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Democratic Republic of the Congo vs. Angola

Introduction

Democratic Republic of the CongoAngola
BackgroundEstablished as an official Belgian colony in 1908, the then-Republic of the Congo gained its independence in 1960, but its early years were marred by political and social instability. Col. Joseph MOBUTU seized power and declared himself president in a November 1965 coup. He subsequently changed his name - to MOBUTU Sese Seko - as well as that of the country - to Zaire. MOBUTU retained his position for 32 years through several sham elections, as well as through brutal force. Ethnic strife and civil war, touched off by a massive inflow of refugees in 1994 from fighting in Rwanda and Burundi, led in May 1997 to the toppling of the MOBUTU regime by a rebellion backed by Rwanda and Uganda and fronted by Laurent KABILA. KABILA renamed the country the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but in August 1998 his regime was itself challenged by a second insurrection again backed by Rwanda and Uganda. Troops from Angola, Chad, Namibia, Sudan, and Zimbabwe intervened to support KABILA's regime. In January 2001, KABILA was assassinated and his son, Joseph KABILA, was named head of state. In October 2002, the new president was successful in negotiating the withdrawal of Rwandan forces occupying the eastern DRC; two months later, the Pretoria Accord was signed by all remaining warring parties to end the fighting and establish a government of national unity. A transitional government was set up in July 2003; it held a successful constitutional referendum in December 2005 and elections for the presidency, National Assembly, and provincial legislatures took place in 2006.
In 2009, following a resurgence of conflict in the eastern DRC, the government signed a peace agreement with the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP), a primarily Tutsi rebel group. An attempt to integrate CNDP members into the Congolese military failed, prompting their defection in 2012 and the formation of the M23 armed group - named after the 23 March 2009 peace agreements. Renewed conflict led to large population displacements and significant human rights abuses before the M23 was pushed out of DRC to Uganda and Rwanda in late 2013 by a joint DRC and UN offensive. In addition, the DRC continues to experience violence committed by other armed groups including the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda, the Allied Democratic Forces, and assorted Mai Mai militias. In the most recent national elections, held in November 2011, disputed results allowed Joseph KABILA to be reelected to the presidency. The DRC Constitution bars President KABILA from running for a third term, but the DRC Government has delayed national elections originally slated for November 2016. The failure to hold elections as scheduled has fueled sporadic street protests by KABILA’s opponents. In late December 2016, government officials and opposition leaders struck a last-minute deal that will require KABILA to step down after elections to be held by the end of 2017.
Angola scores low on human development indexes despite using its large oil reserves to rebuild since the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again in 1993. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - during the more than a quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and cemented the MPLA's hold on power. President DOS SANTOS pushed through a new constitution in 2010 and was elected to a five year term as president in 2012.

Geography

Democratic Republic of the CongoAngola
LocationCentral Africa, northeast of Angola
Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates0 00 N, 25 00 E
12 30 S, 18 30 E
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 2,344,858 sq km
land: 2,267,048 sq km
water: 77,810 sq km
total: 1,246,700 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than one-fourth the size of the US
about eight times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 10,481 km
border countries (9): Angola 2,646 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of Angola's discontiguous Cabinda Province), Burundi 236 km, Central African Republic 1,747 km, Republic of the Congo 1,229 km, Rwanda 221 km, South Sudan 714 km, Tanzania 479 km, Uganda 877 km, Zambia 2,332 km
total: 5,369 km
border countries (4): Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,646 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 231 km, Namibia 1,427 km, Zambia 1,065 km
Coastline37 km
1,600 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: since 2011 the DRC has a Common Interest Zone agreement with Angola for the mutual development of off-shore resources
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatetropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season (April to October), dry season (December to February); south of Equator - wet season (November to March), dry season (April to October)
semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terrainvast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east
narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 726 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pic Marguerite on Mont Ngaliema (Mount Stanley) 5,110 m
mean elevation: 1,112 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Moca 2,620 m
Natural resourcescobalt, copper, niobium, tantalum, petroleum, industrial and gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, uranium, coal, hydropower, timber
petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Land useagricultural land: 11.4%
arable land 3.1%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 8%
forest: 67.9%
other: 20.7% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 47.3%
arable land 3.8%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 43.3%
forest: 46.8%
other: 5.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land110 sq km (2012)
860 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsperiodic droughts in south; Congo River floods (seasonal); active volcanoes in the east along the Great Rift Valley
volcanism: Nyiragongo (elev. 3,470 m), which erupted in 2002 and is experiencing ongoing activity, poses a major threat to the city of Goma, home to a quarter million people; the volcano produces unusually fast-moving lava, known to travel up to 100 km /hr; Nyiragongo has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; its neighbor, Nyamuragira, which erupted in 2010, is Africa's most active volcano; Visoke is the only other historically active volcano
locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Environment - current issuespoaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; deforestation; soil erosion; mining (diamonds, gold, coltan - a mineral used in creating capacitors for electronic devices) causing environmental damage
overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notesecond largest country in Africa (after Algeria) and largest country in Sub-Saharan Africa; straddles the equator; has narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo River and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean; dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands
the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Demographics

Democratic Republic of the CongoAngola
Population81,331,050
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
20,172,332
note: results from Angola's 2014 national census estimate the country's population to be 25.8 million (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 42.2% (male 17,300,707/female 17,024,082)
15-24 years: 21.44% (male 8,747,038/female 8,694,000)
25-54 years: 30.13% (male 12,227,971/female 12,273,304)
55-64 years: 3.58% (male 1,374,050/female 1,535,973)
65 years and over: 2.65% (male 910,456/female 1,243,469) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 42.72% (male 4,394,206/female 4,223,246)
15-24 years: 20.72% (male 2,127,140/female 2,053,363)
25-54 years: 29.6% (male 3,013,561/female 2,956,547)
55-64 years: 3.97% (male 388,314/female 413,347)
65 years and over: 2.99% (male 278,853/female 323,755) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.4 years
male: 18.1 years
female: 18.6 years (2016 est.)
total: 18.2 years
male: 18 years
female: 18.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate2.42% (2016 est.)
2.72% (2016 est.)
Birth rate34.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
38.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
11.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 69.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 73.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 66.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 76.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 80.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 72.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 57.3 years
male: 55.8 years
female: 58.9 years (2016 est.)
total population: 56 years
male: 54.8 years
female: 57.2 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate4.53 children born/woman (2016 est.)
5.31 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.85% (2015 est.)
2.17% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Congolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Congolese or Congo
noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan
Ethnic groupsover 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority are Bantu; the four largest tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population
Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS374,100 (2015 est.)
315,400 (2015 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%, other (includes syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs) 10%
Roman Catholic 41.1%, Protestant 38.1%, other 8.6%, none 12.3% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths21,700 (2015 est.)
11,900 (2015 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba
Portuguese 71.2% (official), Umbundu 23%, Kikongo 8.2%, Kimbundu 7.8%, Chokwe 6.5%, Nhaneca 3.4%, Nganguela 3.1%, Fiote 2.4%, Kwanhama 2.3%, Muhumbi 2.1%, Luvale 1%, other 3.6%
note: most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2014 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write French, Lingala, Kingwana, or Tshiluba
total population: 63.8%
male: 78.1%
female: 50% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.1%
male: 82%
female: 60.7% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and trypanosomiasis-gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2013)
total: 10 years
male: 13 years
female: 8 years (2011)
Education expenditures2.2% of GDP (2013)
3.5% of GDP (2010)
Urbanizationurban population: 42.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.96% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 44% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 81.1% of population
rural: 31.2% of population
total: 52.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 18.9% of population
rural: 68.8% of population
total: 47.6% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 75.4% of population
rural: 28.2% of population
total: 49% of population
unimproved:
urban: 24.6% of population
rural: 71.8% of population
total: 51% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 28.5% of population
rural: 28.7% of population
total: 28.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 71.5% of population
rural: 71.3% of population
total: 71.3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 88.6% of population
rural: 22.5% of population
total: 51.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 11.4% of population
rural: 77.5% of population
total: 48.4% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationKINSHASA (capital) 11.587 million; Lubumbashi 2.015 million; Mbuji-Mayi 2.007 million; Kananga 1.169 million; Kisangani 1.04 million; Bukavu 832,000 (2015)
LUANDA (capital) 5.506 million; Huambo 1.269 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate693 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
477 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight23.4% (2014)
15.6% (2007)
Health expenditures4.3% of GDP (2014)
3.3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density9 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate3.7% (2014)
8.5% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 8,284,395
percentage: 42% (2010 est.)
total number: 832,895
percentage: 24% (2001 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.9 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013/14 est.)
19.4 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Demographic profileDespite a wealth of fertile soil, hydroelectric power potential, and mineral resources, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) struggles with many socioeconomic problems, including high infant and maternal mortality rates, malnutrition, poor vaccination coverage, lack of access to improved water sources and sanitation, and frequent and early fertility. Ongoing conflict, mismanagement of resources, and a lack of investment have resulted in food insecurity; almost 30 percent of children under the age of 5 are malnourished. The overall coverage of basic public services – education, health, sanitation, and potable water – is very limited and piecemeal, with substantial regional and rural/urban disparities. Fertility remains high at almost 5 children per woman and is likely to remain high because of the low use of contraception and the cultural preference for larger families.
The DRC is a source and host country for refugees. Between 2012 and 2014, more than 119,000 Congolese refugees returned from the Republic of Congo to the relative stability of northwest DRC, but more than 540,000 Congolese refugees remained abroad as of year-end 2015. In addition, more than 1.7 million Congolese are internally displaced, the vast majority fleeing violence in the DRC’s eastern provinces between rebel group and Congolese armed forces. Thousands of refugees have come to the DRC from neighboring countries, including Rwanda, the Central African Republic, and Burundi.
More than a decade after the end of Angola’s 27-year civil war, the country still faces a variety of socioeconomic problems, including poverty, high maternal and child mortality, and illiteracy. Despite the country’s rapid post-war economic growth based on oil production, more than 40 percent of Angolans live below the poverty line and unemployment is widespread, especially among the large young-adult population. Only about 70% of the population is literate, and the rate drops to around 60% for women. The youthful population – about 45% are under the age of 15 – is expected to continue growing rapidly with a fertility rate of more 5 children per woman and a low rate of contraceptive use. Fewer than half of women deliver their babies with the assistance of trained health care personnel, which contributes to Angola’s high maternal mortality rate.
Of the estimated 550,000 Angolans who fled their homeland during its civil war, most have returned home since 2002. In 2012, the UN assessed that conditions in Angola had been stable for several years and invoked a cessation of refugee status for Angolans. Following the cessation clause, some of those still in exile returned home voluntarily through UN repatriation programs, and others integrated into host countries. As of August 2014, about 73,000 Angolans were still living in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia, Namibia, the Republic of the Congo, and other countries.
Contraceptive prevalence rate20.4% (2013)
17.7% (2008/09)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 95.9
youth dependency ratio: 90.1
elderly dependency ratio: 5.8
potential support ratio: 17.2 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 99.9
youth dependency ratio: 95.2
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6
potential support ratio: 21.6 (2015 est.)

Government

Democratic Republic of the CongoAngola
Country name"conventional long form: Democratic Republic of the Congo
conventional short form: DRC
local long form: Republique Democratique du Congo
local short form: RDC
former: Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville, Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire
abbreviation: DRC
etymology: named for the Congo River, most of which lies within the DRC; the river name derives from Kongo, a Bantu kingdom that occupied its mouth at the time of Portuguese discovery in the late 15th century and whose name stems from its people the Bakongo, meaning ""hunters""
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola
etymology: name derived by the Portuguese from the title ""ngola"" held by kings of the Ndongo (Ndongo was a kingdom in what is now northern Angola)
"
Government typesemi-presidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Kinshasa
geographic coordinates: 4 19 S, 15 18 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Luanda
geographic coordinates: 8 50 S, 13 13 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions26 provinces (provinces, singular - province); Bas-Uele (Lower Uele), Equateur, Haut-Katanga (Upper Katanga), Haut-Lomami (Upper Lomami), Haut-Uele (Upper Uele), Ituri, Kasai, Kasai-Central, Kasai-Oriental (East Kasai), Kinshasa, Kongo Central, Kwango, Kwilu, Lomami, Lualaba, Mai-Ndombe, Maniema, Mongala, Nord-Kivu (North Kivu), Nord-Ubangi (North Ubangi), Sankuru, Sud-Kivu (South Kivu), Sud-Ubangi (South Ubangi), Tanganyika, Tshopo, Tshuapa
18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Kwando Kubango, Kwanza Norte, Kwanza Sul, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Independence30 June 1960 (from Belgium)
11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
National holidayIndependence Day, 30 June (1960)
Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted 13 May 2005, approved by referendum 18-19 December 2005, promulgated 18 February 2006; amended 2011 (2016)
previous 1975, 1992; latest passed by National Assembly 21 January 2010, adopted 5 February 2010 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system primarily based on Belgian law, but also customary, and tribal law
civil legal system based on Portuguese civil law; no judicial review of legislation
Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Joseph KABILA (since 17 January 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Bruno TSHIBALA (since 7 April 2017); Deputy Prime Ministers Jose MAKILA, Leonard She OKITUNDU, Emmanuel RAMAZANI Shadary (since December 2016)
cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 November 2011 (next originally scheduled for 27 November 2016 but expected by end of 2017 per agreement between the government and opposition); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Joseph KABILA reelected president; percent of vote - Joseph KABILA (PPRD) 49%, Etienne TSHISEKEDI (UDPS) 32.3%, other 18.7%; note - election marred by serious voting irregularities
chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Vice President Manuel Domingos VICENTE (since 26 September 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Vice President Manuel Domingos VICENTE (since 26 September 2012)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term); note - according to the 2010 constitution, ballots are cast for parties rather than candidates, and the leader of the winning party becomes president
election results: NA; as leader of the MPLA, Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS elected president following legislative elections on 31 August 2012, inaugurated on 26 September 2012 to serve the first of a possible two terms under the 2010 constitution
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate (108 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly (500 seats; 439 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 61 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 19 January 2007 (follow-on elections have been delayed); National Assembly - last held on 28 November 2011 (next originally scheduled for 27 November 2016, postponed until April 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPRD 22, MLC 14, FR 7, RCD 7, PDC 6, CDC 3, MSR 3, PALU 2, independent 26, other 18; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPRD 62, UDPS 41, PPPD 29, MSR 27, MLC 22, PALU 19, UNC 17, ARC 16, AFDC 15, ECT 11, RRC 11, independent 16, other 214 (includes numerous political parties that won 10 or fewer seats and 2 constituencies where voting was halted); note - the November 2011 election was marred by violence including the destruction of ballots in two constituencies resulting in the closure of polling sites; election results were delayed three months, strongly contested, and continue to be unresolved
description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members directly elected in a single national constituency and in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 31 August 2012 (next to be held on 23 August 2017)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 71.8%, UNITA 18.7%, CASA-CE 6.0%, PRS 1.7%, FNLA 1.1%, other 0.7%; seats by party - MPLA 175, UNITA 32, CASA-CE 8, PRS 3, FNLA 2
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (consists of 26 justices and organized into legislative and judiciary sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges nominated by the Judicial Service Council, an independent body of public prosecutors and selected judges of the lower courts; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by the president, 3 by the Judicial Service Council, and 3 by the legislature; judges appointed by the president to serve 9-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: State Security Court; Court of Appeals (organized into administrative and judiciary sections); Tribunal de Grande; magistrates' courts; customary courts
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of the court president, vice president, and a minimum of 16 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 11 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council, an 18-member body chaired by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 4 nominated by the president, 4 elected by National Assembly, 2 elected by Supreme National Council, 1 elected by competitive submission of curricula; judges serve single 7-year terms
subordinate courts: provincial and municipal courts
Political parties and leadersChristian Democrat Party or PDC [Jose ENDUNDO]
Congolese Rally for Democracy or RCD [Azarias RUBERWA]
Convention of Christian Democrats or CDC
Forces of Renewal or FR [Mbusa NYAMWISI]
Movement for the Liberation of the Congo or MLC [Jean-Pierre BEMBA]
People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy or PPRD [Henri MOVA]
Social Movement for Renewal or MSR [Pierre LUMBI]
Unified Lumumbist Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA]
Union for the Congolese Nation or UNC [Vital KAMERHE]
Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Felix TSHISEKEDI]
Broad Convergence for the Salvation of Angola Electoral Coalition or CASA-CE [Abel CHIVUKUVUKU]
National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA; note - there are two factions of the party; one is led by Lucas NGONDA; the other is led by Ngola KABANGU
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest opposition party)
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] (ruling party in power since 1975)
Social Renewal Party or PRS [Eduardo KUANGANA]
Political pressure groups and leadersAllied Democratic Forces or ADF (anti-Ugandan government rebel groups]
Forces Arm?es de la R?publique D?mocratique du Congo (Army of the Democratic Republic of the Congo) or FARDC
Forces Democratiques de Liberation du Rwanda or FDLR (Rwandan militia group made up of some of the perpetrators of Rwanda's genocide in 1994)
Le Rassemblement (established in 2016 as a coalition of members from several political parties)
Angolan Revolutionary Movement or ARM
Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO]
note: FLEC's small-scale armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province persists despite the signing of a peace accord with the government in August 2006; several factions of FLEC have broken off over the past 30 years, including the FLEC-PM [Rodrigues MINGAS], which was responsible for a deadly attack on the Togolese soccer team in 2010
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CEPGL, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OPEC, SADC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Francois Nkuna BALUMUENE (since 23 September 2015)
chancery: 1726 M Street, NW, Suite 601, Washington, DC, 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 234-7690 through 7691
FAX: [1] (202) 234-2609
representative office: New York New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Agostinho Tavares da Silva NETO (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2100-2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
FAX: [1] (202) 822-9049
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Robert WHITEHEAD (since January 2016)
embassy: 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa, Gombe
mailing address: Unit 2220, DPO AE 09828
telephone: [243] (081) 556-0151
FAX: [243] (081) 556-0175
chief of mission: Ambassador Helen Meagher LA LIME (15 May 2014)
embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda, C.P. 6468
mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: US Embassy Luanda, US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550
telephone: [244] 946440977
FAX: [244] (222) 64-1000
Flag descriptionsky blue field divided diagonally from the lower hoist corner to upper fly corner by a red stripe bordered by two narrow yellow stripes; a yellow, five-pointed star appears in the upper hoist corner; blue represents peace and hope, red the blood of the country's martyrs, and yellow the country's wealth and prosperity; the star symbolizes unity and the brilliant future for the country
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle); red represents liberty, black the African continent, the symbols characterize workers and peasants
National anthem"name: ""Debout Congolaise"" (Arise Congolese)
lyrics/music: Joseph LUTUMBA/Simon-Pierre BOKA di Mpasi Londi
note: adopted 1960; replaced when the country was known as Zaire; but readopted in 1997
"
"name: ""Angola Avante"" (Forward Angola)
lyrics/music: Manuel Rui Alves MONTEIRO/Rui Alberto Vieira Dias MINGAO
note: adopted 1975
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)leopard; national colors: sky blue, red, yellow
Palanca Negra Gigante (giant black sable antelope); national colors: red, black, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Angola
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

Democratic Republic of the CongoAngola
Economy - overviewThe economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - a nation endowed with vast natural resource wealth - continues to struggle.

Systemic corruption since independence in 1960, combined with countrywide instability and conflict that began in the early-90s, has dramatically reduced national output and government revenue and increased external debt. With the installation of a transitional government in 2003 after peace accords, economic conditions slowly began to improve as the transitional government reopened relations with international financial institutions and international donors, and President KABILA began implementing reforms.

Renewed activity in the mining sector, the source of most export income, boosted Kinshasa's fiscal position and GDP growth, but low commodity prices are leading to slower growth, rising inflation, and a growing fiscal deficit. An uncertain legal framework, corruption, and a lack of transparency in government policy are long-term problems for the large mining sector and for the economy as a whole.

Much economic activity still occurs in the informal sector and is not reflected in GDP data. The DRC signed a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility with the IMF in 2009 and received $12 billion in multilateral and bilateral debt relief in 2010, but, at the end of 2012, the IMF suspended the last three payments under the loan facility - worth $240 million - because of concerns about the lack of transparency in mining contracts. In 2012, the DRC updated its business laws by adhering to OHADA, the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa. The price of copper – the DRC’s primary export - plummeted in 2015 and remained at record lows during 2016, reducing government revenues, expenditures, and foreign exchange reserves.
Angola's economy is overwhelmingly driven by its oil sector. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 50% of GDP, more than 70% of government revenue, and more than 90% of the country's exports. Diamonds contribute an additional 5% to exports. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food is still imported.

Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 17% per year from 2004 to 2008. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons has led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Some of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war. However, the government since 2005 has used billions of dollars in credit from China, Brazil, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and the EU to help rebuild Angola's public infrastructure. Land mines left from the war still mar the countryside, and as a result, the national military, international partners, and private Angolan firms all continue to remove them.

The global recession that started in 2008 stalled Angola’s economic growth. In particular, lower prices for oil and diamonds during the recession slowed GDP growth to 2.4% in 2009, and many construction projects stopped because Luanda accrued $9 billion in arrears to foreign construction companies when government revenue fell. Angola formally abandoned its currency peg in 2009, and in November 2009 signed onto an IMF Stand-By Arrangement loan of $1.4 billion to rebuild international reserves. Consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to less than 9% in 2014, before rising again in 2015-16.

Falling oil prices, the depreciation of the kwanza, and slower than expected growth in non-oil GDP have reduced growth prospects. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, is a major long-term challenge that poses an additional threat to the economy. Government spending in the run-up to the 2017 elections is likely to strain Luanda’s budget.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$65.04 billion (2016 est.)
$63.51 billion (2015 est.)
$59.4 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$189 billion (2016 est.)
$187.3 billion (2015 est.)
$181.8 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate2.4% (2016 est.)
6.9% (2015 est.)
9.5% (2014 est.)
0.9% (2016 est.)
3% (2015 est.)
4.8% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$800 (2016 est.)
$800 (2015 est.)
$700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$6,800 (2016 est.)
$7,000 (2015 est.)
$7,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 20.1%
industry: 31.7%
services: 48.1% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 10.2%
industry: 61.4%
services: 28.4% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line63% (2012 est.)
40.5% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 34.7% (2006)
lowest 10%: 0.6%
highest 10%: 44.7% (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.6% (2016 est.)
1.2% (2015 est.)
26.9% (2016 est.)
10.3% (2015 est.)
Labor force31.08 million (2016 est.)
10.85 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
agriculture: 85%
industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rateNA%
NA%
Budgetrevenues: $5.448 billion
expenditures: $5.837 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $27.27 billion
expenditures: $33.5 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesmining (copper, cobalt, gold, diamonds, coltan, zinc, tin, tungsten), mineral processing, consumer products (textiles, plastics, footwear, cigarettes), metal products, processed foods and beverages, timber, cement, commercial ship repair
petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair
Industrial production growth rate1.2% (2016 est.)
0.9% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea, cotton, cocoa, quinine, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, plantains, peanuts, root crops, corn, fruits; wood products
bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, cassava (manioc, tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
Exports$9.316 billion (2016 est.)
$10.35 billion (2015 est.)
$30.04 billion (2016 est.)
$35.55 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiesdiamonds, copper, gold, cobalt, wood products, crude oil, coffee
crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Exports - partnersChina 48%, Zambia 17.2%, South Korea 5.4%, Belgium 5.2% (2015)
China 44.5%, India 8.9%, US 7.8%, Spain 6.3%, France 4.5%, South Africa 4.2% (2015)
Imports$10.2 billion (2016 est.)
$10.46 billion (2015 est.)
$19.67 billion (2016 est.)
$21.15 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfoodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment, fuels
machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Imports - partnersChina 22.2%, South Africa 16.1%, Zambia 8.3%, Belgium 7.5%, Zimbabwe 5.6%, India 5.1%, France 4.3% (2015)
China 22.4%, Portugal 14%, South Korea 11.2%, US 7%, UK 4.2%, France 4.1%, South Africa 4.1% (2015)
Debt - external$5.331 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.106 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$37.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$33.83 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesCongolese francs (CDF) per US dollar -
971.6 (2016 est.)
925.99 (2015 est.)
925.99 (2014 est.)
925.23 (2013 est.)
920.25 (2012 est.)
kwanza (AOA) per US dollar -
172 (2016 est.)
120.061 (2015 est.)
120.061 (2014 est.)
98.303 (2013 est.)
95.47 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt18.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
57.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
57.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$774 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.216 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$20.43 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$24.08 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$1.83 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.504 billion (2015 est.)
-$4.166 billion (2016 est.)
-$10.27 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$39.82 billion (2016 est.)
$91.94 billion (2016 est.)
Central bank discount rate4% (31 December 2012)
20% (31 December 2011)
9% (31 December 2014)
25% (31 December 2010)
Commercial bank prime lending rate19.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
19.37% (31 December 2015 est.)
30% (31 December 2016 est.)
16.88% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$3.701 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.381 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$12.52 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.18 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$1.212 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.213 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$24.57 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$25.27 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$5.018 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.402 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$38.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$42.15 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues13.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
29.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1% of GDP (2016 est.)
-6.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 73.6%
government consumption: 13.9%
investment in fixed capital: 21%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 23.7%
imports of goods and services: -32.3% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 72.5%
government consumption: 18.1%
investment in fixed capital: 10.3%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 35.3%
imports of goods and services: -36.2% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving14.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
27.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
4.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
0.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
12.4% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

Democratic Republic of the CongoAngola
Electricity - production8.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
9.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption9.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
8.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports69 million kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports1.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Oil - production20,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
1.842 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports20,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
1.745 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves180 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
8.4 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves991.1 million cu m (1 January 2016 es)
308 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production8.495 million cu m (2011 est.)
731 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption8.495 million cu m (2011 est.)
231 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
500 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity2.6 million kW (2014 est.)
1.7 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels1.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
50.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants98.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
49.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
46,050 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption24,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
132,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
33,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports22,250 bbl/day (2013 est.)
97,760 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy1.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
33 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 61,400,000
electrification - total population: 9%
electrification - urban areas: 19%
electrification - rural areas: 2% (2013)
population without electricity: 15,000,000
electrification - total population: 30%
electrification - urban areas: 46%
electrification - rural areas: 18% (2013)

Telecommunications

Democratic Republic of the CongoAngola
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 59,534
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2012 est.)
total subscriptions: 284,925
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 37.753 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 48 (July 2015 est.)
total: 13.885 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 71 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations; inadequate fixed-line infrastructure
domestic: state-owned operator providing less than 1 fixed-line connection per 100 persons; given the backdrop of a wholly inadequate fixed-line infrastructure, the use of mobile-cellular services has surged and mobile teledensity is over 45 per 100 persons
international: country code - 243; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
general assessment: limited system; state-owned telecom had monopoly for fixed lines until 2005; demand outstripped capacity, prices were high, and services poor; Telecom Namibia, through an Angolan company, became the first private licensed operator in Angola's fixed-line telephone network; by 2010, the number of fixed-line providers had expanded to 5; Angola Telecom established mobile-cellular service in Luanda in 1993 and the network has been extended to larger towns; a privately owned, mobile-cellular service provider began operations in 2001
domestic: only about one fixed line per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 71 telephones per 100 persons in 2015
international: country code - 244; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29 (2015)
Internet country code.cd
.ao
Internet userstotal: 3.016 million
percent of population: 3.8% (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.434 million
percent of population: 12.4% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-owned TV broadcast station with near national coverage; more than a dozen privately owned TV stations - 2 with near national coverage; 2 state-owned radio stations are supplemented by more than 100 private radio stations; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are available (2007)
state controls all broadcast media with nationwide reach; state-owned Televisao Popular de Angola (TPA) provides terrestrial TV service on 2 channels; a third TPA channel is available via cable and satellite; TV subscription services are available; state-owned Radio Nacional de Angola (RNA) broadcasts on 5 stations; about a half-dozen private radio stations broadcast locally (2009)

Transportation

Democratic Republic of the CongoAngola
Railwaystotal: 4,007 km
narrow gauge: 3,882 km 1.067-m gauge (858 km electrified); 125 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
total: 2,852 km
narrow gauge: 2,729 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 153,497 km
paved: 2,794 km
unpaved: 150,703 km (2004)
total: 51,429 km
paved: 5,349 km
unpaved: 46,080 km (2001)
Waterways15,000 km (including the Congo, its tributaries, and unconnected lakes) (2011)
1,300 km (2011)
Pipelinesgas 62 km; oil 77 km; refined products 756 km (2013)
gas 352 km; liquid petroleum gas 85 km; oil 1,065 km; oil/gas/water 5 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Banana
river or lake port(s): Boma, Bumba, Kinshasa, Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka (Congo); Kindu (Lualaba); Bukavu, Goma (Lake Kivu); Kalemie (Lake Tanganyika)
major seaport(s): Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Namibe
LNG terminal(s) (export): Angola Soyo
Merchant marinetotal: 1
by type: petroleum tanker 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Republic of the Congo 1) (2010)
total: 7
by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Spain 1)
registered in other countries: 17 (Bahamas 6, Curacao 2, Cyprus 1, Liberia 1, Malta 7) (2010)
Airports198 (2013)
176 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 26
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
total: 31
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 172
1,524 to 2,437 m: 20
914 to 1,523 m: 87
under 914 m: 65 (2013)
total: 145
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
914 to 1,523 m: 66
under 914 m: 43 (2013)
Heliports1 (2013)
1 (2013)

Military

Democratic Republic of the CongoAngola
Military branchesArmed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Forces d'Armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo, FARDC): Army, National Navy (La Marine Nationale), Congolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Congolaise, FAC) (2011)
Angolan Armed Forces (Forcas Armadas Angolanas, FAA): Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra Angola, MGA), Angolan National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional Angolana, FANA; under operational control of the Army) (2012)
Military service age and obligation18-45 years of age for voluntary and compulsory military service (2012)
20-45 years of age for compulsory male and 18-45 years for voluntary male military service (registration at age 18 is mandatory); 20-45 years of age for voluntary female service; 2-year conscript service obligation; Angolan citizenship required; the Navy (MGA) is entirely staffed with volunteers (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.39% of GDP (2015)
1.04% of GDP (2014)
1.25% of GDP (2013)
1.21% of GDP (2012)
1% of GDP (2011)
3.52% of GDP (2015)
5.4% of GDP (2014)
4.88% of GDP (2013)
3.59% of GDP (2012)
3.5% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Democratic Republic of the CongoAngola
Disputes - internationalheads of the Great Lakes states and UN pledged in 2004 to abate tribal, rebel, and militia fighting in the region, including northeast Congo, where the UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC), organized in 1999, maintains over 16,500 uniformed peacekeepers; members of Uganda's Lords Resistance Army forces continue to seek refuge in Congo's Garamba National Park as peace talks with the Uganda Government evolve; the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River with the Republic of the Congo is indefinite except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area; Uganda and DRC dispute Rukwanzi Island in Lake Albert and other areas on the Semliki River with hydrocarbon potential; boundary commission continues discussions over Congolese-administered triangle of land on the right bank of the Lunkinda River claimed by Zambia near the DRC village of Pweto; DRC accuses Angola of shifting monuments
Democratic Republic of Congo accuses Angola of shifting monuments
Illicit drugsone of Africa's biggest producers of cannabis, but mostly for domestic consumption; traffickers exploit lax shipping controls to transit pseudoephedrine through the capital; while rampant corruption and inadequate supervision leave the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center (2008)
used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states, particularly South Africa
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 245,052 (Rwanda) (2016); 102,802 (Central African Republic); 79,495 (South Sudan); 39,919 (Burundi) (2017)
IDPs: 2.2 million (fighting between government forces and rebels since mid-1990s; most IDPs are in eastern provinces) (2016)
refugees (country of origin): 12,944 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook