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China vs. Indonesia

Introduction

ChinaIndonesia
BackgroundFor centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, MAO's successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight. Since the early 1990s, China has increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations.The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted "Guided Democracy." After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was gradually eased from power. From 1967 until 1988, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his "New Order" government. After rioting toppled Suharto in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance in Papua by the separatist Free Papua Movement.

Geography

ChinaIndonesia
LocationEastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and VietnamSoutheastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates35 00 N, 105 00 E5 00 S, 120 00 E
Map referencesAsiaSoutheast Asia
Areatotal: 9,596,960 sq km
land: 9,326,410 sq km
water: 270,550 sq km
total: 1,904,569 sq km
land: 1,811,569 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than the USslightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 22,457 km
border countries: Afghanistan 91 km, Bhutan 477 km, Burma 2,129 km, India 2,659 km, Kazakhstan 1,765 km, North Korea 1,352 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,063 km, Laos 475 km, Mongolia 4,630 km, Nepal 1,389 km, Pakistan 438 km, Russia (northeast) 4,139 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 477 km, Vietnam 1,297 km
regional borders: Hong Kong 33 km, Macau 3 km
total: 2,958 km
border countries: Timor-Leste 253 km, Malaysia 1,881 km, Papua New Guinea 824 km
Coastline14,500 km54,716 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climateextremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in northtropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrainmostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in eastmostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Elevation extremeslowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (highest point in Asia)
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m
Natural resourcescoal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, rare earth elements, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land usearable land: 11.62%
permanent crops: 1.53%
other: 86.84% (2011)
arable land: 12.34%
permanent crops: 10.5%
other: 77.16% (2011)
Irrigated land629,380 sq km (2006)67,220 sq km (2005)
Natural hazardsfrequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
volcanism: China contains some historically active volcanoes including Changbaishan (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu, or P'aektu-san), Hainan Dao, and Kunlun although most have been relatively inactive in recent centuries
occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires
volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (elev. 2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora
Environment - current issuesair pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; China is the world's largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered speciesdeforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - noteworld's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US) and largest country situated entirely in Asia; Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peakarchipelago of 17,508 islands, some 6,000 of which are inhabited (Indonesia is the world's largest country comprised solely of islands); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean
Total renewable water resources2,840 cu km (2011)2,019 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 554.1 cu km/yr (12%/23%/65%)
per capita: 409.9 cu m/yr (2005)
total: 113.3 cu km/yr (11%/19%/71%)
per capita: 517.3 cu m/yr (2005)

Demographics

ChinaIndonesia
Population1,355,692,576 (July 2014 est.)253,609,643 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 17.1% (male 124,340,516/female 107,287,324)
15-24 years: 14.7% (male 105,763,058/female 93,903,845)
25-54 years: 47.2% (male 327,130,324/female 313,029,536)
55-64 years: 11.3% (male 77,751,100/female 75,737,968)
65 years and over: 9.6% (male 62,646,075/female 68,102,830) (2014 est.)
0-14 years: 26.2% (male 33,854,520/female 32,648,568)
15-24 years: 17.1% (male 22,067,716/female 21,291,548)
25-54 years: 42.3% (male 54,500,650/female 52,723,359)
55-64 years: 7.9% (male 9,257,637/female 10,780,724)
65 years and over: 6.5% (male 7,176,865/female 9,308,056) (2014 est.)
Median agetotal: 36.7 years
male: 35.8 years
female: 37.5 years (2014 est.)
total: 29.2 years
male: 28.7 years
female: 29.8 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate0.44% (2014 est.)0.95% (2014 est.)
Birth rate12.17 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)17.04 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate7.44 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)6.34 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate-0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)-1.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.16 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 14.79 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 14.93 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
total: 25.16 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 29.45 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 20.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75.15 years
male: 73.09 years
female: 77.43 years (2014 est.)
total population: 72.17 years
male: 69.59 years
female: 74.88 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate1.55 children born/woman (2014 est.)2.18 children born/woman (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.1% (2012 est.)0.4% (2012 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese
noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groupsHan Chinese 91.6%, Zhuang 1.3%, other (includes Hui, Manchu, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Tujia, Tibetan, Mongol, Dong, Buyei, Yao, Bai, Korean, Hani, Li, Kazakh, Dai and other nationalities) 7.1%
note: the Chinese government officially recognizes 56 ethnic groups (2010 est.)
Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS780,000 (2012 est.)605,500 (2012 est.)
ReligionsBuddhist 18.2%, Christian 5.1%, Muslim 1.8%, folk religion 21.9%, Hindu < .1%, Jewish < .1%, other 0.7% (includes Daoist (Taoist)), unaffiliated 52.2%
note: officially atheist (2010 est.)
Muslim 87.2%, Christian 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths26,000 (2009 est.)26,800 (2012 est.)
LanguagesStandard Chinese or Mandarin (official; Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
note: Zhuang is official in Guangxi Zhuang, Yue is official in Guangdong, Mongolian is official in Nei Mongol, Uighur is official in Xinjiang Uygur, Kyrgyz is official in Xinjiang Uyghur, and Tibetan is official in Xizang (Tibet)
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)
note: more than 700 languages are used in Indonesia
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.1%
male: 97.5%
female: 92.7% (2010 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.8%
male: 95.6%
female: 90.1% (2011 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: Japanese encephalitis
soil contact disease: hantaviral hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2012)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2011)
Education expendituresNA2.8% of GDP (2011)
Urbanizationurban population: 50.6% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.85% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 50.7% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.45% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 98.4% of population
rural: 84.9% of population
total: 91.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.6% of population
rural: 15.1% of population
total: 8.1% of population (2012 est.)
improved:
urban: 93% of population
rural: 76.4% of population
total: 84.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7% of population
rural: 23.6% of population
total: 15.1% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 74.1% of population
rural: 55.8% of population
total: 65.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 25.9% of population
rural: 44.2% of population
total: 34.7% of population (2012 est.)
improved:
urban: 71.4% of population
rural: 45.5% of population
total: 58.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 28.6% of population
rural: 54.5% of population
total: 41.2% of population (2012 est.)
Major cities - populationShanghai 20.208 million; BEIJING (capital) 15.594 million; Guangzhou 10.849 million; Shenzhen 10.63 million; Chongqing 9.977 million; Wuhan 9.158 million (2011)JAKARTA (capital) 9.769 million; Surabaya 2.787 million; Bandung 2.429 million; Medan 2.118 million; Semarang 1.573 million; Palembang 1.455 million (2011)
Maternal mortality rate37 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)220 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight3.4% (2010)18.6% (2010)
Health expenditures5.2% of GDP (2011)2.7% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density1.46 physicians/1,000 population (2010)0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density3.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)0.6 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate5.7% (2008)4.8% (2008)
Contraceptive prevalence rate84.6% (2006)61.9% (2012)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 37.4 %
youth dependency ratio: 24.9 %
elderly dependency ratio: 12.5 %
potential support ratio: 8 (2014 est.)
total dependency ratio: 51 %
youth dependency ratio: 43 %
elderly dependency ratio: 8 %
potential support ratio: 12.5 (2014 est.)

Government

ChinaIndonesia
Country nameconventional long form: People's Republic of China
conventional short form: China
local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
local short form: Zhongguo
abbreviation: PRC
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies
Government typeCommunist staterepublic
Capitalname: Beijing
geographic coordinates: 39 55 N, 116 23 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note: despite its size, all of China falls within one time zone; many people in Xinjiang Province observe an unofficial "Xinjiang time zone" of UTC+6, two hours behind Beijing
name: Jakarta
geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note: Indonesia has three time zones
Administrative divisions23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural)
provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Taiwan)
autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia), Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur, Xizang (Tibet)
municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin
note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau
31 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 1 autonomous province*, 1 special region** (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 national capital district*** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya***, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Utara (North Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta**
note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
Independence1 October 1949 (People's Republic of China established); notable earlier dates: 221 B.C. (unification under the Qin Dynasty); 1 January 1912 (Qing Dynasty replaced by the Republic of China)17 August 1945 (declared)
National holidayanniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China, 1 October (1949)Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest promulgated 4 December 1982; amended several times, last in 2005 (2005)drafted July to August 1945, effective 17 August 1945, abrogated by 1949 and 1950 constitutions, 1945 constitution restored 5 July 1959; amended several times, last in 2002 (2013)
Legal systemcivil law influenced by Soviet and continental European civil law systems; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; note - criminal procedure law revised in early 2012civil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive branchchief of state: President XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013); Vice President LI Yuanchao (since 14 March 2013)
head of government: Premier LI Keqiang (since 16 March 2013); Executive Vice Premier ZHANG Gaoli (since 16 March 2013); Vice Premier LIU Yandong (since 16 March 2013); Vice Premier MA Kai (since 16 March 2013); Vice Premier WANG Yang (since 16 March 2013)
cabinet: State Council appointed by National People's Congress
elections: president and vice president elected by National People's Congress for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5-17 March 2013 (next to be held in March 2018); premier nominated by president, confirmed by National People's Congress
election results: XI Jinping elected president by National People's Congress with 2,952 votes; LI Yuanchao elected vice president with 2,940 votes
chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote; presidential election last held on 8 July 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president; percent of vote - Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO 60.8%, MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri 26.8%, Jusuf KALLA 12.4%
Legislative branchunicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,987 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses, and People's Liberation Army to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held in December 2012-February 2013 (next to be held in late 2017 to early 2018)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - 2,987
note: in practice, only members of the CCP, its eight allied parties, and CCP-approved independent candidates are elected
People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) is the upper house; it consists of members of the DPR and DPD and has role in inaugurating and impeaching the president and in amending the constitution but does not formulate national policy; House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (560 seats, members elected to serve five-year terms), formulates and passes legislation at the national level; House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions (132 members, four from each of Indonesia's origianal 30 provinces, two special regions, and one special capital city district)
elections: last held on 9 April 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: percent of vote by party - PD 20.9%, GOLKAR 14.5%, PDI-P 14.0%, PKS 7.9%, PAN 6.0%, PPP 5.3%, PKB 4.9%, GERINDRA 4.5%, HANURA 3.8%, others 18.2%; seats by party - PD 148, GOLKAR 107, PDI-P 94, PKS 57, PAN 46, PPP 37, PKB 28, GERINDRA 26, HANURA 17
note: 29 other parties received less than 2.5% of the vote so did not obtain any seats; because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme People's Court (consists of over 340 judges including the chief justice, 13 grand justices organized into a civil committee and tribunals for civil, economic, administrative, complaint and appeal, and communication and transportation cases)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the People's National Congress; term limited to two consecutive 5-year terms; other justices and judges nominated by the chief justice and appointed by the Standing Committee of the People's National Congress; term of other justices and judges NA
subordinate courts: Higher People's Courts; Intermediate People's Courts; District and County People's Courts; Autonomous Region People's Courts; Special People's Courts for military, maritime, transportation, and forestry issues
note - in October 2012, China issued a white paper on planned judicial reform
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (51 judges divided into 8 chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by Judicial Commission, appointed by president with concurrence of parliament; judges serve until retirement age; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by president, 3 by Supreme Court, and 3 by parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: High Courts of Appeal, district courts, religious courts
Political parties and leadersChinese Communist Party or CCP [XI Jinping]
eight nominally independent small parties ultimately controlled by the CCP
Democrat Party or PD [Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO]
Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Aburizal BAKRIE]
Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [SUHARDI]
Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]
National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]
National Mandate Party or PAN [Hatta RAJASA]
People's Conscience Party or HANURA [WIRANTO]
Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Anis MATTA]
United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI]
Political pressure groups and leadersno substantial political opposition groups existCommission for the "Disappeared" and Victims of Violence or KontraS
Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW
Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI
International organization participationADB, AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CDB, CICA, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-24 (observer), G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZCADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador CUI Tiankai (since 3 April 2013)
chancery: 3505 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 495-2266
FAX: [1] (202) 495-2138
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador Budi BOWOLEKSONO (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Max Sieben BAUCUS (since 21 February 2014)
embassy: 55 An Jia Lou Lu, 100600 Beijing
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [86] (10) 8531-3000
FAX: [86] (10) 8531-3300
consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang, Wuhan
chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Robert O. BLAKE (since 21 November 2013); Charge d'Affaires Kristen F. BAUER (since 18 July 2013)
embassy: Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 386-2259
consulate general: Surabaya
presence post: Medan
consular agency: Bali
Flag descriptionred with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner; the color red represents revolution, while the stars symbolize the four social classes - the working class, the peasantry, the urban petty bourgeoisie, and the national bourgeoisie (capitalists) - united under the Communist Party of Chinatwo equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity
note: similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red
National anthemname: "Yiyongjun Jinxingqu" (The March of the Volunteers)
lyrics/music: TIAN Han/NIE Er
note: adopted 1949; the anthem, though banned during the Cultural Revolution, is more commonly known as "Zhongguo Guoge" (Chinese National Song); it was originally the theme song to the 1935 Chinese movie, "Sons and Daughters in a Time of Storm"
name: "Indonesia Raya" (Great Indonesia)
lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN
note: adopted 1945
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCthas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Economy

ChinaIndonesia
Economy - overviewSince the late 1970s China has moved from a closed, centrally planned system to a more market-oriented one that plays a major global role - in 2010 China became the world's largest exporter. Reforms began with the phasing out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, growth of the private sector, development of stock markets and a modern banking system, and opening to foreign trade and investment. China has implemented reforms in a gradualist fashion. In recent years, China has renewed its support for state-owned enterprises in sectors considered important to "economic security," explicitly looking to foster globally competitive industries. After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years, in July 2005 China moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. From mid 2005 to late 2008 cumulative appreciation of the renminbi against the US dollar was more than 20%, but the exchange rate remained virtually pegged to the dollar from the onset of the global financial crisis until June 2010, when Beijing allowed resumption of a gradual appreciation and expanded the daily trading band within which the RMB is permitted to fluctuate. The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences, China in 2013 stood as the second-largest economy in the world after the US, having surpassed Japan in 2001. The dollar values of China's agricultural and industrial output each exceed those of the US; China is second to the US in the value of services it produces. Still, per capita income is below the world average. The Chinese government faces numerous economic challenges, including: (a) reducing its high domestic savings rate and correspondingly low domestic consumption; (b) facilitating higher-wage job opportunities for the aspiring middle class, including rural migrants and increasing numbers of college graduates; (c) reducing corruption and other economic crimes; and (d) containing environmental damage and social strife related to the economy's rapid transformation. Economic development has progressed further in coastal provinces than in the interior, and by 2011 more than 250 million migrant workers and their dependents had relocated to urban areas to find work. One consequence of population control policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the North - is another long-term problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. The Chinese government is seeking to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil, focusing on nuclear and alternative energy development. Several factors are converging to slow China's growth, including debt overhang from its credit-fueled stimulus program, industrial overcapacity, inefficient allocation of capital by state-owned banks, and the slow recovery of China's trading partners. The government's 12th Five-Year Plan, adopted in March 2011 and reiterated at the Communist Party's "Third Plenum" meeting in November 2013, emphasizes continued economic reforms and the need to increase domestic consumption in order to make the economy less dependent in the future on fixed investments, exports, and heavy industry. However, China has made only marginal progress toward these rebalancing goals. The new government of President XI Jinping has signaled a greater willingness to undertake reforms that focus on China's long-term economic health, including giving the market a more decisive role in allocating resources.Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has grown strongly since 2010. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth. The government has promoted fiscally conservative policies, resulting in a debt-to-GDP ratio of less than 25% and historically low rates of inflation. Fitch and Moody's upgraded Indonesia's credit rating to investment grade in December 2011. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. The government also faces the challenges of quelling labor unrest and reducing fuel subsidies in the face of high oil prices.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$13.39 trillion (2013 est.)
$12.43 trillion (2012 est.)
$11.54 trillion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
$1.285 trillion (2013 est.)
$1.22 trillion (2012 est.)
$1.149 trillion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - real growth rate7.7% (2013 est.)
7.7% (2012 est.)
9.3% (2011 est.)
5.3% (2013 est.)
6.2% (2012 est.)
6.5% (2011 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$9,800 (2013 est.)
$9,100 (2012 est.)
$8,300 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
$5,200 (2013 est.)
$5,000 (2012 est.)
$4,800 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 10%
industry: 43.9%
services: 46.1%
(2013 est.)
agriculture: 14.3%
industry: 46.6%
services: 39.1% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line6.1%
note: in 2011, China set a new poverty line at RMB 2300 (approximately US $3,630)
(2013)
11.7% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 30%
note: data are for urban households only (2009)
lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 29.9% (2009)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2.6% (2013 est.)
2.6% (2012 est.)
7.7% (2013 est.)
4.3% (2012 est.)
Labor force797.6 million
note: by the end of 2012, China's population at working age (15-64 years) was 1.0040 billion (2013 est.)
120 million (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 33.6%
industry: 30.3%
services: 36.1%
(2012 est.)
agriculture: 38.9%
industry: 13.2%
services: 47.9% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate4.1% (2013 est.)
4.1% (2012 est.)
note: data are for registered urban unemployment, which excludes private enterprises and migrants
6.6% (2013 est.)
6.1% (2012 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index47.3 (2013)
47.4 (2012)
36.8 (2009)
39.4 (2005)
Budgetrevenues: $2.118 trillion
expenditures: $2.292 trillion (2013 est.)
revenues: $137.5 billion
expenditures: $166 billion (2013 est.)
Industriesworld leader in gross value of industrial output; mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products (including footwear, toys, and electronics); food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellitespetroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instuments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism
Industrial production growth rate7.6% (2013 est.)4.3% (2013 est.)
Agriculture - productsworld leader in gross value of agricultural output; rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fishrubber and similar products, palm oil, poultry, beef, forest products, shrimp, cocoa, coffee, medicinal herbs, essential oil, fish and its similar products, and spices
Exports$2.21 trillion (2013 est.)
$2.049 trillion (2012 est.)
$178.9 billion (2013 est.)
$187.3 billion (2012 est.)
Exports - commoditieselectrical and other machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, radio telephone handsets, textiles, integrated circuitsoil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
Exports - partnersHong Kong 17.4%, US 16.7%, Japan 6.8%, South Korea 4.1% (2013 est.)Japan 15.9%, China 11.4%, Singapore 9%, South Korea 7.9%, US 7.8%, India 6.6%, Malaysia 5.9% (2012)
Imports$1.95 trillion (2013 est.)
$1.818 trillion (2012 est.)
$178.6 billion (2013 est.)
$178.7 billion (2012 est.)
Imports - commoditieselectrical and other machinery, oil and mineral fuels; nuclear reactor, boiler, and machinery components; optical and medical equipment, metal ores, motor vehicles; soybeansmachinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersSouth Korea 9.4%, Japan 8.3%, Taiwan 8%, United States 7.8%, Australia 5%, Germany 4.8% (2013 est.)China 15.3%, Singapore 13.6%, Japan 11.9%, Malaysia 6.4%, South Korea 6.2%, US 6.1%, Thailand 6% (2012)
Debt - external$863.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$737 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$223.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$224.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Exchange ratesRenminbi yuan (RMB) per US dollar -
6.2 (2013 est.)
6.3123 (2012 est.)
6.7703 (2010 est.)
6.8314 (2009)
6.9385 (2008)
Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar -
10,341.6 (2013 est.)
9,386.63 (2012 est.)
9,090.4 (2010 est.)
10,389.9 (2009)
9,698.9 (2008)
Fiscal yearcalendar yearcalendar year
Public debt22.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
26.1% of GDP (2012)
note: official data; data cover both central government debt and local government debt, which China's National Audit Office estimated at RMB 10.72 trillion (approximately US$1.66 trillion) in 2011; data exclude policy bank bonds, Ministry of Railway debt, China Asset Management Company debt, and non-performing loans
24.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
23% of GDP (2012 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$3.821 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$3.388 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
$83.45 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$112.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Current Account Balance$182.8 billion (2013 est.)
$215.4 billion (2012 est.)
-$28.72 billion (2013 est.)
-$24.07 billion (2012 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$9.33 trillion
note: because China's exchange rate is determine by fiat, rather than by market forces, the official exchange rate measure of GDP is not an accurate measure of China's output; GDP at the official exchange rate substantially understates the actual level of China's output vis-a-vis the rest of the world; in China's situation, GDP at purchasing power parity provides the best measure for comparing output across countries (2013 est.)
$867.5 billion (2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$1.344 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.232 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
$207.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$192.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$541 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$531.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$17.41 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$14.81 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$6.499 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$5.753 trillion (31 December 2012)
$3.389 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
$396.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$390.1 billion (31 December 2011)
$360.4 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate2.25% (31 December 2013 est.)
2.25% (31 December 2012 est.)
6.37% (31 December 2010)
6.46% (31 December 2009)
note: this figure represents the 3-month SBI rate; the Bank of Indonesia has not employed the one-month SBI since September 2010
Commercial bank prime lending rate5.73% (31 December 2013 est.)
6% (31 December 2012 est.)
12.1% (31 December 2013 est.)
11.8% (31 December 2012 est.)
note: these figures represent the average annualized rate on working capital loans
Stock of domestic credit$11.79 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$10.02 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
$336.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$350 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money$5.532 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.911 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
$82.99 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$87.04 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money$18.15 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$15.5 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
$325 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$342 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues19.4% of GDP (2013 est.)15.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.1% of GDP (2013 est.)-3.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 36.3%
government consumption: 13.7%
investment in fixed capital: 46%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 25.1%
imports of goods and services: -22.2%
(2013 est.)
household consumption: 56%
government consumption: 9.4%
investment in fixed capital: 32.7%
investment in inventories: 2%
exports of goods and services: 23.5%
imports of goods and services: -25.8%
(2013 est.)
Gross national saving50% of GDP (2013 est.)
51.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
50.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
31.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
32.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
33.1% of GDP (2011 est.)

Energy

ChinaIndonesia
Electricity - production5.398 trillion kWh (2013)173.8 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - consumption5.322 trillion kWh (2013)158 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - exports18.67 billion kWh (2013)0 kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - imports7.438 billion kWh (2013)2.542 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Oil - production4.197 million bbl/day (2013 est.)974,300 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Oil - imports5.664 million bbl/day (2013 est.)388,400 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil - exports33,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)338,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Oil - proved reserves17.3 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)4.03 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves3.1 trillion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)3.069 trillion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Natural gas - production117.1 billion cu m (2013 est.)76.25 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - consumption150 billion cu m (2013 est.)39.56 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports2.4 billion cu m (2013 est.)38.67 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - imports53 billion cu m (2013 est.)0 cu m (2011 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity1.247 billion kW (2013 est.)39.9 million kW (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production9.371 million bbl/day (2012 est.)935,300 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption9.79 million bbl/day (2011 est.)1.322 million bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports664,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)142,400 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports922,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)473,400 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy10 billion Mt (2013 est.)426.8 million Mt (2011 est.)

Telecommunications

ChinaIndonesia
Telephones - main lines in use278.86 million (2012)37.983 million (2012)
Telephones - mobile cellular1.1 billion (2012)281.96 million (2012)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns; China continues to develop its telecommunications infrastructure; China in the summer of 2008 began a major restructuring of its telecommunications industry, resulting in the consolidation of its six telecom service operators to three, China Telecom, China Mobile and China Unicom, each providing both fixed-line and mobile services
domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; the number of Internet users exceeded 564 million by the end of 2012; a domestic satellite system with several earth stations is in place
international: country code - 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean; 1 Intersputnik - Indian Ocean region; and 1 Inmarsat - Pacific and Indian Ocean regions) (2012)
general assessment: domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good
domestic: coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly
international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2011)
Internet country code.cn.id
Internet users389 million (2009)20 million (2009)
Internet hosts20.602 million (2012)1.344 million (2012)
Broadcast mediaall broadcast media are owned by, or affiliated with, the Communist Party of China or a government agency; no privately owned TV or radio stations; state-run Chinese Central TV, provincial, and municipal stations offer more than 2,000 channels; the Central Propaganda Department lists subjects that are off limits to domestic broadcast media with the government maintaining authority to approve all programming; foreign-made TV programs must be approved prior to broadcastmixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 2 public broadcasters, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately operated (2008)

Transportation

ChinaIndonesia
Railwaystotal: 86,000 km
standard gauge: 86,000 km 1.435-m gauge (36,000 km electrified) (2008)
total: 5,042 km
narrow gauge: 5,042 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2008)
Roadwaystotal: 4,106,387 km
paved: 3,453,890 km (includes 84,946 km of expressways)
unpaved: 652,497 km (2011)
total: 496,607 km
paved: 283,102 km
unpaved: 213,505 km (2011)
Waterways110,000 km (navigable waterways) (2011)21,579 km (2011)
Pipelinescondensate 9 km; gas 48,502 km; oil 23,072 km; oil/gas/water 31 km; refined products 15,298 km; water 9 km (2013)condensate 1,064 km; condensate/gas 150 km; gas 11,702 km; liquid petroleum gas 119 km; oil 7,767 km; oil/gas/water 77 km; refined products 728 km; unknown 53 km; water 44 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Dalian, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Tianjin
river port(s): Guangzhou (Pearl)
container port(s) (TEUs): Dalian (6,400,300), Guangzhou (14,260,400), Ningbo (14,719,200), Qingdao (13,020,100), Shanghai (31,739,000), Shenzhen (22,570,800), Tianjin (11,587,600)(2011)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Putian, Shanghai, Shenzhen
major seaport(s): Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok
container port(s) (TEUs): Tanjung Priok (5,617,562)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Banda Aceh, Bontang, Tangguh
Merchant marinetotal: 2,030
by type: barge carrier 7, bulk carrier 621, cargo 566, carrier 10, chemical tanker 140, container 206, liquefied gas 60, passenger 9, passenger/cargo 81, petroleum tanker 264, refrigerated cargo 33, roll on/roll off 8, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 23
foreign-owned: 22 (Hong Kong 18, Indonesia 2, Japan 2)
registered in other countries: 1,559 (Bangladesh 1, Belize 61, Cambodia 177, Comoros 1, Cyprus 6, Georgia 10, Honduras 2, Hong Kong 500, India 1, Indonesia 1, Kiribati 26, Liberia 4, Malta 6, Marshall Islands 14, North Korea 3, Panama 534, Philippines 4, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 65, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Sierra Leone 19, Singapore 29, South Korea 6, Thailand 1, Togo 1, Tuvalu 4, UK 7, Vanuatu 1, unknown 73) (2010)
total: 1,340
by type: bulk carrier 105, cargo 618, chemical tanker 69, container 120, liquefied gas 28, passenger 49, passenger/cargo 77, petroleum tanker 244, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 11
foreign-owned: 69 (China 1, France 1, Greece 1, Japan 8, Jordan 1, Malaysia 1, Norway 3, Singapore 46, South Korea 2, Taiwan 1, UK 2, US 2)
registered in other countries: 95 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, China 2, Hong Kong 10, Liberia 4, Marshall Islands 1, Mongolia 2, Panama 10, Singapore 60, Tuvalu 1, unknown 1) (2010)
Airports507 (2013)673 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 463
over 3,047 m: 71
2,438 to 3,047 m: 158
1,524 to 2,437 m: 123
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 86 (2013)
total: 186
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
914 to 1,523 m: 72
under 914 m: 37 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 44
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m:
18 (2013)
total: 487
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m:
460 (2013)
Heliports47 (2013)76 (2013)

Military

ChinaIndonesia
Military branchesPeople's Liberation Army (PLA): Ground Forces, Navy (PLAN; includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (Zhongguo Renmin Jiefangjun Kongjun, PLAAF; includes Airborne Forces), and Second Artillery Corps (strategic missile force); People's Armed Police (Renmin Wuzhuang Jingcha Budui, PAP); PLA Reserve Force (2012)Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes marines (Korps Marinir, KorMar), naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2013)
Military service age and obligation18-24 years of age for selective compulsory military service, with a 2-year service obligation; no minimum age for voluntary service (all officers are volunteers); 18-19 years of age for women high school graduates who meet requirements for specific military jobs; a recent military decision allows women in combat roles; the first class of women warship commanders was in 2011 (2012)18-45 years of age for voluntary military service, with selective conscription authorized; 2-year service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2012)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 385,821,101
females age 16-49: 363,789,674 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 65,847,171
females age 16-49: 63,228,017 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 318,265,016
females age 16-49: 300,323,611 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 54,264,299
females age 16-49: 53,274,361 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 10,406,544
female: 9,131,990 (2010 est.)
male: 2,263,892
female: 2,191,267 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.99% of GDP (2012)
2% of GDP (2011)
1.99% of GDP (2010)
0.78% of GDP (2012)
0.67% of GDP (2011)
0.78% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

ChinaIndonesia
Disputes - internationalcontinuing talks and confidence-building measures work toward reducing tensions over Kashmir that nonetheless remains militarized with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; China and India continue their security and foreign policy dialogue started in 2005 related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; China claims most of India's Arunachal Pradesh to the base of the Himalayas; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the largest of which lie in Bhutan's northwest and along the Chumbi salient; Burmese forces attempting to dig in to the largely autonomous Shan State to rout local militias tied to the drug trade, prompts local residents to periodically flee into neighboring Yunnan Province in China; Chinese maps show an international boundary symbol off the coasts of the littoral states of the South China Seas, where China has interrupted Vietnamese hydrocarbon exploration; China asserts sovereignty over Scarborough Reef along with the Philippines and Taiwan, and over the Spratly Islands together with Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Brunei; the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea eased tensions in the Spratlys but is not the legally binding code of conduct sought by some parties; Vietnam and China continue to expand construction of facilities in the Spratlys and in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; China occupies some of the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; China and Taiwan continue to reject both Japan's claims to the uninhabited islands of Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japan's unilaterally declared equidistance line in the East China Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation; certain islands in the Yalu and Tumen rivers are in dispute with North Korea; North Korea and China seek to stem illegal migration to China by North Koreans, fleeing privations and oppression, by building a fence along portions of the border and imprisoning North Koreans deported by China; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with their 2004 Agreement; China and Tajikistan have begun demarcating the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; citing environmental, cultural, and social concerns, China has reconsidered construction of 13 dams on the Salween River, but energy-starved Burma, with backing from Thailand, remains intent on building five hydro-electric dams downstream despite regional and international protests; Chinese and Hong Kong authorities met in March 2008 to resolve ownership and use of lands recovered in Shenzhen River channelization, including 96-hectare Lok Ma Chau Loop;Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundaries have been established between the countries; many refugees from Timor-Leste who left in 2003 still reside in Indonesia and refuse repatriation; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches; land and maritime negotiations with Malaysia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; EEZ negotiations with Vietnam are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary
Illicit drugsmajor transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle region of Southeast Asia; growing domestic consumption of synthetic drugs, and heroin from Southeast and Southwest Asia; source country for methamphetamine and heroin chemical precursors, despite new regulations on its large chemical industry (2008)illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): estimated 30,000-50,000 (North Korea) (2012); 300,896 (Vietnam) (2013)
IDPs: 90,000 (2010)
IDPs: at least 90,000 (inter-communal, inter-faith, and separatist violence between 1998 and 2004 in Aceh and Papua; religious attacks and land conflicts in 2012 and 2013; most IDPs in Aceh, Papua, West Papua, Central Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi Provinces, Maluku, North Maluku) (2014) (2011)

Source: CIA Factbook