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China vs. Indonesia

Introduction

ChinaIndonesia
BackgroundFor centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, MAO's successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight. Since the early 1990s, China has increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations.
"The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted ""Guided Democracy."" After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was gradually eased from power. From 1967 until 1998, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his ""New Order"" government. After street protests toppled SUHARTO in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance in Papua by the separatist Free Papua Movement.
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Geography

ChinaIndonesia
LocationEastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates35 00 N, 105 00 E
5 00 S, 120 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Southeast Asia
Areatotal: 9,596,960 sq km
land: 9,326,410 sq km
water: 270,550 sq km
total: 1,904,569 sq km
land: 1,811,569 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than the US
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 22,457 km
border countries (14): Afghanistan 91 km, Bhutan 477 km, Burma 2,129 km, India 2,659 km, Kazakhstan 1,765 km, North Korea 1,352 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,063 km, Laos 475 km, Mongolia 4,630 km, Nepal 1,389 km, Pakistan 438 km, Russia (northeast) 4,133 km, Russia (northwest) 46 km, Tajikistan 477 km, Vietnam 1,297 km
regional border(s) (2): Hong Kong 33 km, Macau 3 km
total: 2,958 km
border countries (3): Timor-Leste 253 km, Malaysia 1,881 km, Papua New Guinea 824 km
Coastline14,500 km
54,716 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climateextremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrainmostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east
mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,840 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (highest peak in Asia and highest point on earth above sea level)
mean elevation: 367 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m
Natural resourcescoal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, rare earth elements, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest), arable land
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land useagricultural land: 54.7%
arable land 11.3%; permanent crops 1.6%; permanent pasture 41.8%
forest: 22.3%
other: 23% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 31.2%
arable land 13%; permanent crops 12.1%; permanent pasture 6.1%
forest: 51.7%
other: 17.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land690,070 sq km (2012)
67,220 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsfrequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
volcanism: China contains some historically active volcanoes including Changbaishan (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu, or P'aektu-san), Hainan Dao, and Kunlun although most have been relatively inactive in recent centuries
occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires
volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (elev. 2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora
Environment - current issuesair pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; China is the world's largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species
deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - noteworld's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US) and largest country situated entirely in Asia; Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak above sea level
according to Indonesia's National Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping, the total number of islands in the archipelago is 13,466, of which 922 are permanently inhabited (Indonesia is the world's largest country comprised solely of islands); the country straddles the equator and occupies a strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean; despite having the fourth largest population in the world, Indonesia is the most heavily forested region on earth after the Amazon
Population distributionoverwhelming majority of the population is found in the eastern half of the country; the west, with its vast mountainous and desert areas, remains sparsely populated; though ranked first in the world in total population, overall density is less than that of many other countries in Asia and Europe; high population density is found along the Yangtze and Yellow River valleys, the Xi Jiang River delta, the Sichuan Basin (around Chengdu), in and around Beijing, and the industrial area around Shenyang
major concentration on the island of Java, which is considered one of the most densely populated places on earth; of the outer islands (those surrounding Java and Bali), Sumatra contains some of the most significant clusters, particularly in the south near the Selat Sunda, and along the northeastern coast near Medan; the cities of Makasar (Sulawesi), Banjarmasin (Kalimantan) are also noteworthy

Demographics

ChinaIndonesia
Population1,373,541,278 (July 2016 est.)
258,316,051 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 17.1% (male 126,732,020/female 108,172,771)
15-24 years: 13.27% (male 97,126,460/female 85,135,228)
25-54 years: 48.42% (male 339,183,101/female 325,836,319)
55-64 years: 10.87% (male 75,376,730/female 73,859,424)
65 years and over: 10.35% (male 67,914,015/female 74,205,210) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 25.42% (male 33,435,020/female 32,224,706)
15-24 years: 17.03% (male 22,397,086/female 21,604,985)
25-54 years: 42.35% (male 55,857,415/female 53,543,682)
55-64 years: 8.4% (male 9,918,897/female 11,790,016)
65 years and over: 6.79% (male 7,630,251/female 9,913,993) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 37.1 years
male: 36.2 years
female: 38.1 years (2016 est.)
total: 29.9 years
male: 29.3 years
female: 30.5 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.43% (2016 est.)
0.89% (2016 est.)
Birth rate12.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
16.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.15 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 12.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 12.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 23.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 27.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75.5 years
male: 73.5 years
female: 77.9 years (2016 est.)
total population: 72.7 years
male: 70.1 years
female: 75.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.6 children born/woman (2016 est.)
2.13 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.1% (2012 est.)
0.48% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese
noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groupsHan Chinese 91.6%, Zhuang 1.3%, other (includes Hui, Manchu, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Tujia, Tibetan, Mongol, Dong, Buyei, Yao, Bai, Korean, Hani, Li, Kazakh, Dai and other nationalities) 7.1%
note: the Chinese Government officially recognizes 56 ethnic groups (2010 est.)
Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS780,000 (2012 est.)
692,800 (2015 est.)
ReligionsBuddhist 18.2%, Christian 5.1%, Muslim 1.8%, folk religion 21.9%, Hindu < 0.1%, Jewish < 0.1%, other 0.7% (includes Daoist (Taoist)), unaffiliated 52.2%
note: officially atheist (2010 est.)
Muslim 87.2%, Christian 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
35,300 (2015 est.)
LanguagesStandard Chinese or Mandarin (official; Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
note: Zhuang is official in Guangxi Zhuang, Yue is official in Guangdong, Mongolian is official in Nei Mongol, Uighur is official in Xinjiang Uygur, Kyrgyz is official in Xinjiang Uygur, and Tibetan is official in Xizang (Tibet)
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)
note: more than 700 languages are used in Indonesia
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.4%
male: 98.2%
female: 94.5% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.9%
male: 96.3%
female: 91.5% (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: Japanese encephalitis
soil contact disease: hantaviral hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) (2016)
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2016)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2015)
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2014)
Education expendituresNA
3.3% of GDP (2014)
Urbanizationurban population: 55.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 53.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.69% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 93% of population
total: 95.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 7% of population
total: 4.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 94.2% of population
rural: 79.5% of population
total: 87.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5.8% of population
rural: 20.5% of population
total: 12.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 86.6% of population
rural: 63.7% of population
total: 76.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13.4% of population
rural: 36.3% of population
total: 23.5% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 72.3% of population
rural: 47.5% of population
total: 60.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 27.7% of population
rural: 52.5% of population
total: 39.2% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationShanghai 23.741 million; BEIJING (capital) 20.384 million; Chongqing 13.332 million; Guangdong 12.458 million; Tianjin 11.21 million; Shenzhen 10.749 million (2015)
JAKARTA (capital) 10.323 million; Surabaya 2.853 million; Bandung 2.544 million; Medan 2.204 million; Semarang 1.63 million; Makassar 1.489 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate27 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
126 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight3.4% (2010)
19.9% (2013)
Health expenditures5.5% of GDP (2014)
2.8% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.49 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density3.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)
0.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate7.3% (2014)
5.7% (2014)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 36.6
youth dependency ratio: 23.5
elderly dependency ratio: 13
potential support ratio: 7.7 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 49
youth dependency ratio: 41.2
elderly dependency ratio: 7.7
potential support ratio: 13 (2015 est.)

Government

ChinaIndonesia
Country name"conventional long form: People's Republic of China
conventional short form: China
local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
local short form: Zhongguo
abbreviation: PRC
etymology: English name derives from the Qin (Chin) rulers of the 3rd century B.C., who comprised the first imperial dynasty of ancient China; the Chinese name Zhongguo translates as ""Central Nation""
"
"conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies
etymology: the name is an 18th-century construct of two Greek words, ""Indos"" (India) and ""nesoi"" (islands), meaning ""Indian islands""
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Government typecommunist state
presidential republic
Capital"name: Beijing
geographic coordinates: 39 55 N, 116 23 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note: despite its size, all of China falls within one time zone; many people in Xinjiang Province observe an unofficial ""Xinjiang time zone"" of UTC+6, two hours behind Beijing
"
name: Jakarta
geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note: Indonesia has three time zones
Administrative divisions23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural)
provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Taiwan)
autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia), Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur, Xizang (Tibet)
municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin
note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau
31 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 1 autonomous province*, 1 special region** (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 national capital district*** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya***, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kalimantan Utara (North Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta**
note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
Independence1 October 1949 (People's Republic of China established); notable earlier dates: 221 B.C. (unification under the Qin Dynasty); 1 January 1912 (Qing Dynasty replaced by the Republic of China)
17 August 1945 (declared independence from the Netherlands)
National holidayNational Day (anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949)
Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest promulgated 4 December 1982; amended several times, last in 2004 (2016)
"drafted July to August 1945, effective 17 August 1945, abrogated by 1949 and 1950 constitutions, 1945 constitution restored 5 July 1959; amended several times, last in 2002; note - an amendment on ""national character building and national consciousness awareness"" was pending parliamentary review in early 2016 (2016)
"
Legal systemcivil law influenced by Soviet and continental European civil law systems; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; note - criminal procedure law revised in early 2012
civil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive branchchief of state: President XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013); Vice President LI Yuanchao (since 14 March 2013)
head of government: Premier LI Keqiang (since 16 March 2013); Executive Vice Premiers ZHANG Gaoli (since 16 March 2013), LIU Yandong (since 16 March 2013), MA Kai (since 16 March 2013), WANG Yang (since 16 March 2013)
cabinet: State Council appointed by National People's Congress
elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by National People's Congress for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5-17 March 2013 (next to be held in March 2018); premier nominated by president, confirmed by National People's Congress
election results: XI Jinping elected president; National People's Congress vote - 2,952 ; LI Yuanchao elected vice president with 2,940 votes
chief of state: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Jusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Jusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 9 July 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: Joko WiDODO elected president; percent of vote - Joko WIDODO (PDI-P) 53.2%, PRABOWO Subianto (GERINDRA) 46.8%
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,987 seats; members indirectly elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses, and the People's Liberation Army; members serve 5-year terms); note - in practice, only members of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its 8 allied parties, and CCP-approved independent candidates are elected
elections: last held in December 2012-February 2013 (next to be held in late 2017 to early 2018)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - 2,987
description: bicameral People's Consultative Assembly or Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat consists of the Regional Representative Council or Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (132 seats; non-partisan members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (560 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by single non-transferable vote to serve 5-year terms)
note: 29 other parties received less than the 2.5% vote threshold and failed to win so did not obtain any seats; because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties
elections: last held on 9 April 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDI-P 19%, Golkar 15%, Gerindra 12%, PD 10%, PKB 9%, PAN 8%, PKS 7%, NasDem 7%, PPP 7%, Hanura 5%; seats by party - PDI-P 109, Golkar 91, Gerindra 73, PD 61, PAN 49, PKB 47, PKS 40, NasDem 35, PPP 39, Hanura 16
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme People's Court (consists of over 340 judges including the chief justice, 13 grand justices organized into a civil committee and tribunals for civil, economic, administrative, complaint and appeal, and communication and transportation cases)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the People's National Congress (NPC); term limited to 2 consecutive 5-year terms; other justices and judges nominated by the chief justice and appointed by the Standing Committee of the NPC; term of other justices and judges determined by the NPC
subordinate courts: Higher People's Courts; Intermediate People's Courts; District and County People's Courts; Autonomous Region People's Courts; Special People's Courts for military, maritime, transportation, and forestry issues
note: in late 2014, China unveiled planned judicial reforms
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (51 judges divided into 8 chambers); Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by Judicial Commission, appointed by president with concurrence of parliament; judges serve until retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by president, 3 by Supreme Court, and 3 by parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: High Courts of Appeal, district courts, religious courts
Political parties and leadersChinese Communist Party or CCP [XI Jinping]
note: China has eight nominally independent small parties ultimately controlled by the CCP
Democrat Party or PD [Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO]
Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Aburizal BAKRIE]
Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo]
Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]
National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]
National Mandate Party or PAN [Hatta RAJASA]
People's Conscience Party or HANURA [WIRANTO]
Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Anis MATTA]
United Development Party or PPP [NA]
Political pressure groups and leadersno substantial political opposition groups exist
"Commission for the ""Disappeared"" and Victims of Violence or KontraS
Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW
Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI
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International organization participationADB, AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, CDB, CICA, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-24 (observer), G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador CUI Tiankai (since 3 April 2013)
chancery: 3505 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 495-2266
FAX: [1] (202) 495-2138
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador Budi BOWOLEKSONO (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires David A. RANK (since 20 January 2017)
embassy: 55 An Jia Lou Lu, 100600 Beijing
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [86] (10) 8531-3000
FAX: [86] (10) 8531-3300
consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang, Wuhan
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert O. BLAKE, Jr. (since 30 January 2014)
embassy: Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 386-2259
consulate general: Surabaya
consulate: Medan
Flag descriptionred with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner; the color red represents revolution, while the stars symbolize the four social classes - the working class, the peasantry, the urban petty bourgeoisie, and the national bourgeoisie (capitalists) - united under the Communist Party of China
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity
note: similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red
National anthem"name: ""Yiyongjun Jinxingqu"" (The March of the Volunteers)
lyrics/music: TIAN Han/NIE Er
note: adopted 1949; the anthem, though banned during the Cultural Revolution, is more commonly known as ""Zhongguo Guoge"" (Chinese National Song); it was originally the theme song to the 1935 Chinese movie, ""Sons and Daughters in a Time of Storm""
"
"name: ""Indonesia Raya"" (Great Indonesia)
lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN
note: adopted 1945
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)dragon; national colors: red, yellow
garuda (mythical bird); national colors: red, white
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: least one parent must be a citizen of China
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: while naturalization is theoretically possible, in practical terms it is extremely difficult; residency is required but not specified
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Indonesia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 continuous years

Economy

ChinaIndonesia
Economy - overview"Since the late 1970s, China has moved from a closed, centrally planned system to a more market-oriented one that plays a major global role. China has implemented reforms in a gradualist fashion, resulting in efficiency gains that have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Reforms began with the phase-out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, growth of the private sector, development of stock markets and a modern banking system, and opening to foreign trade and investment. China continues to pursue an industrial policy, state-support of key sectors, and a restrictive investment regime. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences, China in 2016 stood as the largest economy in the world, surpassing the US in 2014 for the first time in modern history. China became the world's largest exporter in 2010, and the largest trading nation in 2013. Still, China's per capita income is below the world average.

After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years, China in July 2005 moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. From mid-2005 to late 2008, the renminbi appreciated more than 20% against the US dollar, but the exchange rate remained virtually pegged to the dollar from the onset of the global financial crisis until June 2010, when Beijing allowed resumption of a gradual liberalization. In 2015, the People’s Bank of China announced it would continue to carefully push for full convertibility of the renminbi after the currency was accepted as part of the IMF’s special drawing rights basket. After engaging in one-way, large-scale intervention to resist appreciation of the RMB for a decade, China’s 2016 intervention in foreign exchange markets has sought to prevent a rapid RMB depreciation that would have negative consequences for the United States, China, and the global economy.

China’s economic growth has slowed since 2011. The Chinese Government faces numerous economic challenges including: (a) reducing its high domestic savings rate and correspondingly low domestic household consumption; (b) servicing its high corporate debt burdens to maintain financial stability (c) facilitating higher-wage job opportunities for the aspiring middle class, including rural migrants and college graduates, while maintaining competitiveness; (d) dampening speculative investment in the real estate sector; (e) reducing industrial overcapacity; and (f) raising productivity growth rates through the more efficient allocation of capital. Economic development has progressed further in coastal provinces than in the interior, and by 2016 more than 169.3 million migrant workers and their dependents had relocated to urban areas to find work. One consequence of China’s population control policy known as the “one-child policy”—which was relaxed in 2016 to permit all families to have two children-- is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the North - is another long-term problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and urbanization. The Chinese government is seeking to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil, focusing on natural gas, nuclear, and clean energy development. In 2016, China ratified the Paris Agreement, a multilateral agreement to combat climate change, and committed to peak its carbon dioxide emissions between 2025 and 2030.

The government's 13th Five-Year Plan, unveiled in March 2016, emphasizes the need to increase innovation and boost domestic consumption to make the economy less dependent on government investment, exports, and heavy industry. However, China has made only marginal progress toward these rebalancing goals. Under President XI Jinping, Beijing has signaled its understanding that China's long-term economic health depends on giving the market a more decisive role in allocating resources, but has moved slowly on market-oriented reforms because of potential negative consequences for stability and short-term economic growth. He has also increased state-control over key sectors and Party control over State Owned Enterprises. Chinese leaders in 2010 pledged to double China’s GDP by 2020, and the 13th Five Year Plan includes annual economic growth targets of at least 6.5% through 2020 to achieve that goal. In recent years, China has renewed its support for state-owned enterprises in sectors considered important to ""economic security,"" explicitly looking to foster globally competitive industries. Chinese leaders also have undermined some market-oriented reforms by reaffirming the “dominant” role of the state in the economy, a stance that threatens to discourage private initiative and make the economy less efficient over time.
"
Indonesia, the largest economy in Southeast Asia, has seen a slowdown in growth since 2012, mostly due to the end of the commodities export boom. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth. Indonesia’s annual budget deficit is capped at 3% of GDP, and the Government of Indonesia lowered its debt-to-GDP ratio from a peak of 100% shortly after the Asian financial crisis in 1999 to less than 27 percent today. While Fitch and Moody's Investors upgraded Indonesia's credit rating to investment grade in December 2011, Standard & Poor’s has yet to raise Indonesia’s rating to this status amid several constraints to foreign direct investment in the country, such as a high level of protectionism.

Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among its regions. President Joko WIDODO - elected in July 2014 – seeks to develop Indonesia’s maritime resources and pursue other infrastructure development, including significantly increasing its electrical power generation capacity. Fuel subsidies were significantly reduced in early 2015, a move which has helped the government redirect its spending to development priorities. Indonesia, with the nine other ASEAN members, will continue to move towards participation in the ASEAN Economic Community, though full implementation of economic integration has not yet materialized.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$21.14 trillion (2016 est.)
$19.82 trillion (2015 est.)
$18.34 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$3.033 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.888 trillion (2015 est.)
$2.753 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate6.7% (2016 est.)
6.9% (2015 est.)
7.3% (2014 est.)
5% (2016 est.)
4.9% (2015 est.)
5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$14,600 (2016 est.)
$14,500 (2015 est.)
$13,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$11,700 (2016 est.)
$11,300 (2015 est.)
$10,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 8.6%
industry: 39.8%
services: 51.6%
(2016 est.)
agriculture: 13.7%
industry: 40.3%
services: 46% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line3.3%
note: in 2011, China set a new poverty line at RMB 2300 (approximately US $400)
(2016 est.)
10.9% (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 31.4%
note: data are for urban households only (2012)
lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 28.2% (2010)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)2% (2016 est.)
1.4% (2015 est.)
3% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2015 est.)
Labor force907.5 million
note: by the end of 2012, China's population at working age (15-64 years) was 1.004 billion (2016 est.)
125 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 28.3%
industry: 29.3%
services: 42.4%
(2015 est.)
agriculture: 32%
industry: 21%
services: 47% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate4% (2016 est.)
4.1% (2015 est.)
note: data are for registered urban unemployment, which excludes private enterprises and migrants
5.6% (2016 est.)
6.2% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index46.5 (2016 est.)
46.2 (2015 est.)
36.8 (2009)
39.4 (2005)
Budgetrevenues: $2.3 trillion
expenditures: $2.708 trillion (2016 est.)
revenues: $114.8 billion
expenditures: $137.7 billion (2016 est.)
Industriesworld leader in gross value of industrial output; mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products (including footwear, toys, and electronics); food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites
petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instruments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism
Industrial production growth rate6% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productsworld leader in gross value of agricultural output; rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, apples, cotton, pork, mutton, eggs; fish, shrimp
rubber and similar products, palm oil, poultry, beef, forest products, shrimp, cocoa, coffee, medicinal herbs, essential oil, fish and its similar products, and spices
Exports$2.098 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.143 trillion (2015 est.)
$144.4 billion (2016 est.)
$148.4 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditieselectrical and other machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, furniture, textiles, integrated circuits
mineral fuels, animal or vegetable fats (includes palm oil), electrical machinery, rubber, machinery and mechanical appliance parts
Exports - partnersUS 18%, Hong Kong 14.6%, Japan 6%, South Korea 4.5% (2015)
Japan 12%, US 10.8%, China 10%, Singapore 8.4%, India 7.8%, South Korea 5.1%, Malaysia 5.1% (2015)
Imports$1.587 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.576 trillion (2015 est.)
$129.1 billion (2016 est.)
$135.1 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditieselectrical and other machinery, oil and mineral fuels; nuclear reactor, boiler, and machinery components; optical and medical equipment, metal ores, motor vehicles; soybeans
mineral fuels, boilers, machinery, and mechanical parts, electric machinery, iron and steel, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersSouth Korea 10.9%, US 9%, Japan 8.9%, Germany 5.5%, Australia 4.1% (2015)
China 20.6%, Singapore 12.6%, Japan 9.3%, Malaysia 6%, South Korea 5.9%, Thailand 5.7%, US 5.3% (2015)
Debt - external$1.421 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.418 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$316.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$302.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesRenminbi yuan (RMB) per US dollar -
6.626 (2016 est.)
6.2275 (2015 est.)
6.2275 (2014 est.)
6.1958 (2013 est.)
6.3123 (2012 est.)
Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar -
13,483 (2016 est.)
13,389.4 (2015 est.)
13,389.4 (2014 est.)
11,865.2 (2013 est.)
9,386.63 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: official data; data cover both central government debt and local government debt, which China's National Audit Office estimated at RMB 10.72 trillion (approximately US$1.66 trillion) in 2011; data exclude policy bank bonds, Ministry of Railway debt, China Asset Management Company debt, and non-performing loans
32.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
28.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$3.01 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.405 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$116.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$105.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance$196.4 billion (2016 est.)
$304.2 billion (2015 est.)
-$16.35 billion (2016 est.)
-$17.52 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$10.73 trillion (2016 est.)
note: because China's exchange rate is determined by fiat rather than by market forces, the official exchange rate measure of GDP is not an accurate measure of China's output; GDP at the official exchange rate substantially understates the actual level of China's output vis-a-vis the rest of the world; in China's situation, GDP at purchasing power parity provides the best measure for comparing output across countries
$941 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$1.458 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.221 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$292.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$271.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$1.317 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.096 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$42.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$33.32 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$7.321 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.188 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$6.005 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$428.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$353.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$422.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Central bank discount rate2.25% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.25% (31 December 2015 est.)
6.37% (31 December 2010)
6.46% (31 December 2009)
note: this figure represents the 3-month SBI rate; the Bank of Indonesia has not employed the one-month SBI since September 2010
Commercial bank prime lending rate4.35% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.35% (31 December 2015 est.)
12.2% (31 October 2016 est.)
12.9% (31 December 2015 est.)
note: these figures represent the average annualized rate on working capital loans
Stock of domestic credit$15.37 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.47 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$324 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$354.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$7.015 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.175 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$86.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$78.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$22.35 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$21.44 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$350.9 billion (30 September 2016 est.)
$359.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues21.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-3% of GDP (2016 est.)
-2.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 37.1%
government consumption: 14%
investment in fixed capital: 43.7%
investment in inventories: 1.6%
exports of goods and services: 22%
imports of goods and services: 18.5% (2015 est.)
household consumption: 56.5%
government consumption: 9.3%
investment in fixed capital: 33%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 17.7%
imports of goods and services: -17.7% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving46% of GDP (2016 est.)
47.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
49.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
32.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
32.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
31.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

ChinaIndonesia
Electricity - production6.142 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
224.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption5.92 trillion kWh (2016 est.)
217.8 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports18.91 billion kWh (2016 est.)
0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports6.185 billion kWh (2016 est.)
100 kWh (2016 est.)
Oil - production3.983 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
831,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Oil - imports7.599 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
463,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports58,650 bbl/day (2016 est.)
310,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves25 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
3.7 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves6 billion cu m (31 December 2016 )
2.83 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Natural gas - production150 billion cu m (2016 est.)
75 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption224 billion cu m (2016 est.)
39.7 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - exports3.918 billion cu m (2014 est.)
31.78 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports75.1 billion cu m (2016 est.)
1.8 billion cu m (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity1.646 billion kW (2016 est.)
51.92 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels64% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
83.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants20.2% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
11% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels2% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources13.7% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
5.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production10.35 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
926,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption11.12 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
1.688 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports593,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)
81,950 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports600,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
691,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy9.135 billion Mt (2014 est.)
442 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 1,200,000
electrification - total population: 99.9%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 99.8% (2016)
population without electricity: 48,700,000
electrification - total population: 81%
electrification - urban areas: 94%
electrification - rural areas: 66% (2013)

Telecommunications

ChinaIndonesia
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 230.996 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 22.386 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 1,305.738 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 95 (July 2015 est.)
total: 338.426 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 132 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: domestic and international services are available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns; China continues to develop its telecommunications infrastructure; China in the summer of 2008 began a major restructuring of its telecommunications industry, resulting in the consolidation of its 6 telecom service operators to 3, China Telecom, China Mobile, and China Unicom, each providing both fixed-line and mobile services
domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; the number of Internet users now over 50% of the population; a domestic satellite system with several earth stations is in place
international: country code - 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean; 1 Intersputnik - Indian Ocean region; and 1 Inmarsat - Pacific and Indian Ocean regions) (2012)
general assessment: domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good
domestic: coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly
international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.cn
.id
Internet userstotal: 687.845 million
percent of population: 50.3% (July 2015 est.)
total: 56.257 million
percent of population: 22% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediaall broadcast media are owned by, or affiliated with, the Communist Party of China or a government agency; no privately owned TV or radio stations; state-run Chinese Central TV, provincial, and municipal stations offer more than 2,000 channels; the Central Propaganda Department lists subjects that are off limits to domestic broadcast media with the government maintaining authority to approve all programming; foreign-made TV programs must be approved prior to broadcast; increasingly, Chinese turn to online television to access Chinese and international films and television shows (2017)
mixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 2 public broadcasters, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks, as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately operated (2008)

Transportation

ChinaIndonesia
Railwaystotal: 124,000 km
standard gauge: 124,000 km 1.435-m gauge (80,000 km electrified); 102,000 traditional, 22,000 high-speed (2017)
total: 8,159 km
narrow gauge: 8,159 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified)
note: 4,816 km operational (2014)
Roadwaystotal: 4,577,300 km
paved: 4,046,300 km (includes 123,500 km of expressways)
unpaved: 531,000 km (2015)
total: 496,607 km
paved: 283,102 km
unpaved: 213,505 km (2011)
Waterways110,000 km (navigable waterways) (2011)
21,579 km (2011)
Pipelinesgas 70,000 km; crude oil 22,900 km; refined petroleum products 25,500 km; water 710,206 km (2015)
condensate 1,064 km; condensate/gas 150 km; gas 11,702 km; liquid petroleum gas 119 km; oil 7,767 km; oil/gas/water 77 km; refined products 728 km; unknown 53 km; water 44 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Dalian, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Tianjin
river port(s): Guangzhou (Pearl)
container port(s) (TEUs): Dalian (9,591,000), Guangzhou (17,097,000), Ningbo (20,636,000), Qingdao (17,323,000), Shanghai (36,516,000), Shenzhen (24,142,000), Tianjin (13,881,000)(2015)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Fujian, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, Shanghai, Tangshan, Zhejiang
major seaport(s): Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok
container port(s) (TEUs): Tanjung Priok (5,617,562)
LNG terminal(s) (export): Bontang, Tangguh
LNG terminal(s) (import): Arun, Lampung, West Java
Merchant marinetotal: 4,052
by type: bulk carrier 1,020, container 187, general cargo 632, oil tanker 474, other 1,739 (2016)
foreign-owned: 22 (Hong Kong 18, Indonesia 2, Japan 2) (2010)
registered in other countries: 1,559 (Bangladesh 1, Belize 61, Cambodia 177, Comoros 1, Cyprus 6, Georgia 10, Honduras 2, Hong Kong 500, India 1, Indonesia 1, Kiribati 26, Liberia 4, Malta 6, Marshall Islands 14, North Korea 3, Panama 534, Philippines 4, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 65, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Sierra Leone 19, Singapore 29, South Korea 6, Thailand 1, Togo 1, Tuvalu 4, UK 7, Vanuatu 1, unknown 73) (2010)
total: 1,340
by type: bulk carrier 105, cargo 618, chemical tanker 69, container 120, liquefied gas 28, passenger 49, passenger/cargo 77, petroleum tanker 244, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 11
foreign-owned: 69 (China 1, France 1, Greece 1, Japan 8, Jordan 1, Malaysia 1, Norway 3, Singapore 46, South Korea 2, Taiwan 1, UK 2, US 2)
registered in other countries: 95 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, China 2, Hong Kong 10, Liberia 4, Marshall Islands 1, Mongolia 2, Panama 10, Singapore 60, Tuvalu 1, unknown 1) (2010)
Airports507 (2013)
673 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 463
over 3,047 m: 71
2,438 to 3,047 m: 158
1,524 to 2,437 m: 123
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 86 (2013)
total: 186
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
914 to 1,523 m: 72
under 914 m: 37 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 44
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
total: 487
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 460 (2013)
Heliports47 (2013)
76 (2013)
Transportation - noteseven of the world’s ten largest container ports are in China
the International Maritime Bureau continues to report the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; attacks have increased yearly since 2009; in 2014, 100 commercial vessels were attacked and 90 crew members taken hostage; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift

Military

ChinaIndonesia
Military branchesPeople's Liberation Army (PLA): Army, Navy (PLAN, includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (Zhongguo Renmin Jiefangjun Kongjun, PLAAF, includes airborne forces), Rocket Force (strategic missile force), and Strategic Support Force (space and cyber forces); People's Armed Police (Renmin Wuzhuang Jingcha Budui, PAP); PLA Reserve Force (2016)
Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL), includes marines (Korps Marinir, KorMar), naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2013)
Military service age and obligation18-24 years of age for selective compulsory military service, with a 2-year service obligation; no minimum age for voluntary service (all officers are volunteers); 18-19 years of age for women high school graduates who meet requirements for specific military jobs; a recent military decision allows women in combat roles; the first class of women warship commanders was in 2011 (2012)
18-45 years of age for voluntary military service, with selective conscription authorized; 2-year service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2012)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.3% of GDP (2017 est)
1.28% of GDP (2016)
1.95% of GDP (2015)
1.9% of GDP (2014)
1.85% of GDP (2013)
0.89% of GDP (2015)
0.78% of GDP (2014)
0.92% of GDP (2013)
0.71% of GDP (2012)
0.65% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

ChinaIndonesia
Disputes - internationalcontinuing talks and confidence-building measures work toward reducing tensions over Kashmir that nonetheless remains militarized with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; China and India continue their security and foreign policy dialogue started in 2005 related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; China claims most of India's Arunachal Pradesh to the base of the Himalayas; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the largest of which lie in Bhutan's northwest and along the Chumbi salient; Burmese forces attempting to dig in to the largely autonomous Shan State to rout local militias tied to the drug trade, prompts local residents to periodically flee into neighboring Yunnan Province in China; Chinese maps show an international boundary symbol off the coasts of the littoral states of the South China Seas, where China has interrupted Vietnamese hydrocarbon exploration; China asserts sovereignty over Scarborough Reef along with the Philippines and Taiwan, and over the Spratly Islands together with Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Brunei; the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea eased tensions in the Spratlys but is not the legally binding code of conduct sought by some parties; Vietnam and China continue to expand construction of facilities in the Spratlys and in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands;
China occupies some of the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; the Japanese-administered Senkaku Islands are also claimed by China and Taiwan; certain islands in the Yalu and Tumen Rivers are in dispute with North Korea; North Korea and China seek to stem illegal migration to China by North Koreans, fleeing privations and oppression, by building a fence along portions of the border and imprisoning North Koreans deported by China; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with their 2004 Agreement; China and Tajikistan have begun demarcating the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; citing environmental, cultural, and social concerns, China has reconsidered construction of 13 dams on the Salween River, but energy-starved Burma, with backing from Thailand, remains intent on building five hydro-electric dams downstream despite regional and international protests
Chinese and Hong Kong authorities met in March 2008 to resolve ownership and use of lands recovered in Shenzhen River channelization, including 96-hectare Lok Ma Chau Loop
Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundaries have been established between the countries; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches; land and maritime negotiations with Malaysia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; EEZ negotiations with Vietnam are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary
Illicit drugsmajor transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle region of Southeast Asia; growing domestic consumption of synthetic drugs, and heroin from Southeast and Southwest Asia; source country for methamphetamine and heroin chemical precursors, despite new regulations on its large chemical industry; more people believed to be convicted and executed for drug offences than anywhere else in the world, according to NGOs (2008)
illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy; President WIDODO's war on drugs has led to an increase in death sentences and executions, particularly of foreign drug traffickers (2015)
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 317,098 (Vietnam); undetermined (North Korea) (2016)
IDPs: undetermined (2014)
IDPs: 7,100 (inter-communal, inter-faith, and separatist violence between 1998 and 2004 in Aceh and Papua; religious attacks and land conflicts in 2012 and 2013; most IDPs in Aceh, Maluku, East Nusa Tengarra) (2016) (2011)

Source: CIA Factbook