Home

Croatia vs. Bosnia and Herzegovina

Introduction

CroatiaBosnia and Herzegovina
BackgroundThe lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands, along with a majority of Croatia's ethnic Serb population. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998. The country joined NATO in April 2009 and the EU in July 2013.
"Bosnia and Herzegovina declared sovereignty in October 1991 and independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a ""Greater Serbia."" In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that ended three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995).
The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multiethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the predominantly Bosniak-Bosnian Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the predominantly Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments are responsible for overseeing most government functions. Additionally, the Dayton Accords established the Office of the High Representative to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called ""Bonn Powers."" An original NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops assembled in 1995 was succeeded over time by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). In 2004, European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR. Currently, EUFOR deploys around 600 troops in theater in a security assistance and training capacity.
"

Geography

CroatiaBosnia and Herzegovina
LocationSoutheastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia
Geographic coordinates45 10 N, 15 30 E
44 00 N, 18 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Europe
Areatotal: 56,594 sq km
land: 55,974 sq km
water: 620 sq km
total: 51,197 sq km
land: 51,187 sq km
water: 10 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than West Virginia
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundariestotal: 2,237 km
border countries (5): Bosnia and Herzegovina 956 km, Hungary 348 km, Montenegro 19 km, Serbia 314 km, Slovenia 600 km
total: 1,543 km
border countries (3): Croatia 956 km, Montenegro 242 km, Serbia 345 km
Coastline5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)
20 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
NA
ClimateMediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Terraingeographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands
mountains and valleys
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 331 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Dinara 1,831 m
mean elevation: 500 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maglic 2,386 m
Natural resourcesoil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower
coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, timber, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 23.7%
arable land 16%; permanent crops 1.5%; permanent pasture 6.2%
forest: 34.4%
other: 41.9% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 42.2%
arable land 19.7%; permanent crops 2%; permanent pasture 20.5%
forest: 42.8%
other: 15% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land240 sq km (2012)
30 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsdestructive earthquakes
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issuesair pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife
air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notecontrols most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks
within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Montenegro, and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east
Population distributionmore of the population lives in the northern half of the country, with approximately a quarter of the populace residing in and around the capital of Zagreb; many of the islands are sparsely populated
the northern and central areas of the country are the most densely populated

Demographics

CroatiaBosnia and Herzegovina
Population4,313,707 (July 2016 est.)
3,861,912 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 14.22% (male 315,971/female 297,339)
15-24 years: 11.4% (male 252,285/female 239,634)
25-54 years: 40.75% (male 878,971/female 878,707)
55-64 years: 14.83% (male 312,621/female 326,929)
65 years and over: 18.81% (male 320,418/female 490,832) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 13.36% (male 266,389/female 249,425)
15-24 years: 11.97% (male 238,682/female 223,599)
25-54 years: 46.2% (male 896,760/female 887,407)
55-64 years: 14.43% (male 267,628/female 289,464)
65 years and over: 14.05% (male 212,574/female 329,984) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 42.7 years
male: 40.8 years
female: 44.8 years (2016 est.)
total: 41.7 years
male: 40.2 years
female: 43.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate-0.5% (2016 est.)
-0.14% (2016 est.)
Birth rate9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
8.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate12.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 9.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 5.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75.9 years
male: 72.7 years
female: 79.2 years (2016 est.)
total population: 76.7 years
male: 73.7 years
female: 80 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.39 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.28 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateNA
NA
Nationalitynoun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)
adjective: Croatian
noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian
Ethnic groupsCroat 90.4%, Serb 4.4%, other 4.4% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Romani), unspecified 0.8% (2011 est.)
Bosniak 50.1%, Serb 30.8%, Croat 15.4%, other 2.7%, not declared/no answer 1%
note: the methodology remains disputed and Republika Srspka authorities refuse to recognize the results; Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA
NA
ReligionsRoman Catholic 86.3%, Orthodox 4.4%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.5%, not religious or atheist 3.8% (2011 est.)
Muslim 50.7%, Orthodox 30.7%, Roman Catholic 15.2%, atheist 0.8%, agnostic 0.3%, other 1.2%, undeclared/no answer 1.1% (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
NA
LanguagesCroatian (official) 95.6%, Serbian 1.2%, other 3% (including Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and Albanian), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)
Bosnian (official) 52.9%, Serbian (official) 30.8%, Croatian (official) 14.6%, other 1.6%, no answer 0.2% (2013 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.3%
male: 99.7%
female: 98.9% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.5%
male: 99.5%
female: 97.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2014)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2014)
Education expenditures4.6% of GDP (2013)
NA
Urbanizationurban population: 59% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.11% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 39.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.14% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 99.7% of population
total: 99.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 0.3% of population
total: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 99.7% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.3% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 97.8% of population
rural: 95.8% of population
total: 97% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.2% of population
rural: 4.2% of population
total: 3% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 98.9% of population
rural: 92% of population
total: 94.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.1% of population
rural: 8% of population
total: 5.2% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationZAGREB (capital) 687,000 (2015)
SARAJEVO (capital) 318,000 (2015)
Maternal mortality rate8 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
11 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Health expenditures7.8% of GDP (2014)
9.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3.13 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
1.89 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density5.9 beds/1,000 population (2014)
3.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate25.6% (2014)
19.2% (2014)
Mother's mean age at first birth28 years (2013 est.)
26.7 years (2013 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 51.1
youth dependency ratio: 22.5
elderly dependency ratio: 28.6
potential support ratio: 3.5 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 40.7
youth dependency ratio: 19
elderly dependency ratio: 21.7
potential support ratio: 4.6 (2015 est.)

Government

CroatiaBosnia and Herzegovina
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Croatia
conventional short form: Croatia
local long form: Republika Hrvatska
local short form: Hrvatska
former: People's Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia
etymology: name derives from the Croats, a Slavic tribe who migrated to the Balkans in the 7th century A.D.
"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
local long form: none
local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina
former: People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
abbreviation: BiH
etymology: the larger northern territory is named for the Bosna River; the smaller southern section takes its name from the German word ""herzog,"" meaning ""duke,"" and the ending ""-ovina,"" meaning ""land,"" forming the combination denoting ""dukedom""
"
Government typeparliamentary republic
parliamentary republic
Capitalname: Zagreb
geographic coordinates: 45 48 N, 16 00 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
name: Sarajevo
geographic coordinates: 43 52 N, 18 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular) with special county status; Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska(Bjelovar-Bilogora), Brodsko-Posavska (Brod-Posavina), Dubrovacko-Neretvanska (Dubrovnik-Neretva), Istarska (Istria), Karlovacka (Karlovac), Koprivnicko-Krizevacka (Koprivnica-Krizevci), Krapinsko-Zagorska (Krapina-Zagorje), Licko-Senjska (Lika-Senj), Medimurska (Medimurje), Osjecko-Baranjska (Osijek-Baranja), Pozesko-Slavonska (Pozega-Slavonia), Primorsko-Goranska (Primorje-Gorski Kotar), Sibensko-Kninska (Sibenik-Knin), Sisacko-Moslavacka (Sisak-Moslavina), Splitsko-Dalmatinska (Split-Dalmatia), Varazdinska (Varazdin), Viroviticko-Podravska (Virovitica-Podravina), Vukovarsko-Srijemska (Vukovar-Syrmia), Zadarska (Zadar), Zagreb*, Zagrebacka (Zagreb county)
3 first-order administrative divisions - Brcko District (Brcko Distrikt) (ethnically mixed), the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine) (predominantly Bosniak-Croat), the Republic of Srpska (Republika Srpska) (predominantly Serb)
Independence25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia); note - referendum for independence completed on 1 March 1992; independence declared on 3 March 1992
National holidayIndependence Day, 8 October (1991) and Statehood Day, 25 June (1991); note - 25 June 1991 was the day the Croatian parliament voted for independence; following a three-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia
Independence Day, 1 March (1992) and Statehood Day, 25 November (1943) - both observed in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity; Victory Day, 9 May (1945) and Dayton Agreement Day, 21 November (1995) - both observed in the Republika Srpska entity
note: there is no national-level holiday
Constitutionhistory: several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1990
amendments: proposed by at least one-fifth of the Assembly membership, by the president of the republic, by the Government of Croatia, or through petition by at least 10% of the total electorate; proceedings to amend require majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; passage by petition requires a majority vote in a referendum, and promulgation by the Assembly; amended several times, last in 2014 (2016)
history: 14 December 1995 (constitution included as part of the Dayton Peace Accords); note - each of the political entities has its own constitution
amendments: decided by the Parliamentary Assembly, including a two-thirds majority vote of members present in the House of Representatives; the constitutional article on human rights and fundamental freedoms cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2009
Legal systemcivil law system influenced by legal heritage of Austria-Hungary; note - Croatian law was fully harmonized with the European Community acquis as of the June 2010 completion of EU accession negotiations
civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts
Suffrage18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (since 19 February 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Andrej PLENKOVIC (since 19 October 2016); Deputy Prime Ministers Davor Ivo STIER, Damir KRSTICEVIC, Martina DALIC, Ivan KOVACIC (since 19 October 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 December 2014 and 11 January 2015 (next to be held in 2019); the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president and approved by the Assembly
election results: Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC elected president; percent of vote in the second round - Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (HDZ) 50.7%, Ivo JOSIPOVIC (Forward Croatia Progressive Alliance) 49.3%
chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Mladen IVANIC (chairman since 17 November 2016, presidency member since 17 November 2014 - Serb); Dragan COVIC (presidency member since 17 November 2014 - Croat); Bakir IZETBEGOVIC (presidency member since 10 November 2010 - Bosniak)
head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Denis ZVIZDIC (since 11 February 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman, approved by the state-level House of Representatives
elections/appointments: 3-member presidency (1 Bosniak and 1 Croat elected from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 1 Serb elected from the Republika Srpska) directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term, but then ineligible for 4 years); the presidency chairpersonship rotates every 8 months and resumes where it left off following each general election; election last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018); the chairman of the Council of Ministers appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the state-level House of Representatives
election results: percent of vote - Mladen IVANIC 48.7% - Serb seat; Dragan COVIC 52.2% - Croat seat; Bakir IZETBEGOVIC 32.9% - Bosniak seat
note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Marinko CAVARA (since 11 February 2015); Vice Presidents Melika MAHMUTBEGOVIC (since 11 February 2015), Milan DUNOVIC (since 11 February 2015); President of the Republika Srpska Milorad DODIK (since 15 November 2010); Vice Presidents Ramiz SALKIC (since 24 November 2014), Josip JERKOVIC (since 24 November 2014)
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Assembly or Hrvatski Sabor (151 seats; 140 members in 10 multi-seat constituencies and 3 members in a single constituency for Croatian diaspora directly elected by proportional representation vote using the D'Hondt method with a 5% threshold; an additional 8 members elected from a nationwide constituency by simple majority by voters belonging to minorities recognized by Croatia; the Serb minority elects 3 Assembly members, the Hungarian and Italian minorities elect 1 each, the Czech and Slovak minorities elect 1 jointly, and all other minorities elect 2; all members serve 4-year terms
elections: last held on 11 September 2016 (next to be held in September 2020) - Assembly voted on 20 June 2016 to dissolve on 15 July 2016, resulting in snap elections
election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; number of seats by party/coalition - HDZ coalition 61, People's Coalition 54, Most-NL 13, Only Option 8, minorities 8 (includes SDSS 3), other 7
note: as of March 2017, seats by party - HDZ 56, SDP 37, MOST-NL 14, HNS 9, HSS 5, IDS 3, SDSS 3, Human Blockade 3, HDS 2, PH 2, other 7, independent 10
description: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members designated by the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina's House of Peoples and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve 4-year terms) and the state-level House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats to include 28 seats allocated to the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 to the Republika Srpska; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); note - the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature that consists of the House of Peoples (58 seats - 17 Bosniak, 17 Croat, 17 Serb, 7 other) and the House of Representatives (98 seats; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); Republika Srpska's unicameral legislature is the National Assembly (83 directly elected delegates serve 4-year terms)
elections: House of Peoples - last constituted in 11 February 2015 (next likely to be constituted in 2019); state-level House of Representatives - election last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)
election results: House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - NA; state-level House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - Federation votes: SDA 27.9%, DF 15.3%, SBB BiH 14.4%, Croat People's Assembly coalition or HNS (HDZ BiH-HSS-NHI-HKDU-HSP BiH-HSP HB) 12.2%, SDP 9.5%, HDZ-1990 4.1%, BPS-Sefer Halilovic 3.7%, A-SDA 2.3%, other 10.6%; Republika Srpska votes: SNSD 38.5%, SDS 32.6%, PDP-NDP 7.8%, DNS 5.7%, SDA 4.9%, other 10.5%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 10, SNSD 6, SDS 5, DF 5, SBB BiH 4, Croat People's Assembly coalition or HNS (HDZ BiH-HSS-NHI-HKDU-HSP BiH-HSP HB) 4, SDP 3, PDP-NDP 1, HDZ-1990 1, BPS-Sefer Halilovic 1, DNS 1, A-SDA 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and vice president, 25 civil department justices, and 16 criminal department justices)
judge selection and term of office: president of Supreme Court nominated by president of Croatia and elected by Croatian Sabor for a 4-year term; other Supreme Court justices appointed by National Judicial Council; all judges serve until age 70
subordinate courts: Administrative Court; county, municipal, and specialized courts; note - there is an 11-member Constitutional Court with jurisdiction limited to constitutional issues but is outside Croatia's judicial system
highest court(s): BiH Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members); Court of BiH (consists of 44 national judges and 7 international judges organized into 3 divisions - Administrative, Appellate, and Criminal, which includes a War Crimes Chamber)
judge selection and term of office: BiH Constitutional Court judges - 4 selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives, 2 selected by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and 3 non-Bosnian judges selected by the president of the European Court of Human Rights; Court of BiH president and national judges appointed by the High Judicial and Prosecutorial Council; Court of BiH president appointed for renewable 6-year term; other national judges appointed to serve until age 70; international judges recommended by the president of the Court of BiH and appointed by the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina; international judges appointed to serve until age 70
subordinate courts: the Federation has 10 cantonal courts plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has a supreme court, 5 district courts, and a number of municipal courts
Political parties and leaders"Bloc of Pensioners Together or BUZ [Milivoj SPIKA]
Bridge of Independent Lists or Most-NL [Bozo PETROV]
Croatian Christian Democratic Party or HDS [Goran DODIG]
Croatian Democratic Congress of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB [Dragan VULIN]
Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Andrej PLENKOVIC]
Croatian Laborists - Labor Party or HL [David BREGOVAC]
Croatian Party of Rights - dr. Ante Starcevic or HSP AS [Hrvoje NICE]
Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Kreso BELJAK]
Croatian Pensioner Party or HSU [Silvano HRELJA]
Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats or HNS [Ivan VRDOLJAK]
Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Darinko KOSOR]
Forward Croatia Progressive Alliance [Ivo JOSIPOVIC]
Human Blockade (""Living Wall"") [Ivan SINCIC]
Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]
Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Boris MILETIC]
Let's Change Croatia or PH [Ivan LOVRINOVIC]
Milan Bandic 365 - Party of Labor and Solidarity or BM365-SRS [Milan BANDIC]
Movement for Successful Croatia or HRAST [Ladislav ILCIC]
People's Party - Reformists Party [Radimir CACIC]
Smart Party or PAMETNO [Marijana PULJAK]
Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Davor BERNARDIC]
"
Alliance for a Better Future of BiH or SBB BiH [Fahrudin RADONCIC]
Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]
Alternative Party for Democratic Activity or A-SDA [Nermin OGRESEVIC]
Bosnian-Herzegovinian Patriotic Party-Sefer Halilovic or BPS-Sefer Halilovic [Sefer HALILOVIC]
Croat Peasants' Party or HSS [Mario KARAMATIC]
Croatian Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Ivan MUSA]
Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ-BiH [Dragan COVIC]
Croatian Democratic Union 1990 or HDZ-1990 [acting president Ilija CVITANOVIC]
Croatian Party of Rights or HSP BiH [Stanko PRIMORAC]
Croatian Party of Rights of Herceg-Bosne or HSP HB [Vesna PINJUH]
Croatian People's Party-Liberal Democrats or HNS [Ivan VRDOLJAK]
Democratic Front of DF [Zeljko KOMSIC]
Democratic Peoples' Alliance or DNS [Marko PAVIC]
Party for Democratic Action or SDA [Bakir IZETBEGOVIC]
Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Branislav BORENOVIC]
People's Democratic Movement or NDP [Dragan CAVIC]
Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Vukota GOVEDARICA]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Nermin NIKSIC]
Political pressure groups and leadersother: human rights groups
other: war veterans; displaced persons associations; family associations of missing persons; private media
International organization participationAustralia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EMU, EU, FAO, G-11, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (observer), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US"chief of mission: Ambassador Josip ""Josko"" PARO (since 20 April 2012)
chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
"
chief of mission: Ambassador Haris HRLE (since 23 October 2015)
chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500
FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Julieta Valls NOYES (since 5 October 2015)
embassy: 2 Thomas Jefferson Street, 10010 Zagreb
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [385] (1) 661-2200
FAX: [385] (1) 661-2373
chief of mission: Ambassador Maureen CORMACK (since 16 January 2015)
embassy: 1 Robert C. Frasure Street, 71000 Sarajevo
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [387] (33) 704-000
FAX: [387] (33) 659-722
branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue - the Pan-Slav colors - superimposed by the Croatian coat of arms; the coat of arms consists of one main shield (a checkerboard of 13 red and 12 silver (white) fields) surmounted by five smaller shields that form a crown over the main shield; the five small shields represent five historic regions (from left to right): Croatia, Dubrovnik, Dalmatia, Istria, and Slavonia
note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia
a wide blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle; the triangle approximates the shape of the country and its three points stand for the constituent peoples - Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs; the stars represent Europe and are meant to be continuous (thus the half stars at top and bottom); the colors (white, blue, and yellow) are often associated with neutrality and peace, and traditionally are linked with Bosnia
note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Brazil, Eritrea, and Vanuatu
National anthem"name: ""Lijepa nasa domovino"" (Our Beautiful Homeland)
lyrics/music: Antun MIHANOVIC/Josip RUNJANIN
note: adopted 1972; ""Lijepa nasa domovino,"" whose lyrics were written in 1835, served as an unofficial anthem beginning in 1891
"
"name: ""Drzavna himna Bosne i Hercegovine"" (The National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina)
lyrics/music: none officially; Dusan SESTIC and Benjamin ISOVIC/Dusan SESTIC
note: music adopted 1999; lyrics accepted 2009 but not yet approved
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)red-white checkerboard; national colors: red, white, blue
golden lily; national colors: blue, yellow, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Croatia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina
dual citizenship recognized: yes, provided there is a bilateral agreement with the other state
residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

Economy

CroatiaBosnia and Herzegovina
Economy - overviewThough still one of the wealthiest of the former Yugoslav republics, Croatia's economy suffered badly during the 1991-95 war. The country's output during that time collapsed, and Croatia missed the early waves of investment in Central and Eastern Europe that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Between 2000 and 2007, however, Croatia's economic fortunes began to improve with moderate but steady GDP growth between 4% and 6% led by a rebound in tourism and credit-driven consumer spending. Inflation over the same period remained tame and the currency, the kuna, stable.

Croatia experienced an abrupt slowdown in the economy in 2008 and is slowly recovering; economic growth was stagnant or negative in each year since 2009, but picked up in 2015-16. Difficult problems still remain including a stubbornly high unemployment rate, uneven regional development, and a challenging investment climate. In 2016, Croatia demonstrated a commitment to improving the business climate, including by simplifying its tax code, to stimulate growth from domestic consumption and foreign investment. Since at least 2016, Croatia has worked to become a regional energy player and plans to import liquefied natural gas through a prospective import terminal and pump natural gas to European consumers.

On 1 July 2013, Croatia joined the EU, following a decade-long application process. Croatia will be a member of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, with its currency effectively pegged to the euro, until it meets the criteria for joining the Economic and Monetary Union and adopts the euro as its currency. EU accession has increased pressure on the government to reduce Croatia’s relatively high public debt, which triggered the EU’s excessive deficit procedure for fiscal consolidation. Zagreb has cut spending since 2012, and the government also raised additional revenues through more stringent tax collection and by raising the value-added tax. The government has also sought to accelerate privatization of non-strategic assets, with mixed success.
Bosnia and Herzegovina has a transitional economy with limited market reforms. The economy relies heavily on the export of metals, energy, textiles, and furniture as well as on remittances and foreign aid. A highly decentralized government hampers economic policy coordination and reform, while excessive bureaucracy and a segmented market discourage foreign investment. Foreign banks, primarily from Austria and Italy, control much of the banking sector, though the largest bank in the Republika Srpska entity is a private domestic one. The konvertibilna marka (convertible mark) - the national currency introduced in 1998 - is pegged to the euro through a currency board arrangement, which has maintained confidence in the currency and has facilitated reliable trade links with European partners. In 2016, Bosnia began a three-year IMF loan program that requires Bosnia to meet economic reform benchmarks to receive future funding installments.

Interethnic warfare in Bosnia and Herzegovina caused production to plummet by 80% from 1992 to 1995 and unemployment to soar, but the economy made progress until 2008, when the global economic crisis caused a downturn. Since 2013, Bosnia and Herzegovina has posted positive economic growth, though severe flooding hampered recovery in 2014. Bosnia and Herzegovina became a full member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement in September 2007.

Bosnia and Herzegovina's private sector is growing slowly, but foreign investment has dropped sharply since 2007. High unemployment remains the most serious macroeconomic problem. Successful implementation of a value-added tax in 2006 provided a steady source of revenue for the government and helped rein in gray-market activity, though public perceptions of government corruption and misuse of taxpayer money has encouraged a large informal economy to persist. National-level statistics have improved over time, but a large share of economic activity remains unofficial and unrecorded.

Bosnia and Herzegovina's top economic priorities are: acceleration of integration into the EU; strengthening the fiscal system; public administration reform; World Trade Organization membership; and securing economic growth by fostering a dynamic, competitive private sector.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$94.24 billion (2016 est.)
$92.48 billion (2015 est.)
$90.98 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$42.53 billion (2016 est.)
$41.29 billion (2015 est.)
$40.03 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate1.9% (2016 est.)
1.6% (2015 est.)
-0.4% (2014 est.)
3% (2016 est.)
3.2% (2015 est.)
1.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$22,400 (2016 est.)
$21,900 (2015 est.)
$21,500 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$11,000 (2016 est.)
$10,700 (2015 est.)
$10,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 4.2%
industry: 26.6%
services: 69.2% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 7.8%
industry: 26.8%
services: 65.4% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line19.5% (2014 est.)
17.2% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 27.5% (2008 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 27.3% (2007)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)-1% (2016 est.)
-0.5% (2015 est.)
0.2% (2016 est.)
-1% (2015 est.)
Labor force1.61 million (2016 est.)
1.48 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 1.9%
industry: 27.6%
services: 70.4% (2014)
agriculture: 19%
industry: 30%
services: 51% (2013)
Unemployment rate15.8% (2016 est.)
17.1% (2015 est.)
28% (2016 est.)
27.7% (2015 est.)
note: official rate; actual rate is lower as many technically unemployed persons work in the gray economy
Distribution of family income - Gini index32 (2010)
29 (1998)
36.2 (2007)
Budgetrevenues: $21.47 billion
expenditures: $22.72 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $7.681 billion
expenditures: $7.975 billion (2016 est.)
Industrieschemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism
steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, ammunition, domestic appliances, oil refining
Industrial production growth rate3.5% (2016 est.)
4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsarable crops (wheat, corn, barley, sugar beet, sunflower, rapeseed, alfalfa, clover); vegetables (potatoes, cabbage, onion, tomato, pepper); fruits (apples, plum, mandarins, olives), grapes for wine; livestock (cattle, cows, pigs); dairy products
wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock
Exports$12.41 billion (2016 est.)
$11.91 billion (2015 est.)
$3.93 billion (2016 est.)
$3.95 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiestransport equipment, machinery, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels
metals, clothing, wood products
Exports - partnersItaly 13.4%, Slovenia 12.5%, Germany 11.4%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.9%, Austria 6.6%, Serbia 4.9% (2015)
Slovenia 16.6%, Italy 16%, Germany 12.2%, Croatia 11.6%, Austria 11.2%, Turkey 5.3% (2016)
Imports$19.98 billion (2016 est.)
$19.28 billion (2015 est.)
$7.765 billion (2016 est.)
$8.173 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, transport and electrical equipment; chemicals, fuels and lubricants; foodstuffs
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersGermany 15.5%, Italy 13.1%, Slovenia 10.7%, Austria 9.2%, Hungary 7.8% (2015)
Croatia 19.3%, Germany 13.9%, Slovenia 13.8%, Italy 10.9%, Austria 5.7%, Hungary 5.2%, Turkey 4.5% (2016)
Debt - external$48.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$50.88 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$9.768 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.597 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rateskuna (HRK) per US dollar -
6.971 (2016 est.)
6.8583 (2015 est.)
6.8583 (2014 est.)
5.7482 (2013 est.)
5.85 (2012 est.)
konvertibilna markas (BAM) per US dollar -
1.806 (2016 est.)
1.7626 (2015 est.)
1.7626 (2014 est.)
1.4718 (2013 est.)
1.52 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt88.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
86.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
46.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
46.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$14.46 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.97 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.791 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$1.961 billion (2016 est.)
$2.482 billion (2015 est.)
-$927 million (2016 est.)
-$925 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$49.86 billion (2016 est.)
$16.53 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$41.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$39.74 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$7.92 billion (2014 est.)
$7.721 billion (2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$8.484 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.05 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$0 (2014)
Market value of publicly traded shares$36.29 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$33.75 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$33.44 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$NA
Commercial bank prime lending rate4.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.83% (31 December 2015 est.)
5% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.79% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$40.07 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$42.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$9.367 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.389 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$10.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$10.11 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$5.008 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.554 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$42.36 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$41.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$9.223 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$10.72 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues43.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
46.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
-1.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 45.5%
male: 44.9%
female: 46.4% (2014 est.)
total: 62.8%
male: 62.8%
female: 62.8% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 59.1%
government consumption: 19.3%
investment in fixed capital: 19.1%
investment in inventories: -0.4%
exports of goods and services: 50.8%
imports of goods and services: -47.9% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 80.9%
government consumption: 21.5%
investment in fixed capital: 18.6%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 32.8%
imports of goods and services: -55.1% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving21.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
23.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
19% of GDP (2014 est.)
12% of GDP (2016 est.)
10.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
10.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

CroatiaBosnia and Herzegovina
Electricity - production13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
15 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption16.97 billion kWh (2014 est.)
11 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports2.866 billion kWh (2014 est.)
6 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports6.592 billion kWh (2014 est.)
3.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production12,420 bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports37,300 bbl/day (2014 est.)
20,690 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves71 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production1.363 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption2.81 billion cu m (2014 est.)
169 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports422 million cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports1.089 billion cu m (2014 est.)
169 million cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity4.4 million kW (2014 est.)
4.3 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels37.1% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
54.8% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants48.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
43.6% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels7.7% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources6.6% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
1.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production56,650 bbl/day (2014 est.)
20,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption70,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
30,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports29,060 bbl/day (2014 est.)
5,342 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports32,890 bbl/day (2014 est.)
15,230 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy19 million Mt (2013 est.)
17 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesselectrification - total population: 100% (2016)
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Telecommunications

CroatiaBosnia and Herzegovina
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 1,476,506
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 771,684
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 4.416 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 99 (July 2015 est.)
total: 3.444 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 89 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the telecommunications network has improved steadily since the mid-1990s, covering much of what were once inaccessible areas; local lines are digital
domestic: fixed-line teledensity has droped somewhat to about 35 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions now even with the population
international: country code - 385; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic project, which consists of 2 fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; the ADRIA-1 submarine cable provides connectivity to Albania and Greece (2015)
general assessment: post-war reconstruction of the telecommunications network, aided by an internationally sponsored program, resulted in sharp increases in fixed-line telephone availability
domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly and stands at roughly 90 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations (2015)
Internet country code.hr
.ba
Internet userstotal: 3.117 million
percent of population: 69.8% (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.516 million
percent of population: 65.1% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediathe national state-owned public broadcaster, Croatian Radiotelevision, operates 4 terrestrial TV networks, a satellite channel that rebroadcasts programs for Croatians living abroad, and 6 regional TV centers; 2 private broadcasters operate national terrestrial networks; roughly 25 privately owned regional TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; state-owned public broadcaster operates 3 national radio networks and 9 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks and more than 170 regional, county, city, and community radio stations (2012)
3 public TV broadcasters: Radio and TV of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federation TV (operating 2 networks), and Republika Srpska Radio-TV; a local commercial network of 5 TV stations; 3 private, near-national TV stations and dozens of small independent TV broadcasting stations; 3 large public radio broadcasters and many private radio stations (2010)

Transportation

CroatiaBosnia and Herzegovina
Railwaystotal: 2,722 km
standard gauge: 2,722 km 1.435-m gauge (985 km electrified) (2014)
total: 965 km
standard gauge: 965 km 1.435-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 26,958 km (includes 1,416 km of expressways) (2015)
total: 22,926 km
paved: 19,426 km (4,652 km of interurban roads)
unpaved: 3,500 km (2010)
Waterways785 km (2009)
(Sava River on northern border; open to shipping but use limited) (2011)
Pipelinesgas 2,410 km; oil 610 km (2011)
gas 147 km; oil 9 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Ploce, Rijeka, Sibernik, Split
river port(s): Vukovar (Danube)
oil terminal(s): Omisalj
river port(s): Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, Brcko, Orasje (Sava River)
Airports69 (2013)
24 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 24
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 10 (2013)
total: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 45
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 38 (2013)
total: 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 11 (2013)
Heliports1 (2013)
6 (2013)

Military

CroatiaBosnia and Herzegovina
Military branchesArmed Forces of the Republic of Croatia (Oruzane Snage Republike Hrvatske, OSRH) consists of five major commands directly subordinate to a General Staff: Ground Forces (Hrvatska Kopnena Vojska, HKoV), Naval Forces (Hrvatska Ratna Mornarica, HRM, includes coast guard), Air Force and Air Defense Command (Hrvatsko Ratno Zrakoplovstvo I Protuzracna Obrana), Joint Education and Training Command, Logistics Command; Military Police Force supports each of the three Croatian military forces (2012)
Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Oruzanih Snaga Bosne i Hercegovine, OSBiH): Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Air Force and Air Defense (Brigada Zracnih Snaga i Protuzracne Odbrane, br ZSiPZO), Tactical Support Brigade (Brigada Takticke Podrske, br TP) (2015)
Military service age and obligation18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; 6-month service obligation (2012)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; mandatory retirement at age 35 or after 15 years of service for E-1 through E-4, mandatory retirement at age 50 and 30 years of service for E-5 through E-9, mandatory retirement at age 55 and 30 years of service for all officers (2014)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.55% of GDP (2015)
1.59% of GDP (2014)
1.66% of GDP (2013)
1.69% of GDP (2012)
1.78% of GDP (2011)
1% of GDP (2015)
1.03% of GDP (2014)
1.09% of GDP (2013)
1.15% of GDP (2012)
1.14% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

CroatiaBosnia and Herzegovina
Disputes - internationaldispute remains with Bosnia and Herzegovina over several small sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Pirin Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led to Slovenia lifting its objections to Croatia joining the EU; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements
Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute
Illicit drugstransit point along the Balkan route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe; has been used as a transit point for maritime shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe (2008)
increasingly a transit point for heroin being trafficked to Western Europe; minor transit point for marijuana; remains highly vulnerable to money-laundering activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy, weak law enforcement, and instances of corruption
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 2,873 (2016)
note: 659,105 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015 - December 2016)
refugees (country of origin): 5,164 (Croatia) (2016)
IDPs: 98,000 (Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Bosniaks displaced by inter-ethnic violence, human rights violations, and armed conflict during the 1992-1995 war) (2016)
stateless persons: 49 (2016)

Source: CIA Factbook