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Cote d'Ivoire vs. Burkina Faso

Introduction

Cote d'IvoireBurkina Faso
BackgroundClose ties to France following independence in 1960, the development of cocoa production for export, and foreign investment all made Cote d'Ivoire one of the most prosperous of the West African states but did not protect it from political turmoil. In December 1999, a military coup - the first ever in Cote d'Ivoire's history - overthrew the government. Junta leader Robert GUEI blatantly rigged elections held in late 2000 and declared himself the winner. Popular protest forced him to step aside and an election brought Laurent GBAGBO into power. Ivoirian dissidents and disaffected members of the military launched a failed coup attempt in September 2002 that developed into a rebellion and then a civil war. In 2003, a cease-fire resulted in the country being divided with the rebels holding the north, the government the south, and peacekeeping forces a buffer zone between the two. In March 2007, President GBAGBO and former New Forces rebel leader Guillaume SORO signed an agreement in which SORO joined GBAGBO's government as prime minister and the two agreed to reunite the country by dismantling the buffer zone, integrating rebel forces into the national armed forces, and holding elections. Difficulties in preparing electoral registers delayed balloting until 2010. In November 2010, Alassane Dramane OUATTARA won the presidential election over GBAGBO, but GBAGBO refused to hand over power, resulting in a five-month resumption of violent conflict. In April 2011, after widespread fighting, GBAGBO was formally forced from office by armed OUATTARA supporters with the help of UN and French forces. The UN peacekeeping mission is drawing down and is scheduled to depart in June 2017. OUATTARA is focused on rebuilding the country's economy and infrastructure while rebuilding the security forces. GBAGBO is in The Hague on trial for crimes against humanity.
Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) achieved independence from France in 1960. Repeated military coups during the 1970s and 1980s were followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Former President Blaise COMPAORE (1987-2014) resigned in late October 2014 following popular protests against his efforts to amend the Constitution's two-term presidential limit. By mid-November, a framework for an interim government was adopted under the terms of the National Transition Charter. An interim administration, led by President Michel KAFANDO and Prime Minister Yacouba Isaac ZIDA, began organizing presidential and legislative elections planned for October 2015, but these were postponed during a weeklong failed coup in September. The rescheduled elections were held on 29 November, and Roch Marc Christian KABORE was elected president in the first round. Burkina Faso's high population growth and limited natural resources result in poor economic prospects for the majority of its citizens.

Geography

Cote d'IvoireBurkina Faso
LocationWestern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana and Liberia
Western Africa, north of Ghana
Geographic coordinates8 00 N, 5 00 W
13 00 N, 2 00 W
Map referencesAfrica
Africa
Areatotal: 322,463 sq km
land: 318,003 sq km
water: 4,460 sq km
total: 274,200 sq km
land: 273,800 sq km
water: 400 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than New Mexico
slightly larger than Colorado
Land boundariestotal: 3,458 km
border countries (5): Burkina Faso 545 km, Ghana 720 km, Guinea 816 km, Liberia 778 km, Mali 599 km
total: 3,611 km
border countries (6): Benin 386 km, Cote d'Ivoire 545 km, Ghana 602 km, Mali 1,325 km, Niger 622 km, Togo 131 km
Coastline515 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
none (landlocked)
Climatetropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)
tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Terrainmostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest
mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 250 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Gulf of Guinea 0 m
highest point: Monts Nimba 1,752 m
mean elevation: 297 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m
highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper, gold, nickel, tantalum, silica sand, clay, cocoa beans, coffee, palm oil, hydropower
manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, phosphates, pumice, salt
Land useagricultural land: 64.8%
arable land 9.1%; permanent crops 14.2%; permanent pasture 41.5%
forest: 32.7%
other: 2.5% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 43%
arable land 20.8%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 21.9%
forest: 20.4%
other: 36.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land730 sq km (2012)
550 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardscoast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during the rainy season torrential flooding is possible
recurring droughts
Environment - current issuesdeforestation (most of the country's forests - once the largest in West Africa - have been heavily logged); water pollution from sewage and industrial and agricultural effluents
recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notemost of the inhabitants live along the sandy coastal region; apart from the capital area, the forested interior is sparsely populated
landlocked savanna cut by the three principal rivers of the Black, Red, and White Voltas

Demographics

Cote d'IvoireBurkina Faso
Population23,740,424
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
19,512,533
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 37.45% (male 4,483,215/female 4,407,595)
15-24 years: 20.93% (male 2,504,188/female 2,463,970)
25-54 years: 34.05% (male 4,133,975/female 3,950,734)
55-64 years: 4.15% (male 493,722/female 491,230)
65 years and over: 3.42% (male 389,551/female 422,244) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 45.04% (male 4,402,311/female 4,386,518)
15-24 years: 20.08% (male 1,966,644/female 1,951,722)
25-54 years: 29.28% (male 2,898,407/female 2,813,923)
55-64 years: 3.16% (male 267,763/female 349,433)
65 years and over: 2.44% (male 178,127/female 297,685) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 20.7 years
male: 20.8 years
female: 20.6 years (2016 est.)
total: 17.2 years
male: 17 years
female: 17.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.88% (2016 est.)
3.01% (2016 est.)
Birth rate28.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
41.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate9.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
11.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.77 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 57.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 63.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 51.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 73.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 80.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 66.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 58.7 years
male: 57.5 years
female: 59.9 years (2016 est.)
total population: 55.5 years
male: 53.4 years
female: 57.6 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate3.46 children born/woman (2016 est.)
5.79 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate3.17% (2015 est.)
0.83% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Ivoirian(s)
adjective: Ivoirian
noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
adjective: Burkinabe
Ethnic groupsAkan 28.8%, Voltaique or Gur 16.1%, Northern Mande 14.5%, Kru 8.5%, Southern Mande 6.9%, unspecified 0.9%, non-Ivoirian 42.3% (2014 est.)
Mossi 52.5%, Fulani 8.4%, Gurma 6.8%, Bobo 4.8%, Gurunsi 4.5%, Senufo 4.4%, Bissa 3.9%, Lobi 2.5%, Dagara 2.4%, Tuareg/Bella 1.9%, Dioula 0.8%, unspecified/no answer 0.1%, other 7% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS464,700 (2015 est.)
95,300 (2015 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 42.9%, Catholic 17.2%, Evangelical 11.8%, Methodist 1.7%, other Christian 3.2%, animist 3.6%, other religion 0.5%, none 19.1%
note: the majority of foreign migrant workers are Muslim (72.7%) and Christian (17.7%) (2014 est.)
Muslim 61.6%, Catholic 23.2%, traditional/animist 7.3%, Protestant 6.7%, other/no answer 0.2%, none 0.9% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths25,100 (2015 est.)
3,600 (2015 est.)
LanguagesFrench (official), 60 native dialects of which Dioula is the most widely spoken
French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 43.1%
male: 53.1%
female: 32.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 36%
male: 43%
female: 29.3% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2015)
total: 8 years
male: 8 years
female: 7 years (2013)
Education expenditures4.7% of GDP (2014)
3.9% of GDP (2015)
Urbanizationurban population: 54.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.69% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 29.9% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.87% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 93.1% of population
rural: 68.8% of population
total: 81.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6.9% of population
rural: 31.2% of population
total: 18.1% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 75.8% of population
total: 82.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 24.2% of population
total: 17.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 32.8% of population
rural: 10.3% of population
total: 22.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 67.2% of population
rural: 89.7% of population
total: 77.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 50.4% of population
rural: 6.7% of population
total: 19.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 49.6% of population
rural: 93.3% of population
total: 80.3% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationYAMOUSSOUKRO (capital) 259,000 (2014); ABIDJAN (seat of government) 4.86 million; Bouake 762,000 (2015)
OUAGADOUGOU (capital) 2.741 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate645 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
371 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight15.7% (2012)
26.2% (2010)
Health expenditures5.7% of GDP (2014)
5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density0.4 beds/1,000 population (2006)
0.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate8% (2014)
5.2% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 1,796,802
percentage: 35% (2006 est.)
total number: 1,521,006
percentage: 38% (2006 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.8 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011/12 est.)
19.4 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Demographic profileCote d’Ivoire’s population is likely to continue growing for the foreseeable future because almost 60% of the populace is younger than 25, the total fertility rate is holding steady at about 3.5 children per woman, and contraceptive use is under 20%. The country will need to improve education, health care, and gender equality in order to turn its large and growing youth cohort into human capital. Even prior to 2010 unrest that shuttered schools for months, access to education was poor, especially for women. As of 2015, only 53% of men and 33% of women were literate. The lack of educational attainment contributes to Cote d’Ivoire’s high rates of unskilled labor, adolescent pregnancy, and HIV/AIDS prevalence.
Following its independence in 1960, Cote d’Ivoire’s stability and the blossoming of its labor-intensive cocoa and coffee industries in the southwest made it an attractive destination for migrants from other parts of the country and its neighbors, particularly Burkina Faso. The HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY administration continued the French colonial policy of encouraging labor immigration by offering liberal land ownership laws. Foreigners from West Africa, Europe (mainly France), and Lebanon composed about 25% of the population by 1998.
Ongoing economic decline since the 1980s and the power struggle after HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY’s death in 1993 ushered in the politics of “Ivoirite,” institutionalizing an Ivoirian identity that further marginalized northern Ivoirians and scapegoated immigrants. The hostile Muslim north-Christian south divide snowballed into a 2002 civil war, pushing tens of thousands of foreign migrants, Liberian refugees, and Ivoirians to flee to war-torn Liberia or other regional countries and more than a million people to be internally displaced. Subsequently, violence following the contested 2010 presidential election prompted some 250,000 people to seek refuge in Liberia and other neighboring countries and again internally displaced as many as a million people. By July 2012, the majority had returned home, but ongoing inter-communal tension and armed conflict continue to force people from their homes.
Burkina Faso has a young age structure – the result of declining mortality combined with steady high fertility – and continues to experience rapid population growth, which is putting increasing pressure on the country’s limited arable land. More than 65% of the population is under the age of 25, and the population is growing at 3% annually. Mortality rates, especially those of infants and children, have decreased because of improved health care, hygiene, and sanitation, but women continue to have an average of almost 6 children. Even if fertility were substantially reduced, today’s large cohort entering their reproductive years would sustain high population growth for the foreseeable future. Only about a third of the population is literate and unemployment is widespread, dampening the economic prospects of Burkina Faso’s large working-age population.
Migration has traditionally been a way of life for Burkinabe, with seasonal migration being replaced by stints of up to two years abroad. Cote d’Ivoire remains the top destination, although it has experienced periods of internal conflict. Under French colonization, Burkina Faso became a main labor source for agricultural and factory work in Cote d’Ivoire. Burkinabe also migrated to Ghana, Mali, and Senegal for work between the world wars. Burkina Faso attracts migrants from Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, and Mali, who often share common ethnic backgrounds with the Burkinabe. Despite its food shortages and high poverty rate, Burkina Faso has become a destination for refugees in recent years and currently hosts about 50,000 Malians.
Contraceptive prevalence rate18.2% (2011/12)
20.8% (2015)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 83.5
youth dependency ratio: 77.9
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6
potential support ratio: 18 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 92.2
youth dependency ratio: 87.6
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6
potential support ratio: 21.7 (2015 est.)

Government

Cote d'IvoireBurkina Faso
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire
local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
local short form: Cote d'Ivoire
note: pronounced coat-div-whar
former: Ivory Coast
etymology: name reflects the intense ivory trade that took place in the region from the 15th to 17th centuries
"conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Burkina Faso
local long form: none
local short form: Burkina Faso
former: Upper Volta, Republic of Upper Volta
etymology: name translates as ""Land of the Honest (Incorruptible) Men""
"
Government typepresidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Yamoussoukro; note - although Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983, Abidjan remains the commercial and administrative center; the US, like other countries, maintains its Embassy in Abidjan
geographic coordinates: 6 49 N, 5 16 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
name: Ouagadougou
geographic coordinates: 12 22 N, 1 31 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions12 districts and 2 autonomous districts*; Abidjan*, Bas-Sassandra, Comoe, Denguele, Goh-Djiboua, Lacs, Lagunes, Montagnes, Sassandra-Marahoue, Savanes, Vallee du Bandama, Woroba, Yamoussoukro*, Zanzan
13 regions; Boucle du Mouhoun, Cascades, Centre, Centre-Est, Centre-Nord, Centre-Ouest, Centre-Sud, Est, Hauts-Bassins, Nord, Plateau-Central, Sahel, Sud-Ouest
Independence7 August 1960 (from France)
5 August 1960 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day, 7 August (1960)
Republic Day, 11 December (1958); note - commemorates the day that Upper Volta became an autonomous republic in the French Community
Constitutionprevious 1960, 2000; latest draft completed 24 September 2016,approved by the National Assembly 11 October 2016, approved by referendum 30 October 2016, promulgated 8 November 2016 (2016)
several previous; latest approved by referendum 2 June 1991, adopted 11 June 1991; amended several times, last in 2015 for setting a two-term limit for presidents; note - constitution temporarily suspended between late October and mid-November 2014 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system based on the French civil code; judicial review of legislation held in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court
civil law based on the French model and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Alassane Dramane OUATTARA (since 4 December 2010); Vice President Daniel Kablan DUNCAN (since 16 January 2017); note - the constitution of 2016 calls for the position of a vice-president
head of government: Prime Minister Amadou Gon COULIBALY (since 11 January 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president; note - the new constitution limits the presidential tenure to two terms beginning with the 2020 election; the vice president is named by the president
election results: Alassane OUATTARA elected president; percent of vote - Alassane OUATTARA (RDR) 83.7%, Pascal Affi N'GUESSAN (ADF) 9.3%, Konan Bertin KOUADIO (independent) 3.9%, other 3.1%
chief of state: President Roch Marc Christian KABORE (since 29 December 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Paul Kaba THIEBA (since 6 January 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds, if needed, for a 5-year term (eligible for a second); election last held on 29 November 2015 (next scheduled for November 2020); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of the National Assembly
election results: Roch Marc Christian KABORE elected president in one round; percent of vote - Roch Marc Christian KABORE 53.5%, Zephirin DIABRE 29.6%, Tahirou BARRY 3.1%. Benewende Stanislas SANKARA 2.8%, other 10.9%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly (255 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the new constitution of November 2016 calls for a bicameral legislature with the addition of a Senate, with one-third of members appointed by the president
elections: last held on 18 December 2011 (next to be held on December 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - RHDP 50.3%, FPI 5.8%, UDPCI 3.0%, UPCI 1.0%, independents 38.5%, other 1.39%; seats by party - RHDP 167, FPI 3, UDPCI 6, UPCI 3, independents 76
description: unicameral National Assembly (127 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 29 November 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPP 55, UPC 33, CDP 18, Union for Rebirth/Sankarist Party 5, ADF/RDA 3, other 13
Judicial branch"highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Judicial, Audit, Constitutional, and Administrative Chambers; consists of the court president, 3 vice-presidents for the Judicial, Audit, and Administrative chambers, and 9 associate justices or magistrates)
judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Superior Council of the Magistrature, a 7-member body consisting of the national president (chairman), 3 ""bench"" judges, and 3 public prosecutors; judges appointed for life
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (organized into civil, criminal, and social chambers); first instance courts; peace courts
"
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Appeals or Cour de Cassation (consists of NA judges); Council of State (consists of NA judges); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionnel (consists of the council president and 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judge appointments mostly controlled by the president of Burkina Faso; judges have no term limits; Council of State judge appointment and tenure NA; Constitutional Council judges appointed by the president of Burkina Faso upon the proposal of the minister of justice and the president of the National Assembly; judges appointed for 9-year terms with one-third of membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: Appeals Court; High Court; first instance tribunals; district courts; specialized courts relating to issues of labor, children, and juveniles; village (customary) courts
Political parties and leadersDemocratic Party of Cote d'Ivoire or PDCI [Henri Konan BEDIE]
Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Pascal Affi N'GUESSAN]
Liberty and Democracy for the Republic or LIDER [Mamadou KOULIBALY]
Movement of the Future Forces or MFA [Innocent Augustin ANAKY KOBENA]
Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Alassane Dramane OUATTARA]
Union for Cote d'Ivoire or UPCI [Gnamien KONA]
Union for Democracy and Peace in Cote d'Ivoire or UDPCI [Albert Toikeuse MABRI]
other: more than 144 smaller registered parties
African Democratic Rally/Alliance for Democracy and Federation or ADF/RDA [Gilbert Noel OUEDRAOGO]
African People’s Movement or MAP [Victorien TOUGOUMA]
Congress for Democracy and Progress or CDP [Achille TAPSOBA]
Le Faso Autrement [Ablasse OUEDRAOGO]
New Alliance of the Faso or NAFA [Rasmane OUEDRAOGO]
New Time for Democracy or NTD [Vincent DABILGOU]
Organization for Democracy and Work or ODT [Mahamoudou SAWADOGO]
Party for Development and Change or PDC [Saran SEREME]
Party for Democracy and Progress-Socialist Party or PDP-PS [Francois O. KABORE]
Party for Democracy and Socialism/Metba or PDS/Metba [Philippe OUEDRAOGO]
Party for National Renaissance or PAREN [Tahirou BARRY]
People's Movement for Progress or MPP [Roch March Christian KABORE]
Rally for Democracy and Socialism or RDS [Francois OUEDRAOGO]
Rally for the Development of Burkina or RDB [Celestin Saidou COMPAORE]
Rally of Ecologists of Burkina Faso or RDEB [Adama SERE]
Union for a New Burkina or UBN [Yacouba OUEDRAOGO]
Union for Progress and Change or UPC [Zephirin DIABRE]
Union for Rebirth - Sankarist Movement or UNIR-MS [Benewende Stanislas SANKARA]
Union for the Republic or UPR [Toussaint Abel COULIBALY]
Youth Alliance for the Republic and Independence or AJIR [Adama KANAZOE]
Political pressure groups and leadersFederation of University and High School Students of Cote d'Ivoire or FESCI [Augustin MIAN]
National Congress for the Resistance and Democracy or CNRD [Bernard DADIE]
Panafrican Congress for Justice and Peoples Equality or COJEP [Roselin BLY]
Balai Citoyen [Herve KAM]
Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB [Bassolma BAZIE]
Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP [Chrysigone ZOUGMORE]
Burkinabe Society for Constitutional Law or SBDC [Abdoulaye SOMA]
Center for Democratic Governance or CGD [Thomas OUEDRAOGO]
Coalition for African Renaissance or CAR [Herve OUATTARA]
National Independent Union of Burkinabe Magistrates or SAMAB
National Union for Health Workers or SYNTSHA
National Union for Primary Education Teachers or SYNATEB
other: watchdog/political action groups throughout the country
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Daouda DIABATE (since 11 February 2011)
chancery: 2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300
FAX: [1] (202) 462-9444
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Seydou SINKA (since 1 November 2014)
chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577
FAX: [1] (202) 667-1882
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Charge d'Affaires Andrew Haviland (since 2016); Ambassador Terence Patrick MCCULLEY retired in 2016
embassy: Cocody Riviera Golf 01, Abidjan
mailing address: B. P. 1712, Abidjan 01
telephone: [225] 22 49 40 00
FAX: [225] 22 49 43 23
chief of mission: Ambassador Andrew YOUNG (since September 2016)
embassy: Rue 15.873, Avenue Sembene Ousmane, Ouaga 2000, Secteur 15
mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 01; pouch mail - US Department of State, 2440 Ouagadougou Place, Washington, DC 20521-2440
telephone: [226] 25-49-53-00
FAX: [226] 25-49-56-28
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green; orange symbolizes the land (savannah) of the north and fertility, white stands for peace and unity, green represents the forests of the south and the hope for a bright future
note: similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; red recalls the country's struggle for independence, green is for hope and abundance, and yellow represents the country's mineral wealth
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia
National anthem"name: ""L'Abidjanaise"" (Song of Abidjan)
lyrics/music: Mathieu EKRA, Joachim BONY, and Pierre Marie COTY/Pierre Marie COTY and Pierre Michel PANGO
note: adopted 1960; although the nation's capital city moved from Abidjan to Yamoussoukro in 1983, the anthem still owes its name to the former capital
"
"name: ""Le Ditanye"" (Anthem of Victory)
lyrics/music: Thomas SANKARA
note: adopted 1974; also known as ""Une Seule Nuit"" (One Single Night); written by the country's president, an avid guitar player
"
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)elephant; national colors: orange, white, green
white stallion; national colors: red, yellow, green
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cote d'Ivoire
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Burkina Faso
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Economy

Cote d'IvoireBurkina Faso
Economy - overviewCote d'Ivoire is heavily dependent on agriculture and related activities, which engage roughly two-thirds of the population. Cote d'Ivoire is the world's largest producer and exporter of cocoa beans and a significant producer and exporter of coffee and palm oil. Consequently, the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for these products and in climatic conditions. Cocoa, oil, and coffee are the country's top export revenue earners, but the country has targeted the agricultural processing of cocoa, cashews, mangoes, and other commodities as a high priority. Mining gold and exporting electricity are growing industries outside agriculture.

Following the end of more than a decade of civil conflict in 2011, Cote d’Ivoire has experienced a boom in foreign investment and economic growth. In June 2012, the IMF and the World Bank announced $4.4 billion in debt relief for Cote d'Ivoire under the Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative. For the last 5 years Cote d'Ivoire's growth rate has been among the highest in the world.
Burkina Faso is a poor, landlocked country that depends on adequate rainfall. About 80% of the population is engaged in subsistence farming and cotton is the main cash crop. The country has few natural resources and a weak industrial base.

Cotton and gold are Burkina Faso’s key exports - gold has accounted for about three-quarters of the country’s total export revenues. Burkina Faso’s economic growth and revenue depends largely on production levels and global prices for the two commodities. The Burkinabe economy experienced high levels of growth over the last few years, and the country has seen an upswing in gold exploration, production, and exports.

Burkina Faso experienced a number of public protests over the high cost of living, corruption, and other socioeconomic issues in 2013, while the fall of the COMPAORE government in 2014 and failed coup in September 2015 disrupted economic activity and strained government finances. A new three-year IMF program, approved in 2013, was recently completed. Discussions are currently underway on a new program. Political insecurity in neighboring Mali, unreliable energy supplies, and poor transportation links pose long-term challenges.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$87.12 billion (2016 est.)
$80.68 billion (2015 est.)
$74.33 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$32.99 billion (2016 est.)
$31.35 billion (2015 est.)
$30.14 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate8% (2016 est.)
8.5% (2015 est.)
7.9% (2014 est.)
5.2% (2016 est.)
4% (2015 est.)
4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,600 (2016 est.)
$3,400 (2015 est.)
$3,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$1,800 (2016 est.)
$1,800 (2015 est.)
$1,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 17.6%
industry: 19.5%
services: 62.8% (2016 est.)
agriculture: 32.5%
industry: 21.8%
services: 45.7% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line46.3% (2015 est.)
40.1% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 31.8% (2008)
lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 32.2% (2009 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1.2% (2016 est.)
1.3% (2015 est.)
1.4% (2016 est.)
1% (2015 est.)
Labor force8.543 million (2016 est.)
7.942 million
note: a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment (2014 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 68%
industry and services: NA% (2007 est.)
agriculture: 90%
industry and services: 10% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rateNA%
77% (2004)
Distribution of family income - Gini index41.5 (2008)
36.7 (1995)
39.5 (2007)
48.2 (1994)
Budgetrevenues: $6.839 billion
expenditures: $8.17 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $2.442 billion
expenditures: $2.779 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesfoodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining, gold mining, truck and bus assembly, textiles, fertilizer, building materials, electricity
cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold
Industrial production growth rate8.5% (2016 est.)
4.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels, corn, rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar, cotton, rubber; timber
cotton, peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock
Exports$11.73 billion (2016 est.)
$11.98 billion (2015 est.)
$2.771 billion (2016 est.)
$2.515 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiescocoa, coffee, timber, petroleum, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, fish
gold, cotton, livestock
Exports - partnersUS 8.6%, Netherlands 6.2%, France 5.7%, Germany 5.6%, Nigeria 5.6%, Burkina Faso 5.5%, Belgium 5.3%, India 4.7%, Ghana 4.4%, Switzerland 4.1% (2015)
Switzerland 53.2%, India 14.8% (2015)
Imports$8.966 billion (2016 est.)
$8.609 billion (2015 est.)
$2.872 billion (2016 est.)
$2.863 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfuel, capital equipment, foodstuffs
capital goods, foodstuffs, petroleum
Imports - partnersNigeria 21.8%, China 14.3%, France 11.3%, Bahamas, The 5% (2015)
Cote dIvoire 23.3%, France 11.1%, Togo 7.6%, China 4.8%, Ghana 4.6% (2015)
Debt - external$12.84 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$11.71 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.092 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.669 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesCommunaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
604.4 (2016 est.)
591.45 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.29 (2012 est.)
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
605.7 (2016 est.)
591.45 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$4.952 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.716 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$333.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$259.6 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$774 million (2016 est.)
-$323 million (2015 est.)
-$918 million (2016 est.)
-$892 million (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$34.65 billion (2016 est.)
$12.01 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$12.49 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$11.71 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$11.82 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$NA
Central bank discount rate4.25% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
4.25% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate2.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
NA%
Stock of domestic credit$11.19 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.812 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.421 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.192 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$9.416 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.516 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.348 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.124 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$13.92 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.55 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.387 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues19.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
-2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 66%
government consumption: 15.2%
investment in fixed capital: 16.9%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 43.3%
imports of goods and services: -42.2% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 45.1%
government consumption: 22%
investment in fixed capital: 28.7%
investment in inventories: 0.7%
exports of goods and services: 34.5%
imports of goods and services: -31% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving18.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
19.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
8.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
7.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
11.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

Cote d'IvoireBurkina Faso
Electricity - production7.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
700 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption5.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
1.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports900 million kWh (2014 est.)
0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports54 million kWh (2012 est.)
600 million kWh (2014 est.)
Oil - production45,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports74,960 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports35,150 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves100 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves28.32 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production1.996 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption1.996 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2013 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity1.9 million kW (2016 est.)
300,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels60.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
86.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants39.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
13.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production76,910 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption38,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
22,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports44,020 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports3,369 bbl/day (2013 est.)
20,890 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy8.995 million Mt (2013 est.)
1.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 15,000,000
electrification - total population: 26%
electrification - urban areas: 42%
electrification - rural areas: 8% (2013)
population without electricity: 14,100,000
electrification - total population: 17%
electrification - urban areas: 56%
electrification - rural areas: 1% (2013)

Telecommunications

Cote d'IvoireBurkina Faso
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 277,248
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 75,075
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 25.408 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109 (July 2015 est.)
total: 14.447 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 76 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: well-developed by African standards; telecommunications sector privatized in late 1990s and operational fixed lines have increased since that time with 2 fixed-line providers operating over open-wire lines, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optics; 90% digitalized
domestic: with multiple mobile-cellular service providers competing in the market, usage has increased sharply to about 110 per 100 persons
international: country code - 225; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2016)
general assessment: system includes microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communication stations
domestic: fixed-line connections stand at less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, fostered by multiple providers, is increasing steadily from a low base
international: country code - 226; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.ci
.bf
Internet userstotal: 4.892 million
percent of population: 21% (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.156 million
percent of population: 11.4% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast media2 state-owned TV stations; no private terrestrial TV stations, but satellite TV subscription service is available; 2 state-owned radio stations; some private radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)
2 TV stations - 1 state-owned and 1 privately owned; state-owned radio runs a national and regional network; substantial number of privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters available in Ouagadougou (2007)

Transportation

Cote d'IvoireBurkina Faso
Railwaystotal: 660 km
narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000-m gauge
note: an additional 622 km of this railroad extends into Burkina Faso (2008)
total: 622 km
narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge
note: another 660 km of this railway extends into Cote d'Ivoire (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 81,996 km
paved: 6,502 km
unpaved: 75,494 km
note: includes intercity and urban roads; another 20,000 km of dirt roads are in poor condition and 150,000 km of dirt roads are impassable (2007)
total: 15,272 km
note: does not include urban roads (2010)
Airports27 (2013)
23 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2013)
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
total: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 5 (2013)

Military

Cote d'IvoireBurkina Faso
Military branchesRepublican Forces of Cote d'Ivoire (Force Republiques de Cote d'Ivoire, FRCI): Army, Navy, Cote d'Ivoire Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Cote d'Ivoire) (2015)
Army, Air Force of Burkina Faso (Force Aerienne de Burkina Faso, FABF), National Gendarmerie (2011)
Military service age and obligation18-25 years of age for compulsory and voluntary male and female military service; conscription is not enforced; voluntary recruitment of former rebels into the new national army is restricted to ages 22-29 (2012)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; women may serve in supporting roles (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.47% of GDP (2015)
1.53% of GDP (2014)
1.38% of GDP (2013)
1.51% of GDP (2012)
1.41% of GDP (2011)
1.67% of GDP (2014)
1.34% of GDP (2013)
1.32% of GDP (2012)
1.29% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Cote d'IvoireBurkina Faso
Disputes - internationaldisputed maritime border between Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana
adding to illicit cross-border activities, Burkina Faso has issues concerning unresolved boundary alignments with its neighbors; demarcation is currently underway with Mali; the dispute with Niger was referred to the ICJ in 2010, and a dispute over several villages with Benin persists; Benin retains a border dispute with Burkina Faso around the town of Koualou
Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 301,000 (post-election conflict in 2010-2011, as well as civil war from 2002-2004; most pronounced in western and southwestern regions) (2016)
stateless persons: 694,000 (2016); note - many Ivoirians lack documentation proving their nationality, which prevent them from accessing education and healthcare; birth on Ivorian soil does not automatically result in citizenship; disputes over citizenship and the associated rights of the large population descended from migrants from neighboring countries is an ongoing source of tension and contributed to the country's 2002 civil war; some observers believe the government's mass naturalizations of thousands of people over the last couple of years is intended to boost its electoral support base; the government in October 2013 acceded to international conventions on statelessness and in August 2013 reformed its nationality law, key steps to clarify the nationality of thousands of residents; since the adoption of the Abidjan Declaration to eradicate stateless in West Africa in February 2015, 6,400 people have received nationality papers
refugees (country of origin): 33,056 (Mali) (2017)

Source: CIA Factbook