,000
percent of population: 11.9% (July 2015 est.)
total: 187,000
percent of population: 1.8% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-owned Radiodiffusion-Television de Djibouti operates the sole terrestrial TV station, as well as the only 2 domestic radio networks; no private TV or radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)
2 private TV stations rebroadcast Al-Jazeera and CNN; Somaliland has 1 government-operated TV station and Puntland has 1 private TV station; the transitional government operates Radio Mogadishu; 1 SW and roughly 10 private FM radio stations broadcast in Mogadishu; several radio stations operate in central and southern regions; Somaliland has 1 government-operated radio station; Puntland has roughly a half-dozen private radio stations; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are available (2007)

Transportation

DjiboutiSomalia
Roadwaystotal: 3,065 km
paved: 1,379 km
unpaved: 1,686 km (2000)
total: 22,100 km
paved: 2,608 km
unpaved: 19,492 km (2000)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Djibouti
major seaport(s): Berbera, Kismaayo
Airports13 (2013)
61 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
total: 55
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 20
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
Transportation - notewhile attacks continued to decrease, with only 4 in 2014, the International Maritime Bureau reports offshore waters in the Gulf of Aden remain a high risk for piracy; the presence of several naval task forces in the Gulf of Aden and additional anti-piracy measures on the part of ship operators, including the use of on-board armed security teams, contributed to the drop in incidents
"despite a dramatic drop in the number of attacks in 2014, the International Maritime Bureau continues to report the territorial and offshore waters in the Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean as a region of significant risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships accounting for 4% of all attacks in 2014; 11 vessels were attacked or hijacked in 2014 compared with 237 in 2011; the presence of several naval task forces in the Gulf of Aden and additional anti-piracy measures on the part of ship operators, including the use of on-board armed security teams, have reduced piracy incidents in that body of water; in response Somali-based pirates, using hijacked fishing trawlers as ""mother ships"" to extend their range, shifted operations as far south as the Mozambique Channel, eastward to the vicinity of the Maldives, and northeastward to the Strait of Hormuz
"

Military

DjiboutiSomalia
Military branchesDjibouti Armed Forces (Forces Armees Djiboutiennes, FAD): Djibouti National Army (includes Navy, Djiboutian Air Force (Force Aerienne Djiboutienne, FAD), National Gendarmerie (GN)) (2013)
National Security Force (NSF): Somali Army (2011)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; 16-25 years of age for voluntary military training; no conscription (2012)
18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2012)

Transnational Issues

DjiboutiSomalia
Disputes - international"Djibouti maintains economic ties and border accords with ""Somaliland"" leadership while maintaining some political ties to various factions in Somalia; Kuwait is chief investor in the 2008 restoration and upgrade of the Ethiopian-Djibouti rail link; in 2008, Eritrean troops moved across the border on Ras Doumera peninsula and occupied Doumera Island with undefined sovereignty in the Red Sea
"
"Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; ""Somaliland"" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera to landlocked Ethiopia and have established commercial ties with other regional states; ""Puntland"" and ""Somaliland"" ""governments"" seek international support in their secessionist aspirations and overlapping border claims; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading south across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists
"
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 13,021 (Somalia); 19,636 (Yemen) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 9,263 (Yemen) (2017)
IDPs: 1,106,751 (civil war since 1988, clan-based competition for resources; 2011 famine; insecurity because of fighting between al-Shabaab and the Transitional Federal Government's allied forces) (2017)

Source: CIA Factbook