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Croatia vs. Serbia

Introduction

CroatiaSerbia
BackgroundThe lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands, along with a majority of Croatia's ethnic Serb population. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998. The country joined NATO in April 2009 and the EU in July 2013.
"The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Communist Partisans resisted the Axis occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945 and fought nationalist opponents and collaborators as well. The military and political movement headed by Josip Broz ""TITO"" (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when their domestic rivals and the occupiers were defeated in 1945. Although communists, TITO and his successors (Tito died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Republic of Serbia and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992 and under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a ""Greater Serbia."" These actions ultimately failed and, after international intervention, led to the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995.
MILOSEVIC retained control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY in 1997. In 1998, an ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo. The MILOSEVIC government's rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATO's bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999. Serbian military and police forces withdrew from Kosovo in June 1999, and the UN Security Council authorized an interim UN administration and a NATO-led security force in Kosovo. FRY elections in late 2000 led to the ouster of MILOSEVIC and the installation of democratic government. In 2003, the FRY became the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics. Widespread violence predominantly targeting ethnic Serbs in Kosovo in March 2004 led to more intense calls to address Kosovo's status, and the UN began facilitating status talks in 2006. In June 2006, Montenegro seceded from the federation and declared itself an independent nation. Serbia subsequently gave notice that it was the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro.
In February 2008, after nearly two years of inconclusive negotiations, Kosovo declared itself independent of Serbia - an action Serbia refuses to recognize. At Serbia's request, the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in October 2008 sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on whether Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence was in accordance with international law. In a ruling considered unfavorable to Serbia, the ICJ issued an advisory opinion in July 2010 stating that international law did not prohibit declarations of independence. In late 2010, Serbia agreed to an EU-drafted UNGA Resolution acknowledging the ICJ's decision and calling for a new round of talks between Serbia and Kosovo, this time on practical issues rather than Kosovo's status. Serbia and Kosovo signed the first agreement of principles governing the normalization of relations between the two countries in April 2013 and are in the process of implementing its provisions. In 2015, Serbia and Kosovo reached four additional agreements within the Brussels Dialogue framework. These included agreements on the Community of Serb-Majority Municipalities; telecommunications; energy production and distribution; and freedom of movement. Prime Minister Aleksandar VUCIC, has promoted an ambitious goal of Serbia joining the EU by 2020. Under his leadership, in January 2014 Serbia opened formal negotiations for accession. Serbia has opened 8 chapters of the EU acquis and provisionally closed 2 chapters.
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Geography

CroatiaSerbia
LocationSoutheastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia
Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary
Geographic coordinates45 10 N, 15 30 E
44 00 N, 21 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 56,594 sq km
land: 55,974 sq km
water: 620 sq km
total: 77,474 sq km
land: 77,474 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than West Virginia
slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundariestotal: 2,237 km
border countries (5): Bosnia and Herzegovina 956 km, Hungary 348 km, Montenegro 19 km, Serbia 314 km, Slovenia 600 km
total: 2,322 km
border countries (8): Bosnia and Herzegovina 345 km, Bulgaria 344 km, Croatia 314 km, Hungary 164 km, Kosovo 366 km, Macedonia 101 km, Montenegro 157 km, Romania 531 km
Coastline5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
none (landlocked)
ClimateMediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well-distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)
Terraingeographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands
extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 331 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Dinara 1,831 m
mean elevation: 442 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Danube and Timok Rivers 35 m
highest point: Midzor 2,169 m
Natural resourcesoil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower
oil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, chromite, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 23.7%
arable land 16%; permanent crops 1.5%; permanent pasture 6.2%
forest: 34.4%
other: 41.9% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 57.9%
arable land 37.7%; permanent crops 3.4%; permanent pasture 16.8%
forest: 31.6%
other: 10.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land240 sq km (2012)
950 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsdestructive earthquakes
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issuesair pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife
air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notecontrols most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks
controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East
Population distributionmore of the population lives in the northern half of the country, with approximately a quarter of the populace residing in and around the capital of Zagreb; many of the islands are sparsely populated
a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations

Demographics

CroatiaSerbia
Population4,313,707 (July 2016 est.)
7,143,921
note: does not include the population of Kosovo (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 14.22% (male 315,971/female 297,339)
15-24 years: 11.4% (male 252,285/female 239,634)
25-54 years: 40.75% (male 878,971/female 878,707)
55-64 years: 14.83% (male 312,621/female 326,929)
65 years and over: 18.81% (male 320,418/female 490,832) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 14.64% (male 539,189/female 506,727)
15-24 years: 11.34% (male 417,692/female 392,379)
25-54 years: 41.41% (male 1,492,799/female 1,465,270)
55-64 years: 14.58% (male 502,172/female 539,349)
65 years and over: 18.03% (male 530,827/female 757,517) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 42.7 years
male: 40.8 years
female: 44.8 years (2016 est.)
total: 42.3 years
male: 40.7 years
female: 44 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate-0.5% (2016 est.)
-0.46% (2016 est.)
Birth rate9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate12.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
13.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 9.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 5.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75.9 years
male: 72.7 years
female: 79.2 years (2016 est.)
total population: 75.5 years
male: 72.6 years
female: 78.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.39 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.43 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
0.05% (2013 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)
adjective: Croatian
noun: Serb(s)
adjective: Serbian
Ethnic groupsCroat 90.4%, Serb 4.4%, other 4.4% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Romani), unspecified 0.8% (2011 est.)
Serb 83.3%, Hungarian 3.5%, Romani 2.1%, Bosniak 2%, other 5.7%, undeclared or unknown 3.4% (2011 est.)
note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–11% of Serbia's population
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
3,000 (2013 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 86.3%, Orthodox 4.4%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.5%, not religious or atheist 3.8% (2011 est.)
Orthodox 84.6%, Catholic 5%, Muslim 3.1%, Protestant 1%, atheist 1.1%, other 0.8% (includes agnostics, other Christians, Eastern religionists, Jewish), undeclared or unknown 4.5% (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
100 (2013 est.)
LanguagesCroatian (official) 95.6%, Serbian 1.2%, other 3% (including Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and Albanian), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)
Serbian (official) 88.1%, Hungarian 3.4%, Bosnian 1.9%, Romani 1.4%, other 3.4%, undeclared or unknown 1.8%
note: Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, and Ruthenian (Rusyn) are official in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (2011 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.3%
male: 99.7%
female: 98.9% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.1%
male: 99.1%
female: 97.2% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: intermediate
vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2016)
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2014)
total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2015)
Education expenditures4.6% of GDP (2013)
4.2% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 59% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.11% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 55.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 99.7% of population
total: 99.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 0.3% of population
total: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 98.9% of population
total: 99.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 1.1% of population
total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 97.8% of population
rural: 95.8% of population
total: 97% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.2% of population
rural: 4.2% of population
total: 3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 98.2% of population
rural: 94.2% of population
total: 96.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.8% of population
rural: 5.8% of population
total: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationZAGREB (capital) 687,000 (2015)
BELGRADE (capital) 1.182 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate8 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
17 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures7.8% of GDP (2014)
10.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3.13 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
2.46 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density5.9 beds/1,000 population (2014)
5.4 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate25.6% (2014)
21.1% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth28 years (2013 est.)
27.8 years (2013 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 51.1
youth dependency ratio: 22.5
elderly dependency ratio: 28.6
potential support ratio: 3.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 50.1
youth dependency ratio: 24.5
elderly dependency ratio: 25.6
potential support ratio: 3.9 (2015 est.)

Government

CroatiaSerbia
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Croatia
conventional short form: Croatia
local long form: Republika Hrvatska
local short form: Hrvatska
former: People's Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia
etymology: name derives from the Croats, a Slavic tribe who migrated to the Balkans in the 7th century A.D.
conventional long form: Republic of Serbia
conventional short form: Serbia
local long form: Republika Srbija
local short form: Srbija
former: People's Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Serbia
etymology: the origin of the name in uncertain, but seems to be related to the name of the West Slavic Sorbs who reside in the Lusatian region in present-day eastern Germany; by tradition, the Serbs migrated from that region to the Balkans in about the 6th century A.D.
Government typeparliamentary republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Zagreb
geographic coordinates: 45 48 N, 16 00 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Belgrade (Beograd)
geographic coordinates: 44 50 N, 20 30 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular) with special county status; Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska(Bjelovar-Bilogora), Brodsko-Posavska (Brod-Posavina), Dubrovacko-Neretvanska (Dubrovnik-Neretva), Istarska (Istria), Karlovacka (Karlovac), Koprivnicko-Krizevacka (Koprivnica-Krizevci), Krapinsko-Zagorska (Krapina-Zagorje), Licko-Senjska (Lika-Senj), Medimurska (Medimurje), Osjecko-Baranjska (Osijek-Baranja), Pozesko-Slavonska (Pozega-Slavonia), Primorsko-Goranska (Primorje-Gorski Kotar), Sibensko-Kninska (Sibenik-Knin), Sisacko-Moslavacka (Sisak-Moslavina), Splitsko-Dalmatinska (Split-Dalmatia), Varazdinska (Varazdin), Viroviticko-Podravska (Virovitica-Podravina), Vukovarsko-Srijemska (Vukovar-Syrmia), Zadarska (Zadar), Zagreb*, Zagrebacka (Zagreb county)
119 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina) and 26 cities (gradovi, singular - grad)
municipalities: Ada*, Aleksandrovac, Aleksinac, Alibunar*, Apatin*, Arandelovac, Arilje, Babusnica, Bac*, Backa Palanka*, Backa Topola*, Backi Petrovac*, Bajina Basta, Batocina, Becej*, Bela Crkva*, Bela Palanka, Beocin*, Blace, Bogatic, Bojnik, Boljevac, Bor, Bosilegrad, Brus, Bujanovac, Cajetina, Cicevac, Coka*, Crna Trava, Cuprija, Despotovac, Dimitrov, Doljevac, Gadzin Han, Golubac, Gornji Milanovac, Indija*, Irig*, Ivanjica, Kanjiza*, Kladovo, Knic, Knjazevac, Koceljeva, Kosjeric, Kovacica*, Kovin*, Krupanj, Kucevo, Kula*, Kursumlija, Lajkovac, Lapovo, Lebane, Ljig, Ljubovija, Lucani, Majdanpek, Mali Idos*, Mali Zvornik, Malo Crnice, Medveda, Merosina, Mionica, Negotin, Nova Crnja*, Nova Varos, Novi Becej*, Novi Knezevac*, Odzaci*, Opovo*, Osecina, Paracin, Pecinci*, Petrovac na Mlavi, Plandiste*, Pozega, Presevo, Priboj, Prijepolje, Prokuplje, Raca, Raska, Razanj, Rekovac, Ruma*, Secanj*, Senta*, Sid*, Sjenica, Smederevska Palanka, Sokobanja, Srbobran*, Sremski Karlovci*, Stara Pazova*, Surdulica, Svilajnac, Svrljig, Temerin*, Titel*, Topola, Trgoviste, Trstenik, Tutin, Ub, Varvarin, Velika Plana, Veliko Gradiste, Vladicin Han, Vladimirci, Vlasotince, Vrbas*, Vrnjacka Banja, Zabalj*, Zabari, Zagubica, Zitiste*, Zitorada
cities: Beograd, Cacak, Jagodina, Kikinda*, Kragujevac, Kraljevo, Krusevac, Leskovac, Loznica, Nis, Novi Pazar, Novi Sad*, Pancevo*, Pirot, Pozarevac, Sabac, Smederevo, Sombor*, Sremska Mitrovica*, Subotica*, Uzice, Valjevo, Vranje, Vrsac, Zajecar, Zrenjanin*
note: the northern 39 municipalities and 6 cities - about 28% of Serbia's area - compose the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and are indicated with *
Independence25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
5 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro)
National holidayIndependence Day, 8 October (1991) and Statehood Day, 25 June (1991); note - 25 June 1991 was the day the Croatian parliament voted for independence; following a three-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia
National Day (Statehood Day), 15 February (1835), the day the first constitution of the country was adopted
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1990
amendments: proposed by at least one-fifth of the Assembly membership, by the president of the republic, by the Government of Croatia, or through petition by at least 10% of the total electorate; proceedings to amend require majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; passage by petition requires a majority vote in a referendum, and promulgation by the Assembly; amended several times, last in 2014 (2016)
history: many previous; latest adopted 30 September 2006, approved by referendum 28-29 October 2006, effective 8 November 2006
amendments: proposed by at least one-third of deputies in the National Assembly, by the president of the republic, by the government, or by petition of at least 150,000 voters; passage of proposals and draft amendments each requires at least two-thirds majority vote in the Assembly; amendments to constitutional articles including the preamble, constitutional principles, and human and minority rights and freedoms also require a referendum with passage by simple majority vote (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system influenced by legal heritage of Austria-Hungary; note - Croatian law was fully harmonized with the European Community acquis as of the June 2010 completion of EU accession negotiations
civil law system
Suffrage18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (since 19 February 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Andrej PLENKOVIC (since 19 October 2016); Deputy Prime Ministers Davor Ivo STIER, Damir KRSTICEVIC, Martina DALIC, Ivan KOVACIC (since 19 October 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 December 2014 and 11 January 2015 (next to be held in 2019); the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president and approved by the Assembly
election results: Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC elected president; percent of vote in the second round - Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (HDZ) 50.7%, Ivo JOSIPOVIC (Forward Croatia Progressive Alliance) 49.3%
chief of state: President Aleksandar VUCIC (since 31 May 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Ana BRNABIC (since 29 June 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet elected by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 April 2017 (next to be held in 2022); prime minister elected by the National Assembly
election results: Aleksandar VUCIC elected president; percent of vote - Aleksandar VUCIC (SNS) 55.1%, Sasa JANKOVIC (independent) 16.4%, Luka MAKSIMOVIC (independent) 9.4%, Vuk JEREMIC (independent) 5.7%, Vojislav SESELJ (SRS) 4.5%, Bosko OBRADOVIC (Dveri) 2.3%, other 5.0%, invalid/blank 1.6%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Assembly or Hrvatski Sabor (151 seats; 140 members in 10 multi-seat constituencies and 3 members in a single constituency for Croatian diaspora directly elected by proportional representation vote using the D'Hondt method with a 5% threshold; an additional 8 members elected from a nationwide constituency by simple majority by voters belonging to minorities recognized by Croatia; the Serb minority elects 3 Assembly members, the Hungarian and Italian minorities elect 1 each, the Czech and Slovak minorities elect 1 jointly, and all other minorities elect 2; all members serve 4-year terms
elections: last held on 11 September 2016 (next to be held in September 2020) - Assembly voted on 20 June 2016 to dissolve on 15 July 2016, resulting in snap elections
election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; number of seats by party/coalition - HDZ coalition 61, People's Coalition 54, Most-NL 13, Only Option 8, minorities 8 (includes SDSS 3), other 7
note: as of March 2017, seats by party - HDZ 56, SDP 37, MOST-NL 14, HNS 9, HSS 5, IDS 3, SDSS 3, Human Blockade 3, HDS 2, PH 2, other 7, independent 10
description: unicameral National Assembly or Narodna Skupstina (250 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 24 April 2016 (next to be held by April 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Serbia is Winning 48.2%, SPS-JS-ZS-KP 11.0%, SRS 8.1%, For a Just Serbia 6.0%, Enough is Enough 6.0%, Alliance for a Better Serbia 5.0%, Dveri-DSS 5.0%, SVM 1.5%, other 9.2%; seats by party/coalition Serbia is Winning 131, SPS-JS-ZS-KP 29, SRS 22, For a Just Serbia 16, Enough is Enough 16, Alliance for a Better Serbia 13, Dveri-DSS 13, SVM 4, other 6
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and vice president, 25 civil department justices, and 16 criminal department justices)
judge selection and term of office: president of Supreme Court nominated by president of Croatia and elected by Croatian Sabor for a 4-year term; other Supreme Court justices appointed by National Judicial Council; all judges serve until age 70
subordinate courts: Administrative Court; county, municipal, and specialized courts; note - there is an 11-member Constitutional Court with jurisdiction limited to constitutional issues but is outside Croatia's judicial system
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation (consists of more than 60 judges organized into 3- and 5-member panels for criminal, civil, and administrative cases); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices proposed by the High Judicial Council (HJC), an 11-member body of which 7 are judges, and elected by the National Assembly; Constitutional Court judges appointed - 5 each by the National Assembly, the president, and the Supreme Court of Cassation; judges of both courts appointed to permanent tenure by the HJC
subordinate courts: appellate courts, higher courts, and municipal and district courts; courts of special jurisdiction include the Administrative Court, Appellate Commercial Court, and 2 levels of misdemeanor courts
note: in 2003, specialized panels on war crimes were established within the Serbian court system; the panels have jurisdiction over alleged violations of the Basic Criminal Code and crimes against humanity, international law, and criminal acts as defined by the Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
Political parties and leaders"Bloc of Pensioners Together or BUZ [Milivoj SPIKA]
Bridge of Independent Lists or Most-NL [Bozo PETROV]
Croatian Christian Democratic Party or HDS [Goran DODIG]
Croatian Democratic Congress of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB [Dragan VULIN]
Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Andrej PLENKOVIC]
Croatian Laborists - Labor Party or HL [David BREGOVAC]
Croatian Party of Rights - dr. Ante Starcevic or HSP AS [Hrvoje NICE]
Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Kreso BELJAK]
Croatian Pensioner Party or HSU [Silvano HRELJA]
Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats or HNS [Ivan VRDOLJAK]
Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Darinko KOSOR]
Forward Croatia Progressive Alliance [Ivo JOSIPOVIC]
Human Blockade (""Living Wall"") [Ivan SINCIC]
Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]
Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Boris MILETIC]
Let's Change Croatia or PH [Ivan LOVRINOVIC]
Milan Bandic 365 - Party of Labor and Solidarity or BM365-SRS [Milan BANDIC]
Movement for Successful Croatia or HRAST [Ladislav ILCIC]
People's Party - Reformists Party [Radimir CACIC]
Smart Party or PAMETNO [Marijana PULJAK]
Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Davor BERNARDIC]
"
Alliance for a Better Serbia - coalition includes LDP, LSV, SDS
Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Istvan PASZTOR]
Communist Party or KP [Josip Joska BROZ]
Democratic Alliance of Croats in Vojvodina [Petar KUNTIC]
Democratic Party or DS [Dragan SUTANOVAC]
Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Milos Jovanovic]
Dveri [Bosko OBRADOVIC]
Enough of Enough [Sasa RADULOVIC]
For a Just Serbia - coalition includes DS, NS, RS, DSVH, VVS, Together for Sumadija
Greens of Serbia or ZS [Ivan KARIC]
League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina or LSV [Nenad CANAK]
Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC]
Movement of Socialists or PS [Aleksandar VULIN]
New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]
Party for Democratic Action or PDD [Riza HALIMI]
Party of Democratic Action of the Sandzak or SDA [Sulejman UGLJANIN]
Party of United Pensioners of Serbia or PUPS [Milan KRKOBABIC]
Reformist Party or RS [Aleksandar VISNJIC]
Serbia is Winning - coalition includes SNS, SDPS, PUPS, NS, SPO, PS, PSS, NDSS, SNP
Serbian People's Party or SNP [Nenad POPOVIC]
Serbian Progressive Party or SNS [Aleksandar VUCIC]
Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ]
Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC]
Social Democratic Party or SDS [Boris TADIC]
Social Democratic Party of Serbia or SDPS [Rasim LJAJIC]
Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]
Strength of Serbia or PSS [Bogoljub KARIC]
Together for Serbia or ZZS [Dusan PETROVIC]
Together for Sumadija [Veroljub STEVANOVIC]
note: as of April 2016, Serbia had 111 registered political parties and citizens' associations
Political pressure groups and leadersother: human rights groups
Independent Association of Journalists of Serbia or NUNS
Journalists Association of Serbia (Udruzenje novinara Srbije) or UNS
Obraz (Orthodox clero-fascist organization)
SNP 1389 (Serbian nationalist movement)
SNP NASI 1389 (Serbian National Movement NASI)
Eastern Alternative (pro-Russian association)
International organization participationAustralia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EMU, EU, FAO, G-11, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (observer), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (candidate country), FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US"chief of mission: Ambassador Josip ""Josko"" PARO (since 20 April 2012)
chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
"
chief of mission: Ambassador Djerdj MATKOVIC (since 23 February 2015)
telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
chancery: 2233 Wisconsin Ave NW
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Julieta Valls NOYES (since 5 October 2015)
embassy: 2 Thomas Jefferson Street, 10010 Zagreb
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [385] (1) 661-2200
FAX: [385] (1) 661-2373
chief of mission: Ambassador Kyle SCOTT (since 4 February 2016)
embassy: 92 Bulevar kneza Aleksandra Karadjordjevica, 11040 Belgrade, Serbia
mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070
telephone: [381] (11) 706-4000
FAX: [381] (11) 706-4005
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue - the Pan-Slav colors - superimposed by the Croatian coat of arms; the coat of arms consists of one main shield (a checkerboard of 13 red and 12 silver (white) fields) surmounted by five smaller shields that form a crown over the main shield; the five small shields represent five historic regions (from left to right): Croatia, Dubrovnik, Dalmatia, Istria, and Slavonia
note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia
"three equal horizontal stripes of red (top), blue, and white - the Pan-Slav colors representing freedom and revolutionary ideals; charged with the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side; the principal field of the coat of arms represents the Serbian state and displays a white two-headed eagle on a red shield; a smaller red shield on the eagle represents the Serbian nation, and is divided into four quarters by a white cross; interpretations vary as to the meaning and origin of the white, curved symbols resembling firesteels or Cyrillic ""C's"" in each quarter; a royal crown surmounts the coat of arms
note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia
"
National anthem"name: ""Lijepa nasa domovino"" (Our Beautiful Homeland)
lyrics/music: Antun MIHANOVIC/Josip RUNJANIN
note: adopted 1972; ""Lijepa nasa domovino,"" whose lyrics were written in 1835, served as an unofficial anthem beginning in 1891
"
"name: ""Boze pravde"" (God of Justice)
lyrics/music: Jovan DORDEVIC/Davorin JENKO
note: adopted 1904; song originally written as part of a play in 1872 and has been used as an anthem by the Serbian people throughout the 20th and 21st centuries
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)red-white checkerboard; national colors: red, white, blue
double-headed eagle; national colors: red, blue, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Croatia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Serbia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

Economy

CroatiaSerbia
Economy - overviewThough still one of the wealthiest of the former Yugoslav republics, Croatia's economy suffered badly during the 1991-95 war. The country's output during that time collapsed, and Croatia missed the early waves of investment in Central and Eastern Europe that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Between 2000 and 2007, however, Croatia's economic fortunes began to improve with moderate but steady GDP growth between 4% and 6% led by a rebound in tourism and credit-driven consumer spending. Inflation over the same period remained tame and the currency, the kuna, stable.

Croatia experienced an abrupt slowdown in the economy in 2008 and is slowly recovering; economic growth was stagnant or negative in each year since 2009, but picked up in 2015-16. Difficult problems still remain including a stubbornly high unemployment rate, uneven regional development, and a challenging investment climate. In 2016, Croatia demonstrated a commitment to improving the business climate, including by simplifying its tax code, to stimulate growth from domestic consumption and foreign investment. Since at least 2016, Croatia has worked to become a regional energy player and plans to import liquefied natural gas through a prospective import terminal and pump natural gas to European consumers.

On 1 July 2013, Croatia joined the EU, following a decade-long application process. Croatia will be a member of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, with its currency effectively pegged to the euro, until it meets the criteria for joining the Economic and Monetary Union and adopts the euro as its currency. EU accession has increased pressure on the government to reduce Croatia’s relatively high public debt, which triggered the EU’s excessive deficit procedure for fiscal consolidation. Zagreb has cut spending since 2012, and the government also raised additional revenues through more stringent tax collection and by raising the value-added tax. The government has also sought to accelerate privatization of non-strategic assets, with mixed success.
Serbia has a transitional economy largely dominated by market forces, but the state sector remains significant in certain areas. The economy relies on manufacturing and exports, driven largely by foreign investment. MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of international economic sanctions, civil war, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 left the economy worse off than it was in 1990. In 2015, Serbia’s GDP was 27.5% below where it was in 1989.

After former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC was ousted in September 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on a market reform program. Serbia renewed its membership in the IMF in December 2000 and rejoined the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Serbia has made progress in trade liberalization and enterprise restructuring and privatization, but many large enterprises - including the power utilities, telecommunications company, natural gas company, and others - remain state-owned. Serbia has made some progress towards EU membership, signing a Stabilization and Association Agreement with Brussels in May 2008, and with full implementation of the Interim Trade Agreement with the EU in February 2010, gained candidate status in March 2012. In January 2014, Serbia's EU accession talks officially opened, and as of March 2017, Serbia had opened eight negotiating chapters. Serbia's negotiations with the WTO are advanced, with the country's complete ban on the trade and cultivation of agricultural biotechnology products representing the primary remaining obstacle to accession. Serbia maintains a three-year Stand-by Arrangement with the IMF worth approximately $1.3 billion that is scheduled to end in February 2018. The government has shown progress implementing economic reforms, such as fiscal consolidation, privatization, and reducing public spending.

High unemployment and stagnant household incomes are ongoing political and economic problems. Serbia is slowly implementing structural economic reforms needed to ensure the country's long-term prosperity. In 2016, Serbia reduced its budget deficit to 1.4% and slowed the rate of growth of its public debt as a percent of GDP, more than doubled between 2008 and 2015. Serbia's concerns about inflation and exchange-rate stability preclude the use of expansionary monetary policy.

Major economic challenges ahead include: high unemployment rates and the need for private sector job creation; structural reforms of state-owned companies; strategic public sector reforms; and the need for new foreign direct investment. Other serious longer-term challenges include an inefficient judicial system, high levels of corruption, and an aging population. Factors favorable to Serbia's economic growth include the economic reforms it is undergoing as part of its EU accession process and IMF agreement, its strategic location, a relatively inexpensive and skilled labor force, and free trade agreements with the EU, Russia, Turkey, and countries that are members of the Central European Free Trade Agreement.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$94.24 billion (2016 est.)
$92.48 billion (2015 est.)
$90.98 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$101.8 billion (2016 est.)
$99.05 billion (2015 est.)
$98.26 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1.9% (2016 est.)
1.6% (2015 est.)
-0.4% (2014 est.)
2.8% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2015 est.)
-1.8% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$22,400 (2016 est.)
$21,900 (2015 est.)
$21,500 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$14,200 (2016 est.)
$13,900 (2015 est.)
$13,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 4.2%
industry: 26.6%
services: 69.2% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 9.7%
industry: 42.7%
services: 47.6% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line19.5% (2014 est.)
8.9% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)-1% (2016 est.)
-0.5% (2015 est.)
1.6% (2016 est.)
1.5% (2015 est.)
Labor force1.61 million (2016 est.)
3.141 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 1.9%
industry: 27.6%
services: 70.4% (2014)
agriculture: 17.8%
industry: 25.6%
services: 56.6% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate15.8% (2016 est.)
17.1% (2015 est.)
13.8% (2016 est.)
17.9% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index32 (2010)
29 (1998)
38.7 (2014 est.)
28.2 (2008 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $21.47 billion
expenditures: $22.72 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $15.75 billion
expenditures: $16.24 billion
note: this is the consolidated budget, including both central government and local goverment budgets (2016 est.)
Industrieschemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism
automobiles, base metals, furniture, food processing, machinery, chemicals, sugar, tires, clothes, pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate3.5% (2016 est.)
4.7% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsarable crops (wheat, corn, barley, sugar beet, sunflower, rapeseed, alfalfa, clover); vegetables (potatoes, cabbage, onion, tomato, pepper); fruits (apples, plum, mandarins, olives), grapes for wine; livestock (cattle, cows, pigs); dairy products
wheat, maize, sunflower, sugar beets, grapes/wine, fruits (raspberries, apples, sour cherries), vegetables (tomatoes, peppers, potatoes), beef, pork, and meat products, milk and dairy products
Exports$12.41 billion (2016 est.)
$11.91 billion (2015 est.)
$14.89 billion (2016 est.)
$13.36 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiestransport equipment, machinery, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels
automobiles, iron and steel, rubber, clothes, wheat, fruit and vegetables, nonferrous metals, electric appliances, metal products, weapons and ammunition
Exports - partnersItaly 13.4%, Slovenia 12.5%, Germany 11.4%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.9%, Austria 6.6%, Serbia 4.9% (2015)
Italy 16.2%, Germany 12.6%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 8.7%, Romania 5.6%, Russia 5.4% (2015)
Imports$19.98 billion (2016 est.)
$19.28 billion (2015 est.)
$19.26 billion (2016 est.)
$18.21 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, transport and electrical equipment; chemicals, fuels and lubricants; foodstuffs
machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
Imports - partnersGermany 15.5%, Italy 13.1%, Slovenia 10.7%, Austria 9.2%, Hungary 7.8% (2015)
Germany 12.4%, Italy 10.6%, Russia 9.6%, China 8.5%, Hungary 4.8%, Poland 4.2% (2015)
Debt - external$48.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$50.88 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$28.23 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$28.86 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rateskuna (HRK) per US dollar -
6.971 (2016 est.)
6.8583 (2015 est.)
6.8583 (2014 est.)
5.7482 (2013 est.)
5.85 (2012 est.)
Serbian dinars (RSD) per US dollar -
112.4 (2016 est.)
108.811 (2015 est.)
108.811 (2014 est.)
88.405 (2013 est.)
87.99 (2012 est.)
Public debt88.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
86.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
72.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
74.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued or owned by government entities other than the treasury (for which the Government of Singapore issued guarantees); the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities (for which the GOS also issued guarantees), as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$14.46 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.97 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$12.94 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.99 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$1.961 billion (2016 est.)
$2.482 billion (2015 est.)
-$1.516 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.751 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$49.86 billion (2016 est.)
$37.53 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$41.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$39.74 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$28.33 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
$11.95 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$8.484 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.05 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares$36.29 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$33.75 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$33.44 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$5.064 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.841 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.525 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate7% (31 December 2013)
7% (31 December 2012)
4% (31 December 2016)
7.5% (12 March 2015)
Commercial bank prime lending rate4.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.83% (31 December 2015 est.)
6.29% (31 December 2016 est.)
7.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$40.07 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$42.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$17.06 billion (30 September 2016 est.)
$16.22 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$10.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$10.11 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$5.195 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.486 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$42.36 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$41.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$18.78 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.58 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues43.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
42% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-1.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 45.5%
male: 44.9%
female: 46.4% (2014 est.)
total: 49.4%
male: N/A
female: N/A (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 59.1%
government consumption: 19.3%
investment in fixed capital: 19.1%
investment in inventories: -0.4%
exports of goods and services: 50.8%
imports of goods and services: -47.9% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 73.1%
government consumption: 16.2%
investment in fixed capital: 17.8%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 50.9%
imports of goods and services: -58.2% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving21.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
23.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
19% of GDP (2014 est.)
25% of GDP (2016 est.)
23% of GDP (2015 est.)
22.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

CroatiaSerbia
Electricity - production13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
38.11 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption16.97 billion kWh (2014 est.)
26.78 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports2.866 billion kWh (2014 est.)
6.428 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports6.592 billion kWh (2014 est.)
5.065 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production12,420 bbl/day (2015 est.)
21,030 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports37,300 bbl/day (2014 est.)
45,790 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - proved reserves71 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
366.5 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
30 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production1.363 billion cu m (2014 est.)
586.3 million cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - consumption2.81 billion cu m (2014 est.)
2.25 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - exports422 million cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2016 est.)
Natural gas - imports1.089 billion cu m (2014 est.)
1.664 billion cu m (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity4.4 million kW (2014 est.)
7.594 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels37.1% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
59% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants48.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
38.8% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels7.7% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources6.6% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
2.2% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production56,650 bbl/day (2014 est.)
67,360 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption70,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
66,230 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports29,060 bbl/day (2014 est.)
12,050 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports32,890 bbl/day (2014 est.)
16,070 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy19 million Mt (2013 est.)
56.55 million Mt (2015 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

CroatiaSerbia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 1,476,506
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 2,770,462
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 39 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 4.416 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 99 (July 2015 est.)
total: 9.156 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 128 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the telecommunications network has improved steadily since the mid-1990s, covering much of what were once inaccessible areas; local lines are digital
domestic: fixed-line teledensity has droped somewhat to about 35 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions now even with the population
international: country code - 385; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic project, which consists of 2 fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; the ADRIA-1 submarine cable provides connectivity to Albania and Greece (2015)
general assessment: replacements of, and upgrades to, telecommunications equipment damaged during the 1999 war resulted in a modern digitalized telecommunications system
domestic: wireless service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications services are centered in urban centers; 4G/LTE mobile network launched in March 2015
international: country code - 381 (2016)
Internet country code.hr
.rs
Internet userstotal: 3.117 million
percent of population: 69.8% (July 2015 est.)
total: 4.688 million
percent of population: 65.3% (July 2015 est.)

Transportation

CroatiaSerbia
Railwaystotal: 2,722 km
standard gauge: 2,722 km 1.435-m gauge (985 km electrified) (2014)
total: 5,540 km
standard gauge: 3,809 km 1.435-m gauge (3,526 km one-track lines and 283 km double-track lines) out of which 1,279 km electrified (1,000 km one-track lines and 279 km double-track lines) (2015)
Roadwaystotal: 26,958 km (includes 1,416 km of expressways) (2015)
total: 44,248 km
paved: 28,000 km (16,162 km state roads, out of which 741 km highways)
unpaved: 16,248 km (2016)
Waterways785 km (2009)
587 km (primarily on the Danube and Sava rivers) (2009)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Ploce, Rijeka, Sibernik, Split
river port(s): Vukovar (Danube)
oil terminal(s): Omisalj
river port(s): Belgrade (Danube)
Airports69 (2013)
26 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 24
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 10 (2013)
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 45
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 38 (2013)
total: 16
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Heliports1 (2013)
2 (2012)

Military

CroatiaSerbia
Military branchesArmed Forces of the Republic of Croatia (Oruzane Snage Republike Hrvatske, OSRH) consists of five major commands directly subordinate to a General Staff: Ground Forces (Hrvatska Kopnena Vojska, HKoV), Naval Forces (Hrvatska Ratna Mornarica, HRM, includes coast guard), Air Force and Air Defense Command (Hrvatsko Ratno Zrakoplovstvo I Protuzracna Obrana), Joint Education and Training Command, Logistics Command; Military Police Force supports each of the three Croatian military forces (2012)
Serbian Armed Forces (Vojska Srbije, VS): Land Forces (includes Riverine Component, consisting of a river flotilla on the Danube), Air and Air Defense Forces (2016)
Military service age and obligation18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; 6-month service obligation (2012)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished December 2010; reserve obligation to age 60 for men and age 50 for women (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.55% of GDP (2015)
1.59% of GDP (2014)
1.66% of GDP (2013)
1.69% of GDP (2012)
1.78% of GDP (2011)
1.34% of GDP (2017 est.)
1.25% of GDP (2016)
1.41% of GDP (2015)
1.49% of GDP (2014)
1.48% of GDP (2013)

Transnational Issues

CroatiaSerbia
Disputes - internationaldispute remains with Bosnia and Herzegovina over several small sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Pirin Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led to Slovenia lifting its objections to Croatia joining the EU; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements
Serbia with several other states protest the US and other states' recognition of Kosovo's declaration of its status as a sovereign and independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led Kosovo Force peacekeepers under UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo authority continue to keep the peace within Kosovo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority in Kosovo; Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute
Illicit drugstransit point along the Balkan route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe; has been used as a transit point for maritime shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe (2008)
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 2,873 (2016)
note: 659,105 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - December 2016)
refugees (country of origin): 20,346 (Croatia); 9,081 (Bosnia and Herzegovina) (2016)
IDPs: 219,854 (most are Kosovar Serbs, some are Roma, Ashkalis, and Egyptian (RAE); some RAE IDPs are unregistered) (2016)
stateless persons: 2,373 (includes stateless persons in Kosovo) (2016)
note: 678,493 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - December 2016)

Source: CIA Factbook