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Democratic Republic of the Congo vs. Burundi

Introduction

Democratic Republic of the CongoBurundi
BackgroundEstablished as an official Belgian colony in 1908, the then-Republic of the Congo gained its independence in 1960, but its early years were marred by political and social instability. Col. Joseph MOBUTU seized power and declared himself president in a November 1965 coup. He subsequently changed his name - to MOBUTU Sese Seko - as well as that of the country - to Zaire. MOBUTU retained his position for 32 years through several sham elections, as well as through brutal force. Ethnic strife and civil war, touched off by a massive inflow of refugees in 1994 from fighting in Rwanda and Burundi, led in May 1997 to the toppling of the MOBUTU regime by a rebellion backed by Rwanda and Uganda and fronted by Laurent KABILA. KABILA renamed the country the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but in August 1998 his regime was itself challenged by a second insurrection again backed by Rwanda and Uganda. Troops from Angola, Chad, Namibia, Sudan, and Zimbabwe intervened to support KABILA's regime. In January 2001, KABILA was assassinated and his son, Joseph KABILA, was named head of state. In October 2002, the new president was successful in negotiating the withdrawal of Rwandan forces occupying the eastern DRC; two months later, the Pretoria Accord was signed by all remaining warring parties to end the fighting and establish a government of national unity. A transitional government was set up in July 2003; it held a successful constitutional referendum in December 2005 and elections for the presidency, National Assembly, and provincial legislatures took place in 2006.
In 2009, following a resurgence of conflict in the eastern DRC, the government signed a peace agreement with the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP), a primarily Tutsi rebel group. An attempt to integrate CNDP members into the Congolese military failed, prompting their defection in 2012 and the formation of the M23 armed group - named after the 23 March 2009 peace agreements. Renewed conflict led to large population displacements and significant human rights abuses before the M23 was pushed out of DRC to Uganda and Rwanda in late 2013 by a joint DRC and UN offensive. In addition, the DRC continues to experience violence committed by other armed groups including the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda, the Allied Democratic Forces, and assorted Mai Mai militias. In the most recent national elections, held in November 2011, disputed results allowed Joseph KABILA to be reelected to the presidency. The DRC Constitution bars President KABILA from running for a third term, but the DRC Government has delayed national elections originally slated for November 2016. The failure to hold elections as scheduled has fueled sporadic street protests by KABILA’s opponents. In late December 2016, government officials and opposition leaders struck a last-minute deal that will require KABILA to step down after elections to be held by the end of 2017.
Burundi is a small country in East Africa bordered by Tanzania, Rwanda, and Lake Tanganyika. Burundi gained its independence from Belgium in 1962. Much of its history has been turbulent, and Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated in October 1993 after only 100 days in office. The internationally brokered Arusha Agreement ended the 1993-2005 civil war, paving the way for a new constitution and 2005 elections. Pierre NKURUNZIZA was elected president in 2005 and 2010 and again in a controversial election in 2015. Burundi continues to face many political and economic challenges.

Geography

Democratic Republic of the CongoBurundi
LocationCentral Africa, northeast of Angola
Central Africa, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, west of Tanzania
Geographic coordinates0 00 N, 25 00 E
3 30 S, 30 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 2,344,858 sq km
land: 2,267,048 sq km
water: 77,810 sq km
total: 27,830 sq km
land: 25,680 sq km
water: 2,150 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than one-fourth the size of the US
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundariestotal: 10,481 km
border countries (9): Angola 2,646 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of Angola's discontiguous Cabinda Province), Burundi 236 km, Central African Republic 1,747 km, Republic of the Congo 1,229 km, Rwanda 221 km, South Sudan 714 km, Tanzania 479 km, Uganda 877 km, Zambia 2,332 km
total: 1,140 km
border countries (3): Democratic Republic of the Congo 236 km, Rwanda 315 km, Tanzania 589 km
Coastline37 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: since 2011 the DRC has a Common Interest Zone agreement with Angola for the mutual development of off-shore resources
none (landlocked)
Climatetropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season (April to October), dry season (December to February); south of Equator - wet season (November to March), dry season (April to October)
equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees Celsius but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; two wet seasons (February to May and September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and December to January)
Terrainvast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east
hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 726 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pic Marguerite on Mont Ngaliema (Mount Stanley) 5,110 m
mean elevation: 1,504 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
highest point: Heha 2,670 m
Natural resourcescobalt, copper, niobium, tantalum, petroleum, industrial and gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, uranium, coal, hydropower, timber
nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum, vanadium, arable land, hydropower, niobium, tantalum, gold, tin, tungsten, kaolin, limestone
Land useagricultural land: 11.4%
arable land 3.1%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 8%
forest: 67.9%
other: 20.7% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 73.3%
arable land 38.9%; permanent crops 15.6%; permanent pasture 18.8%
forest: 6.6%
other: 20.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land110 sq km (2012)
230 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsperiodic droughts in south; Congo River floods (seasonal); active volcanoes in the east along the Great Rift Valley
volcanism: Nyiragongo (elev. 3,470 m), which erupted in 2002 and is experiencing ongoing activity, poses a major threat to the city of Goma, home to a quarter million people; the volcano produces unusually fast-moving lava, known to travel up to 100 km /hr; Nyiragongo has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; its neighbor, Nyamuragira, which erupted in 2010, is Africa's most active volcano; Visoke is the only other historically active volcano
flooding; landslides; drought
Environment - current issuespoaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; deforestation; soil erosion; mining (diamonds, gold, coltan - a mineral used in creating capacitors for electronic devices) causing environmental damage
soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - notesecond largest country in Africa (after Algeria) and largest country in Sub-Saharan Africa; straddles the equator; has narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo River and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean; dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands
landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile

Demographics

Democratic Republic of the CongoBurundi
Population81,331,050
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
11,099,298
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 42.2% (male 17,300,707/female 17,024,082)
15-24 years: 21.44% (male 8,747,038/female 8,694,000)
25-54 years: 30.13% (male 12,227,971/female 12,273,304)
55-64 years: 3.58% (male 1,374,050/female 1,535,973)
65 years and over: 2.65% (male 910,456/female 1,243,469) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 45.61% (male 2,545,895/female 2,516,480)
15-24 years: 19.17% (male 1,061,538/female 1,066,581)
25-54 years: 28.71% (male 1,589,506/female 1,597,081)
55-64 years: 3.94% (male 205,538/female 231,317)
65 years and over: 2.57% (male 121,935/female 163,427) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.4 years
male: 18.1 years
female: 18.6 years (2016 est.)
total: 17 years
male: 16.8 years
female: 17.2 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.42% (2016 est.)
3.26% (2016 est.)
Birth rate34.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
41.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 69.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 73.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 66.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 60.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 66.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 53.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 57.3 years
male: 55.8 years
female: 58.9 years (2016 est.)
total population: 60.5 years
male: 58.8 years
female: 62.3 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate4.53 children born/woman (2016 est.)
6.04 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.85% (2015 est.)
1.04% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Congolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Congolese or Congo
noun: Burundian(s)
adjective: Burundian
Ethnic groupsover 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority are Bantu; the four largest tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population
Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS374,100 (2015 est.)
77,400 (2015 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%, other (includes syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs) 10%
Catholic 62.1%, Protestant 23.9% (includes Adventist 2.3% and other Protestant 21.6%), Muslim 2.5%, other 3.6%, unspecified 7.9% (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths21,700 (2015 est.)
3,000 (2015 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba
Kirundi 29.7% (official), Kirundi and other language 9.1%, French (official) and French and other language 0.3%, Swahili and Swahili and other language 0.2% (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area), English (official) and English and other language 0.06%, more than 2 languages 3.7%, unspecified 56.9%
note: data represent language read and written by people 10 years of age or older; spoken Kirundi is widespread (2008 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write French, Lingala, Kingwana, or Tshiluba
total population: 63.8%
male: 78.1%
female: 50% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85.6%
male: 88.2%
female: 83.1% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and trypanosomiasis-gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2013)
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2013)
Education expenditures2.2% of GDP (2013)
5.4% of GDP (2013)
Urbanizationurban population: 42.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.96% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 12.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 81.1% of population
rural: 31.2% of population
total: 52.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 18.9% of population
rural: 68.8% of population
total: 47.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 91.1% of population
rural: 73.8% of population
total: 75.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 8.9% of population
rural: 26.2% of population
total: 24.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 28.5% of population
rural: 28.7% of population
total: 28.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 71.5% of population
rural: 71.3% of population
total: 71.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 43.8% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 48% of population
unimproved:
urban: 56.2% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 52% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationKINSHASA (capital) 11.587 million; Lubumbashi 2.015 million; Mbuji-Mayi 2.007 million; Kananga 1.169 million; Kisangani 1.04 million; Bukavu 832,000 (2015)
BUJUMBURA (capital) 751,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate693 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
712 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight23.4% (2014)
29.1% (2011)
Health expenditures4.3% of GDP (2014)
7.5% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density0.8 beds/1,000 population (2006)
1.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate3.7% (2014)
2.1% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 8,284,395
percentage: 42% (2010 est.)
total number: 433,187
percentage: 19% (2005 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013/14 est.)
21.3 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Demographic profileDespite a wealth of fertile soil, hydroelectric power potential, and mineral resources, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) struggles with many socioeconomic problems, including high infant and maternal mortality rates, malnutrition, poor vaccination coverage, lack of access to improved water sources and sanitation, and frequent and early fertility. Ongoing conflict, mismanagement of resources, and a lack of investment have resulted in food insecurity; almost 30 percent of children under the age of 5 are malnourished. The overall coverage of basic public services – education, health, sanitation, and potable water – is very limited and piecemeal, with substantial regional and rural/urban disparities. Fertility remains high at almost 5 children per woman and is likely to remain high because of the low use of contraception and the cultural preference for larger families.
The DRC is a source and host country for refugees. Between 2012 and 2014, more than 119,000 Congolese refugees returned from the Republic of Congo to the relative stability of northwest DRC, but more than 540,000 Congolese refugees remained abroad as of year-end 2015. In addition, more than 1.7 million Congolese are internally displaced, the vast majority fleeing violence in the DRC’s eastern provinces between rebel group and Congolese armed forces. Thousands of refugees have come to the DRC from neighboring countries, including Rwanda, the Central African Republic, and Burundi.
Burundi is a densely populated country with a high population growth rate, factors that combined with land scarcity and poverty place a large share of its population at risk of food insecurity. About 90% of the population relies on subsistence agriculture. Subdivision of land to sons, and redistribution to returning refugees, results in smaller, overworked, and less productive plots. Food shortages, poverty, and a lack of clean water contribute to a 60% chronic malnutrition rate among children. A lack of reproductive health services has prevented a significant reduction in Burundi’s maternal mortality and fertility rates, which are both among the world’s highest. With two-thirds of its population under the age of 25 and a birth rate of about 6 children per woman, Burundi’s population will continue to expand rapidly for decades to come, putting additional strain on a poor country.
Historically, migration flows into and out of Burundi have consisted overwhelmingly of refugees from violent conflicts. In the last decade, more than a half million Burundian refugees returned home from neighboring countries, mainly Tanzania. Reintegrating the returnees has been problematic due to their prolonged time in exile, land scarcity, poor infrastructure, poverty, and unemployment. Repatriates and existing residents (including internally displaced persons) compete for limited land and other resources. To further complicate matters, international aid organizations reduced their assistance because they no longer classified Burundi as a post-conflict country. Conditions have deteriorated since renewed violence erupted in April 2015, causing another outpouring of refugees. In addition to refugee out-migration, Burundi has hosted thousands of refugees from neighboring countries, mostly from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and lesser numbers from Rwanda.
Contraceptive prevalence rate20.4% (2013)
31.7% (2012)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 95.9
youth dependency ratio: 90.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5.8
potential support ratio: 17.2 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 89.7
youth dependency ratio: 85
elderly dependency ratio: 4.7
potential support ratio: 21.3 (2015 est.)

Government

Democratic Republic of the CongoBurundi
Country name"conventional long form: Democratic Republic of the Congo
conventional short form: DRC
local long form: Republique Democratique du Congo
local short form: RDC
former: Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville, Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire
abbreviation: DRC
etymology: named for the Congo River, most of which lies within the DRC; the river name derives from Kongo, a Bantu kingdom that occupied its mouth at the time of Portuguese discovery in the late 15th century and whose name stems from its people the Bakongo, meaning ""hunters""
"
conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
conventional short form: Burundi
local long form: Republique du Burundi/Republika y'u Burundi
local short form: Burundi
former: Urundi
etymology: name derived from the pre-colonial Kingdom of Burundi (17th-19th century)
Government typesemi-presidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Kinshasa
geographic coordinates: 4 19 S, 15 18 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Bujumbura
geographic coordinates: 3 22 S, 29 21 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions26 provinces (provinces, singular - province); Bas-Uele (Lower Uele), Equateur, Haut-Katanga (Upper Katanga), Haut-Lomami (Upper Lomami), Haut-Uele (Upper Uele), Ituri, Kasai, Kasai-Central, Kasai-Oriental (East Kasai), Kinshasa, Kongo Central, Kwango, Kwilu, Lomami, Lualaba, Mai-Ndombe, Maniema, Mongala, Nord-Kivu (North Kivu), Nord-Ubangi (North Ubangi), Sankuru, Sud-Kivu (South Kivu), Sud-Ubangi (South Ubangi), Tanganyika, Tshopo, Tshuapa
18 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura Mairie, Bujumbura Rural, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rumonge, Rutana, Ruyigi
Independence30 June 1960 (from Belgium)
1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
National holidayIndependence Day, 30 June (1960)
Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted 13 May 2005, approved by referendum 18-19 December 2005, promulgated 18 February 2006; amended 2011 (2016)
several previous; latest ratified by popular referendum 28 February 2005 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system primarily based on Belgian law, but also customary, and tribal law
mixed legal system of Belgian civil law and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Joseph KABILA (since 17 January 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Bruno TSHIBALA (since 7 April 2017); Deputy Prime Ministers Jose MAKILA, Leonard She OKITUNDU, Emmanuel RAMAZANI Shadary (since December 2016)
cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 November 2011 (next originally scheduled for 27 November 2016 but expected by end of 2017 per agreement between the government and opposition); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Joseph KABILA reelected president; percent of vote - Joseph KABILA (PPRD) 49%, Etienne TSHISEKEDI (UDPS) 32.3%, other 18.7%; note - election marred by serious voting irregularities
chief of state: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Gaston SINDIMWO (since 20 August 2015); Second Vice President Joseph BUTORE (since 20 August 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Gaston SINDIMWO (since 20 August 2015); Second Vice President Joseph BUTORE (since 20 August 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 July 2015(next to be held in 2020); vice presidents nominated by the president, endorsed by Parliament
election results: Pierre NKURUNZIZA reelected president; percent of vote - Pierre NKURUNZIZA (CNDD-FDD) 69.4%, Agathon RWASA (Independents of Hope) 19%, other 11.6%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate (108 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly (500 seats; 439 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 61 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 19 January 2007 (follow-on elections have been delayed); National Assembly - last held on 28 November 2011 (next originally scheduled for 27 November 2016, postponed until April 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPRD 22, MLC 14, FR 7, RCD 7, PDC 6, CDC 3, MSR 3, PALU 2, independent 26, other 18; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPRD 62, UDPS 41, PPPD 29, MSR 27, MLC 22, PALU 19, UNC 17, ARC 16, AFDC 15, ECT 11, RRC 11, independent 16, other 214 (includes numerous political parties that won 10 or fewer seats and 2 constituencies where voting was halted); note - the November 2011 election was marred by violence including the destruction of ballots in two constituencies resulting in the closure of polling sites; election results were delayed three months, strongly contested, and continue to be unresolved
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Inama Nkenguzamateka (43 seats in the July 2015 election; 36 members indirectly elected by an electoral college of provincial councils using a three-round voting system which requires a two-thirds majority vote in the first two rounds and a simple majority vote for the two leading candidates in the final round; 4 seats reserved for former heads of state, 3 seats reserved for Twas, and 8 seats for women; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly or Inama Nshingamateka (121 seats in the June 2015 election; 100 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 21 co-opted members – 3 Twas and 18 women; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 24 July 2015 (next to be held in 2019); National Assembly - last held on 29 June 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 33, FRODEBU 2, CNDD 1, and 4 seats reserved for heads of state, 3 seats for Twas, and 8 seats for women; National Assembly - percent of vote by party (preliminary results) - CNDD-FDD 60.3%, Independents of Hope 11.2%, UPRONA 2.5%, other 26%; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 77, Independents of Hope 21, UPRONA 2, seats for women 18, seats for Twas 3
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (consists of 26 justices and organized into legislative and judiciary sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges nominated by the Judicial Service Council, an independent body of public prosecutors and selected judges of the lower courts; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by the president, 3 by the Judicial Service Council, and 3 by the legislature; judges appointed by the president to serve 9-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: State Security Court; Court of Appeals (organized into administrative and judiciary sections); Tribunal de Grande; magistrates' courts; customary courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 9 judges and organized into judicial, administrative, and cassation chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial Service Commission, a 15-member independent body of judicial and legal profession officials), appointed by the president, and confirmed by the Senate; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate and serve 6-year nonrenewable terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; County Courts; Courts of Residence; Martial Court; Court Against Corruption; Commercial Court
Political parties and leadersChristian Democrat Party or PDC [Jose ENDUNDO]
Congolese Rally for Democracy or RCD [Azarias RUBERWA]
Convention of Christian Democrats or CDC
Forces of Renewal or FR [Mbusa NYAMWISI]
Movement for the Liberation of the Congo or MLC [Jean-Pierre BEMBA]
People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy or PPRD [Henri MOVA]
Social Movement for Renewal or MSR [Pierre LUMBI]
Unified Lumumbist Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA]
Union for the Congolese Nation or UNC [Vital KAMERHE]
Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Felix TSHISEKEDI]
Front for Democracy in Burundi or FRODEBU [Keffa NIBIZI]
Mouvement for Solidarity and Development or MSD [Alexis SINDUHUE]
National Council for the Defense of Democracy - Front for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD-FDD [Evariste NDAYISHIMIYE]
National Liberation Forces or FNL [Jacques BIGITIMANA]
Union for National Progress (Union pour le Progress Nationale) or UPRONA [Abel GASHATSI]
Political pressure groups and leadersAllied Democratic Forces or ADF (anti-Ugandan government rebel groups]
Forces Arm?es de la R?publique D?mocratique du Congo (Army of the Democratic Republic of the Congo) or FARDC
Forces Democratiques de Liberation du Rwanda or FDLR (Rwandan militia group made up of some of the perpetrators of Rwanda's genocide in 1994)
Le Rassemblement (established in 2016 as a coalition of members from several political parties)
Forum for the Strengthening of Civil Society or FORSC (civil society umbrella organization) [Vital NSHMIRIMANA]
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CEPGL, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CEPGL, CICA, COMESA, EAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Francois Nkuna BALUMUENE (since 23 September 2015)
chancery: 1726 M Street, NW, Suite 601, Washington, DC, 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 234-7690 through 7691
FAX: [1] (202) 234-2609
representative office: New York New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Ernest NDABASHINZE (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 408, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574
FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Robert WHITEHEAD (since January 2016)
embassy: 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa, Gombe
mailing address: Unit 2220, DPO AE 09828
telephone: [243] (081) 556-0151
FAX: [243] (081) 556-0175
chief of mission: Ambassador Anne S. CASPER (since 2016)
embassy: Avenue Des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
mailing address: B.P. 1720, Bujumbura
telephone: [257] 22-207-000
FAX: [257] 22-222-926
Flag descriptionsky blue field divided diagonally from the lower hoist corner to upper fly corner by a red stripe bordered by two narrow yellow stripes; a yellow, five-pointed star appears in the upper hoist corner; blue represents peace and hope, red the blood of the country's martyrs, and yellow the country's wealth and prosperity; the star symbolizes unity and the brilliant future for the country
divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and fly side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below); green symbolizes hope and optimism, white purity and peace, and red the blood shed in the struggle for independence; the three stars in the disk represent the three major ethnic groups: Hutu, Twa, Tutsi, as well as the three elements in the national motto: unity, work, progress
National anthem"name: ""Debout Congolaise"" (Arise Congolese)
lyrics/music: Joseph LUTUMBA/Simon-Pierre BOKA di Mpasi Londi
note: adopted 1960; replaced when the country was known as Zaire; but readopted in 1997
"
"name: ""Burundi Bwacu"" (Our Beloved Burundi)
lyrics/music: Jean-Baptiste NTAHOKAJA/Marc BARENGAYABO
note: adopted 1962
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)leopard; national colors: sky blue, red, yellow
lion; national colors: red, white, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Burundi
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

Democratic Republic of the CongoBurundi
Economy - overviewThe economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - a nation endowed with vast natural resource wealth - continues to struggle.

Systemic corruption since independence in 1960, combined with countrywide instability and conflict that began in the early-90s, has dramatically reduced national output and government revenue and increased external debt. With the installation of a transitional government in 2003 after peace accords, economic conditions slowly began to improve as the transitional government reopened relations with international financial institutions and international donors, and President KABILA began implementing reforms.

Renewed activity in the mining sector, the source of most export income, boosted Kinshasa's fiscal position and GDP growth, but low commodity prices are leading to slower growth, rising inflation, and a growing fiscal deficit. An uncertain legal framework, corruption, and a lack of transparency in government policy are long-term problems for the large mining sector and for the economy as a whole.

Much economic activity still occurs in the informal sector and is not reflected in GDP data. The DRC signed a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility with the IMF in 2009 and received $12 billion in multilateral and bilateral debt relief in 2010, but, at the end of 2012, the IMF suspended the last three payments under the loan facility - worth $240 million - because of concerns about the lack of transparency in mining contracts. In 2012, the DRC updated its business laws by adhering to OHADA, the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa. The price of copper – the DRC’s primary export - plummeted in 2015 and remained at record lows during 2016, reducing government revenues, expenditures, and foreign exchange reserves.
Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. Agriculture accounts for over 40% of GDP and employs more than 90% of the population. Burundi's primary exports are coffee and tea, which account for more than 60% of foreign exchange earnings. Thus, Burundi's export earnings - and its ability to pay for imports - rest primarily on weather conditions and international coffee and tea prices, although exports are a relatively small share of GDP. Burundi is heavily dependent on aid from bilateral and multilateral donors. Foreign aid represented 48% of Burundi's national income in 2015, one of the highest percentages in Sub-Saharan Africa, but decreased to 33.5% in 2016. Burundi joined the East African Community (EAC) in 2009.

The 1993-2005 civil war resulted in more than 200,000 deaths, forced more than 48,000 refugees into Tanzania, and displaced 140,000 others internally. Political stability, aid flows, and economic activity improved following the war’s end, but underlying weaknesses – low governmental capacity, a high poverty rate, poor educational levels, a weak legal system, a poor transportation network, and overburdened utilities – have prevented the implementation of planned economic reforms. Government corruption has also hindered the development of a private sector. The purchasing power of most Burundians has decreased as wage increases have not kept pace with inflation.

In 2015, Burundi’s economy suffered from political turmoil, including street protests and an attempted coup, following President NKURUNZIZA’s controversial announcement that he would run for a third term. Insecurity and refugee flows to neighboring countries slowed down economic activity and donors withdrew aid, increasing Burundi’s budget deficit and decreasing hard currency reserves. Real GDP growth dropped precipitously and has yet to recover to pre-conflict levels.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$65.04 billion (2016 est.)
$63.51 billion (2015 est.)
$59.4 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$7.892 billion (2016 est.)
$7.933 billion (2015 est.)
$8.259 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.4% (2016 est.)
6.9% (2015 est.)
9.5% (2014 est.)
-0.5% (2016 est.)
-4% (2015 est.)
4.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$800 (2016 est.)
$800 (2015 est.)
$700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$800 (2016 est.)
$800 (2015 est.)
$900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 20.1%
industry: 31.7%
services: 48.1% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 45.8%
industry: 17.1%
services: 37.1% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line63% (2012 est.)
64.6% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 34.7% (2006)
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 28% (2006)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.6% (2016 est.)
1.2% (2015 est.)
6.5% (2016 est.)
5.5% (2015 est.)
Labor force31.08 million (2016 est.)
5.255 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
agriculture: 93.6%
industry: 2.3%
services: 4.1% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rateNA%
NA%
Budgetrevenues: $5.448 billion
expenditures: $5.837 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $525.1 million
expenditures: $656.9 million (2016 est.)
Industriesmining (copper, cobalt, gold, diamonds, coltan, zinc, tin, tungsten), mineral processing, consumer products (textiles, plastics, footwear, cigarettes), metal products, processed foods and beverages, timber, cement, commercial ship repair
light consumer goods ( sugar, shoes, soap, beer); cement, assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing (fruits)
Industrial production growth rate1.2% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea, cotton, cocoa, quinine, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, plantains, peanuts, root crops, corn, fruits; wood products
coffee, cotton, tea, corn, beans, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, cassava (manioc, tapioca); beef, milk, hides
Exports$9.316 billion (2016 est.)
$10.35 billion (2015 est.)
$132.4 million (2016 est.)
$119.6 million (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesdiamonds, copper, gold, cobalt, wood products, crude oil, coffee
coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides
Exports - partnersChina 48%, Zambia 17.2%, South Korea 5.4%, Belgium 5.2% (2015)
Germany 12.9%, Pakistan 11.2%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 11.2%, Uganda 8.5%, Sweden 8.2%, US 7.5%, Belgium 6.6%, Rwanda 4.8%, France 4.6% (2015)
Imports$10.2 billion (2016 est.)
$10.46 billion (2015 est.)
$683.4 million (2016 est.)
$800.1 million (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfoodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment, fuels
capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersChina 22.2%, South Africa 16.1%, Zambia 8.3%, Belgium 7.5%, Zimbabwe 5.6%, India 5.1%, France 4.3% (2015)
Kenya 15%, Saudi Arabia 14%, Belgium 10%, Tanzania 8.4%, Uganda 7.4%, China 7.1%, India 4.9%, France 4% (2015)
Debt - external$5.331 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.106 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$705.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$684.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesCongolese francs (CDF) per US dollar -
971.6 (2016 est.)
925.99 (2015 est.)
925.99 (2014 est.)
925.23 (2013 est.)
920.25 (2012 est.)
Burundi francs (BIF) per US dollar -
1,665 (2016 est.)
1,571.9 (2015 est.)
1,571.9 (2014 est.)
1,546.7 (2013 est.)
1,442.51 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt18.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
43.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
39.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$774 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.216 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$100.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$136.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$1.83 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.504 billion (2015 est.)
-$536 million (2016 est.)
-$661 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$39.82 billion (2016 est.)
$2.742 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$NA
Central bank discount rate4% (31 December 2012)
20% (31 December 2011)
11.25% (31 December 2010)
10% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate19.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
19.37% (31 December 2015 est.)
13.9% (31 December 2016 est.)
15.3% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$3.701 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.381 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$809.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$851.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.212 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.213 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$364.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$397.7 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$5.018 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.402 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$523.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$571.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues13.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
19.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-4.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 73.6%
government consumption: 13.9%
investment in fixed capital: 21%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 23.7%
imports of goods and services: -32.3% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 92.4%
government consumption: 16.5%
investment in fixed capital: 24.3%
investment in inventories: -8.1%
exports of goods and services: 7.5%
imports of goods and services: -32.6% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving14.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
27.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
-0.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-4.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
-2.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

Democratic Republic of the CongoBurundi
Electricity - production8.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
300 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption9.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
400 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports69 million kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports1.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
100 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production20,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports20,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves180 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves991.1 million cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production8.495 million cu m (2011 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption8.495 million cu m (2011 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity2.6 million kW (2014 est.)
66,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels1.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
1.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants98.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
98.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption24,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
1,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports22,250 bbl/day (2013 est.)
1,636 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy1.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
300,000 Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 61,400,000
electrification - total population: 9%
electrification - urban areas: 19%
electrification - rural areas: 2% (2013)
population without electricity: 9,700,000
electrification - total population: 5%
electrification - urban areas: 28%
electrification - rural areas: 2% (2013)

Telecommunications

Democratic Republic of the CongoBurundi
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 59,534
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2012 est.)
total subscriptions: 21,774
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 37.753 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 48 (July 2015 est.)
total: 4.998 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations; inadequate fixed-line infrastructure
domestic: state-owned operator providing less than 1 fixed-line connection per 100 persons; given the backdrop of a wholly inadequate fixed-line infrastructure, the use of mobile-cellular services has surged and mobile teledensity is over 45 per 100 persons
international: country code - 243; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relays
domestic: telephone density one of the lowest in the world; fixed-line connections stand at well less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage has increased to roughly 45 per 100 persons
international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.cd
.bi
Internet userstotal: 3.016 million
percent of population: 3.8% (July 2015 est.)
total: 523,000
percent of population: 4.9% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-owned TV broadcast station with near national coverage; more than a dozen privately owned TV stations - 2 with near national coverage; 2 state-owned radio stations are supplemented by more than 100 private radio stations; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are available (2007)
state-controlled Radio Television Nationale de Burundi (RTNB) operates a TV station and a national radio network; 3 private TV stations and about 10 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available in Bujumbura (2017)

Transportation

Democratic Republic of the CongoBurundi
Roadwaystotal: 153,497 km
paved: 2,794 km
unpaved: 150,703 km (2004)
total: 12,322 km
paved: 1,500 km
unpaved: 10,822 km (2016)
Waterways15,000 km (including the Congo, its tributaries, and unconnected lakes) (2011)
(mainly on Lake Tanganyika between Bujumbura, Burundi's principal port, and lake ports in Tanzania, Zambia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2011)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Banana
river or lake port(s): Boma, Bumba, Kinshasa, Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka (Congo); Kindu (Lualaba); Bukavu, Goma (Lake Kivu); Kalemie (Lake Tanganyika)
lake port(s): Bujumbura (Lake Tanganyika)
Airports198 (2013)
7 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 26
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 172
1,524 to 2,437 m: 20
914 to 1,523 m: 87
under 914 m: 65 (2013)
total: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports1 (2013)
1 (2012)

Military

Democratic Republic of the CongoBurundi
Military branchesArmed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Forces d'Armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo, FARDC): Army, National Navy (La Marine Nationale), Congolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Congolaise, FAC) (2011)
National Defense Forces (Forces de Defense Nationale, FDN): Army (includes maritime wing, Air Wing), National Police (2017)
Military service age and obligation18-45 years of age for voluntary and compulsory military service (2012)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; the armed forces law of 31 December 2004 did not specify a minimum age for enlistment, but the government claimed that no one younger than 18 was being recruited; mandatory retirement ages: 45 (enlisted), 50 (NCOs), 55 (officers), and 60 (officers with the rank of general) (2017)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.39% of GDP (2015)
1.04% of GDP (2014)
1.25% of GDP (2013)
1.21% of GDP (2012)
1% of GDP (2011)
2.14% of GDP (2015)
2.01% of GDP (2014)
2.24% of GDP (2013)
2.39% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

Democratic Republic of the CongoBurundi
Disputes - internationalheads of the Great Lakes states and UN pledged in 2004 to abate tribal, rebel, and militia fighting in the region, including northeast Congo, where the UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC), organized in 1999, maintains over 16,500 uniformed peacekeepers; members of Uganda's Lords Resistance Army forces continue to seek refuge in Congo's Garamba National Park as peace talks with the Uganda Government evolve; the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River with the Republic of the Congo is indefinite except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area; Uganda and DRC dispute Rukwanzi Island in Lake Albert and other areas on the Semliki River with hydrocarbon potential; boundary commission continues discussions over Congolese-administered triangle of land on the right bank of the Lunkinda River claimed by Zambia near the DRC village of Pweto; DRC accuses Angola of shifting monuments
Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965; cross-border conflicts persist among Tutsi, Hutu, other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in the Great Lakes region
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 245,052 (Rwanda) (2016); 102,802 (Central African Republic); 79,495 (South Sudan); 39,919 (Burundi) (2017)
IDPs: 2.2 million (fighting between government forces and rebels since mid-1990s; most IDPs are in eastern provinces) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 61,427 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2017)
IDPs: 209,202 (some ethnic Tutsis remain displaced from intercommunal violence that broke out after the 1993 coup and fighting between government forces and rebel groups; violence since April 2015) (2017)
stateless persons: 974 (2016)
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: The Democratic Republic of the Congo is a source, destination, and possibly a transit country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the majority of this trafficking is internal, and much of it is perpetrated by armed groups and rogue government forces outside official control in the country's unstable eastern provinces; Congolese adults are subjected to forced labor, including debt bondage, in unlicensed mines, and women may be forced into prostitution; Congolese women and girls are subjected to forced marriages where they are vulnerable to domestic servitude or sex trafficking, while children are forced to work in agriculture, mining, mineral smuggling, vending, portering, and begging; Congolese women and children migrate to countries in Africa, the Middle East, and Europe where some are subjected to forced prostitution, domestic servitude, and forced labor in agriculture and diamond mining; indigenous and foreign armed groups, including the Lord’s Resistance Army, abduct and forcibly recruit Congolese adults and children to serve as laborers, porters, domestics, combatants, and sex slaves; some elements of the Congolese national army (FARDC) also forced adults to carry supplies, equipment, and looted goods, but no cases of the FARDC recruiting child soldiers were reported in 2014 – a significant change
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - The Democratic Republic of the Congo does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government took significant steps to hold military and police officials complicit in human trafficking accountable with convictions for sex slavery and arrests of armed group commanders for the recruitment and use of child soldiers; the government appears to have ceased the recruitment of child soldiers through the implementation of a UN-backed action plan; little effort was made to address labor and sex trafficking crimes committed by persons other than officials, or to identify the victims, or to provide or refer the victims to care services; awareness of various forms of trafficking is limited among law enforcement personnel and training and resources are inadequate to conduct investigations (2015)
current situation: Burundi is a source country for children and possibly women subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; business people recruit Burundian girls for prostitution domestically, as well as in Rwanda, Kenya, Uganda, and the Middle East, and recruit boys and girls for forced labor in Burundi and Tanzania; children and young adults are coerced into forced labor in farming, mining, informal commerce, fishing, or collecting river stones for construction; sometimes family, friends, and neighbors are complicit in exploiting children, at times luring them in with offers of educational or job opportunities
tier rating: Tier 3 – Burundi does not comply fully with the minimum standards for the elimination of human trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; corruption, a lack of political will, and limited resources continue to hamper efforts to combat human trafficking; in 2014, the government did not inform judicial and law enforcement officials of the enactment of an anti-trafficking law or how to implement it and approved – but did not fund – its national anti-trafficking action plan; authorities again failed to identify trafficking victims or to provide them with adequate protective services; the government has focused on transnational child trafficking but gave little attention to its domestic child trafficking problem and adult trafficking victims (2015)

Source: CIA Factbook