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Brunei vs. Malaysia

Introduction

BruneiMalaysia
BackgroundThe Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in Asia.During the late 18th and 19th centuries, Great Britain established colonies and protectorates in the area of current Malaysia; these were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. In 1948, the British-ruled territories on the Malay Peninsula except Singapore formed the Federation of Malaya, which became independent in 1957. Malaysia was formed in 1963 when the former British colonies of Singapore, as well as Sabah and Sarawak on the northern coast of Borneo, joined the Federation. The first several years of the country's independence were marred by a communist insurgency, Indonesian confrontation with Malaysia, Philippine claims to Sabah, and Singapore's withdrawal in 1965. During the 22-year term of Prime Minister MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (1981-2003), Malaysia was successful in diversifying its economy from dependence on exports of raw materials to the development of manufacturing, services, and tourism. Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Razak (in office since April 2009) has continued these pro-business policies and has introduced some civil reforms.

Geography

BruneiMalaysia
LocationSoutheastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and MalaysiaSoutheastern Asia, peninsula bordering Thailand and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia, Brunei, and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam
Geographic coordinates4 30 N, 114 40 E2 30 N, 112 30 E
Map referencesSoutheast AsiaSoutheast Asia
Areatotal: 5,765 sq km
land: 5,265 sq km
water: 500 sq km
total: 329,847 sq km
land: 328,657 sq km
water: 1,190 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Delawareslightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundariestotal: 381 km
border countries: Malaysia 381 km
total: 2,669 km
border countries: Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km, Thailand 506 km
Coastline161 km4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the South China Sea
Climatetropical; hot, humid, rainytropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons
Terrainflat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in westcoastal plains rising to hills and mountains
Elevation extremeslowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Gunung Kinabalu 4,100 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, timbertin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite
Land usearable land: 0.52%
permanent crops: 0.87%
other: 98.61% (2011)
arable land: 5.44%
permanent crops: 17.49%
other: 77.07% (2011)
Irrigated land10 sq km (2003)3,800 sq km (2009)
Natural hazardstyphoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rareflooding; landslides; forest fires
Environment - current issuesseasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesiaair pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteclose to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave within Malaysiastrategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea
Total renewable water resources8.5 cu km (2011)580 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 0.09 cu km/yr (97%/0%/3%)
per capita: 301.6 cu m/yr (2009)
total: 11.2 cu km/yr (35%/43%/22%)
per capita: 414 cu m/yr (2005)

Demographics

BruneiMalaysia
Population415,717 (July 2013 est.)29,628,392 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 24.6% (male 52,761/female 49,538)
15-24 years: 17.5% (male 35,879/female 36,767)
25-54 years: 46.8% (male 94,827/female 99,779)
55-64 years: 7.3% (male 15,594/female 14,642)
65 years and over: 3.8% (male 7,767/female 8,163) (2013 est.)
0-14 years: 29.1% (male 4,433,911/female 4,186,635)
15-24 years: 17% (male 2,552,709/female 2,487,366)
25-54 years: 41.3% (male 6,195,754/female 6,027,160)
55-64 years: 7.4% (male 1,112,529/female 1,069,036)
65 years and over: 5.3% (male 739,696/female 823,596) (2013 est.)
Median agetotal: 29 years
male: 28.7 years
female: 29.2 years (2013 est.)
total: 27.4 years
male: 27.2 years
female: 27.6 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate1.67% (2013 est.)1.51% (2013 est.)
Birth rate17.63 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)20.41 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate3.43 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)4.97 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate2.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)-0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: does not reflect net flow of an unknown number of illegal immigrants from other countries in the region (2013 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 10.81 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 12.89 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
total: 14.12 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 16.32 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 76.57 years
male: 74.28 years
female: 78.97 years (2013 est.)
total population: 74.28 years
male: 71.51 years
female: 77.24 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate1.83 children born/woman (2013 est.)2.61 children born/woman (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rateless than 0.1% (2003 est.)0.5% (2009 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Bruneian(s)
adjective: Bruneian
noun: Malaysian(s)
adjective: Malaysian
Ethnic groupsMalay 66.3%, Chinese 11.2%, indigenous 3.4%, other 19.1% (2004 est.)Malay 50.4%, Chinese 23.7%, indigenous 11%, Indian 7.1%, others 7.8% (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSfewer than 200 (2003 est.)100,000 (2009 est.)
ReligionsMuslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, other (includes indigenous beliefs) 10%Muslim (or Islam - official) 60.4%, Buddhist 19.2%, Christian 9.1%, Hindu 6.3%, Confucianism, Taoism, other traditional Chinese religions 2.6%, other or unknown 1.5%, none 0.8% (2000 census)
HIV/AIDS - deathsfewer than 200 (2003 est.)5,800 (2009 est.)
LanguagesMalay (official), English, ChineseBahasa Malaysia (official), English, Chinese (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai
note: in East Malaysia there are several indigenous languages; most widely spoken are Iban and Kadazan
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.4%
male: 97%
female: 93.9% (2011 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.1%
male: 95.4%
female: 90.7% (2010 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2011)
total: 13 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2005)
Education expenditures3.3% of GDP (2012)5.1% of GDP (2010)
Urbanizationurban population: 76% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.13% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 72.8% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.49% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major cities - populationBANDAR SERI BEGAWAN (capital) 241,000
note: the boundaries of the capital city were expanded in 2007, greatly increasing the city area; the population of the capital increased tenfold (2011)
KUALA LUMPUR (capital) 1.493 million; Klang 1.071 million; Johor Bahru 958,000 (2009)
Maternal mortality rate24 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)29 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Health expenditures2.5% of GDP (2011)3.6% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density1.36 physicians/1,000 population (2010)1.198 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density2.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)1.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate7.5% (2008)14% (2008)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 42 %
youth dependency ratio: 36 %
elderly dependency ratio: 6.1 %
potential support ratio: 16.4 (2013)
total dependency ratio: 45.9 %
youth dependency ratio: 38.1 %
elderly dependency ratio: 7.8 %
potential support ratio: 12.8 (2013)

Government

BruneiMalaysia
Country nameconventional long form: Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei
local long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
local short form: Brunei
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Malaysia
local long form: none
local short form: Malaysia
former: Federation of Malaya
Government typeconstitutional sultanate (locally known as Malay Islamic Monarchy)constitutional monarchy
note: nominally headed by paramount ruler (commonly referred to as the king) and a bicameral Parliament consisting of a nonelected upper house and an elected lower house; all Peninsular Malaysian states have hereditary rulers (commonly referred to as sultans) except Melaka (Malacca) and Pulau Pinang (Penang); those two states along with Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia have governors appointed by government; powers of state governments are limited by federal constitution; under terms of federation, Sabah and Sarawak retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., right to maintain their own immigration controls)
Capitalname: Bandar Seri Begawan
geographic coordinates: 4 53 N, 114 56 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
name: Kuala Lumpur
geographic coordinates: 3 10 N, 101 42 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: Putrajaya is referred to as an administrative center not the capital; Parliament meets in Kuala Lumpur
Administrative divisions4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei-Muara, Temburong, Tutong13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu; and 1 federal territory (Wilayah Persekutuan) with 3 components, Kuala Lumpur, Labuan, and Putrajaya
Independence1 January 1984 (from the UK)31 August 1957 (from the UK)
National holidayNational Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protectionIndependence Day 31 August (1957) (independence of Malaya); Malaysia Day 16 September (1963) (formation of Malaysia)
Constitution29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)31 August 1957; amended many times
Legal systemmixed legal system based on English common law and Islamic lawmixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation
Suffrage18 years of age for village elections; universal21 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state (Yang Di-Pertuan Agong) and head of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967)
cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises
elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary
chief of state: King Tuanku ABDUL HALIM Mu'adzam Shah (selected on 13 December 2011; installed on 11 April 2012); the position of the king is primarily ceremonial
head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Najib Razak (since 3 April 2009); Deputy Prime Minister MUHYIDDIN bin Mohamed Yassin (since 9 April 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament with consent of the king
elections: kings are elected by and from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states for five-year terms; selection is based on the principle of rotation among rulers of states; elections were last held on 14 October 2011 (next to be held in 2016); prime ministers are designated from among the members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader who commands the support of the majority of members in the House becomes prime minister (since independence this has been the leader of the UMNO party)
election results: Tuanku Abdul HALIM Mu'adzam Shah elected king by fellow hereditary rulers of nine states; Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Najib Razak was sworn in as prime minister after former Prime Minister ABDULLAH Ahmad Badawi stepped down; ABDULLAH also stepped down as UMNO president; there was no party election for the post of president; the party passed the reins to NAJIB who was the deputy president
Legislative branchthe Sultan appointed a Legislative Council with 29 members in September 2005; he increased the size of the council to 33 members in June 2011; the council meets annually in March
elections: last held in March 1962 (date of next election NA)
note: the Legislative Council met on 25 September 2004 for first time in 20 years with 21 members appointed by the Sultan; it passed constitutional amendments calling for a 45-seat council with 15 elected members; no timeframe for an election was announced
bicameral Parliament or Parlimen consists of Senate or Dewan Negara (70 seats; 44 members appointed by the king, 26 elected by 13 state legislatures to serve three-year terms with a two term limit) and House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (222 seats; members elected in 222 constituencies in a first-pass-the-post system to serve up to five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held on 5 May 2013 (next to be held by May 2018)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote - BN coalition 59.9%, opposition parties 40%, others 0.1%; seats - BN coalition 133, opposition parties 89
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of Court of Appeal and High Court, each with a chief justice and 2 judges); Sharia Court of Appeal (consists of judges appointed by the monarch)
note - Brunei has a dual judicial system of secular and sharia (religious) courts; the Judicial Committee of Privy Council in London serves as the final appellate court for civil cases only
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch to serve until age 65, and older if approved by the monarch; Sharia Court of Appeal judges appointed by the monarch; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: Intermediate Court; Magistrate's Courts; Juvenile Court; small claims courts; lower sharia courts (2006)
highest court(s): Federal Court (consists of the chief justice and 4 judges)
note - Malaysia has a dual judicial hierarchy of civil and religious (sharia) courts
judge selection and term of office: Federal Court justices appointed by the monarch on advice of the prime minister; judges serve till age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Sessions Court; Magistrates' Court
Political parties and leadersNational Development Party or NDP [YASSIN Affendi]
note: Brunei National Solidarity Party or PPKB [Abdul LATIF bin Chuchu] and People's Awareness Party or PAKAR [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad] were deregistered in 2007; parties are small and have limited activity
National Front (Barisan Nasional) or BN (ruling coalition) consists of the following parties:
Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia Party or GERAKAN [KOH Tsu Koon]
Liberal Democratic Party (Parti Liberal Demokratik - Sabah) or LDP [LIEW Vui Keong]
Malaysian Chinese Association (Persatuan China Malaysia) or MCA [CHUA Soi Lek]
Malaysian Indian Congress (Kongres India Malaysia) or MIC [Govindasamy PALANIVEL]
Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah or PBRS [Joseph KURUP]
Parti Bersatu Sabah or PBS [Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan]
Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu or PBB [Abdul TAIB Mahmud]
Parti Rakyat Sarawak or PRS [James MASING]
Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sarawak) or SUPP [Peter CHIN Fah Kui]
United Malays National Organization or UMNO [NAJIB bin Abdul Razak]
United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organization (Pertubuhan Pasko Momogun Kadazan Dusun Bersatu) or UPKO [Bernard DOMPOK]
People's Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Penduduk Malaysia) or PPP [M.Kayveas]

People's Alliance (Pakatan Rakyat) or PR (opposition coalition) consists of the following parties:
Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik) or DAP [KARPAL Singh]
Islamic Party of Malaysia (Parti Islam se Malaysia) or PAS [Abdul HADI Awang
People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat) or PKR [WAN AZIZAH Wan Ismail]
Sarawak National Party or SNAP [Edwin DUNDANG]

notable independent parties:
Sabah Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Sabah) or SAPP [YONG Teck Lee]
State Reform Pary (Parti Reformasi Negeri) or STAR [Jeffery KITINGAN]
Political pressure groups and leadersNABar Council
BERSIH (electoral reform coalition)
PEMBELA (Muslim NGO coalition)
PERKASA (defense of Malay rights)

other: religious groups; women's groups; youth groups
International organization participationADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, CP, EAS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTOADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Dato Yusoff Abd HAMID (since 2 October 2009)
chancery: 3520 International Court NW #300, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires SHAHRIL Effendi Bin Abd Ghany (since 22 August 2013)
chancery: 3516 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 572-9700
FAX: [1] (202) 572-9882
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Daniel L. SHIELDS III (since 28 March 2011)
embassy: Simpang 336-52-16-9, Jalan Kebangsaan, Bandar Seri Begawan, BC4115
mailing address: Unit 4280, Box 40, FPO AP 96507; P.O. Box 2991, Bandar Seri Begawan BS8675, Negara Brunei Darussalam
telephone: [673] 238-4616
FAX: [673] 238-4604
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph Y. YUN (since 1 August 2013)
embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur
mailing address: US Embassy Kuala Lumpur, APO AP 96535-8152
telephone: [60] (3) 2168-5000
FAX: [60] (3) 2148-5801
Flag descriptionyellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; yellow is the color of royalty and symbolizes the sultanate; the white and black bands denote Brunei's chief ministers; the emblem includes five main components: a swallow-tailed flag, the royal umbrella representing the monarchy, the wings of four feathers symbolizing justice, tranquility, prosperity, and peace, the two upraised hands signifying the government's pledge to preserve and promote the welfare of the people, and the crescent moon denoting Islam, the state religion; the state motto "Always render service with God's guidance" appears in yellow Arabic script on the crescent; a ribbon below the crescent reads "Brunei, the Abode of Peace"14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow 14-pointed star; the flag is often referred to as Jalur Gemilang (Stripes of Glory); the 14 stripes stand for the equal status in the federation of the 13 member states and the federal government; the 14 points on the star represent the unity between these entities; the crescent is a traditional symbol of Islam; blue symbolizes the unity of the Malay people and yellow is the royal color of Malay rulers
note: the design is based on the flag of the US
National anthemname: "Allah Peliharakan Sultan" (God Bless His Majesty)
lyrics/music: Pengiran Haji Mohamed YUSUF bin Pengiran Abdul Rahim/Awang Haji BESAR bin Sagap
note: adopted 1951
name: "Negaraku" (My Country)
lyrics/music: collective, led by Tunku ABDUL RAHMAN/Pierre Jean DE BERANGER
note: adopted 1957; the full version is only performed in the presence of the king; the tune, which was adopted from a popular French melody titled "La Rosalie," was originally the anthem of the state of Perak
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCthas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Economy

BruneiMalaysia
Economy - overviewBrunei has a small well-to-do economy that depends on revenue from natural resource extraction but encompasses a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for 60% of GDP and more than 90% of exports. Per capita GDP is among the highest in Asia, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. For Bruneian citizens the government provides for all medical services and free education through the university level. The government of Brunei has been emphasizing through policy and resource investments it strong desire to diversity its economy both within the oil and gas sector and to new sectors.Malaysia, a middle-income country, has transformed itself since the 1970s from a producer of raw materials into an emerging multi-sector economy. Under current Prime Minister NAJIB, Malaysia is attempting to achieve high-income status by 2020 and to move farther up the value-added production chain by attracting investments in Islamic finance, high technology industries, biotechnology, and services. NAJIB's Economic Transformation Program (ETP) is a series of projects and policy measures intended to accelerate the country's economic growth. The government has also taken steps to liberalize some services sub-sectors. The NAJIB administration also is continuing efforts to boost domestic demand and reduce the economy''s dependence on exports. Nevertheless, exports - particularly of electronics, oil and gas, palm oil and rubber - remain a significant driver of the economy. As an oil and gas exporter, Malaysia has profited from higher world energy prices, although the rising cost of domestic gasoline and diesel fuel, combined with strained government finances, has forced Kuala Lumpur to begin to reduce government subsidies. The government is also trying to lessen its dependence on state oil producer Petronas. The oil and gas sector supplies about 35% of government revenue in 2011. Bank Negera Malaysia (central bank) maintains healthy foreign exchange reserves, and a well-developed regulatory regime has limited Malaysia''s exposure to riskier financial instruments and the global financial crisis. Nevertheless, Malaysia could be vulnerable to a fall in commodity prices or a general slowdown in global economic activity because exports are a major component of GDP. In order to attract increased investment, NAJIB has raised possible revisions to the special economic and social preferences accorded to ethnic Malays under the New Economic Policy of 1970, but he has encountered significant opposition, especially from Malay nationalists and other vested interests.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$22.04 billion (2012 est.)
$21.76 billion (2011 est.)
$21.29 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
$506.7 billion (2012 est.)
$479.7 billion (2011 est.)
$456.5 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP - real growth rate1.3% (2012 est.)
2.2% (2011 est.)
2.6% (2010 est.)
5.6% (2012 est.)
5.1% (2011 est.)
7.2% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$55,300 (2012 est.)
$55,400 (2011 est.)
$55,000 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
$17,200 (2012 est.)
$16,600 (2011 est.)
$16,000 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 0.6%
industry: 71.7%
services: 27.7% (2011 est.)
agriculture: 11.4%
industry: 40.2%
services: 48.3% (2012 est.)
Population below poverty lineNA%3.8% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 34.7% (2009 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)0.5% (2012 est.)
2.1% (2011 est.)
1.7% (2012 est.)
3.2% (2011 est.)
note: approximately 30% of goods are price-controlled
Labor force205,800 (2011 est.)12.9 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 4.2%
industry: 62.8%
services: 33% (2008 est.)
agriculture: 11.1%
industry: 36%
services: 53.5% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate2.6% (2011)
2.7% (2010)
3% (2012 est.)
3.1% (2011 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $7.363 billion
expenditures: $5.122 billion (2012 est.)
revenues: $67.31 billion
expenditures: $80.89 billion (2012 est.)
Industriespetroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction, agriculture, transportationPeninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, petroleum and natural gas, light manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, medical technology, electronics and semi-conductors, timber processing; Sabah - logging, petroleum and natural gas production; Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum and natural gas production, logging
Industrial production growth rate0.1% (2012 est.)3.8% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - productsrice, vegetables, fruits; chickens, water buffalo, cattle, goats, eggsPeninsular Malaysia - palm oil, rubber, cocoa, rice; Sabah - palm oil, subsistence crops; rubber, timber; Sarawak - palm oil, rubber, timber; pepper
Exports$12.75 billion (2011)
$9.88 billion (2010)
$247 billion (2012 est.)
$227.6 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commoditiescrude oil, natural gas, garmentssemiconductors and electronic equipment, palm oil, petroleum and liquefied natural gas, wood and wood products, palm oil, rubber, textiles, chemicals, solar panels
Exports - partnersJapan 46.5%, South Korea 15.5%, Australia 9.3%, India 7%, NZ 6.7% (2012)Singapore 13.6%, China 12.6%, Japan 11.8%, US 8.7%, Thailand 5.4%, Hong Kong 4.3%, India 4.2%, Australia 4.1% (2012)
Imports$3.02 billion (2011 est.)
$2.73 billion (2010 est.)
$181.6 billion (2012 est.)
$179.2 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commoditiesiron and steel, motor vehicles, machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicalselectronics, machinery, petroleum products, plastics, vehicles, iron and steel products, chemicals
Imports - partnersSingapore 26.3%, China 21.3%, UK 21.3%, Malaysia 11.8% (2012)China 15.1%, Singapore 13.3%, Japan 10.3%, US 8.1%, Thailand 6%, Indonesia 5.1%, South Korea 4.1% (2012)
Debt - external$0 (2005)$99.93 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$94.47 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Exchange ratesBruneian dollars (BND) per US dollar -
1.2496 (2012 est.)
1.2579 (2011 est.)
1.3635 (2010 est.)
1.45 (2009)
ringgits (MYR) per US dollar -
3.0888 (2012 est.)
3.06 (2011 est.)
3.22 (2010 est.)
3.52 (2009)
3.33 (2008)
Fiscal year1 April - 31 Marchcalendar year
Current Account Balance$3.977 billion (2009 est.)$22.8 billion (2012 est.)
$32.03 billion (2011 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$16.63 billion (2012 est.)$303.5 billion (2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA$414 billion (31 December 2011)
$410.5 billion (31 December 2010)
$256 billion (31 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime lending rate5.5% (31 December 2012 est.)
5.5% (31 December 2011 est.)
4.7% (31 December 2012 est.)
4.83% (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$2.266 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.33 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$410.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$354.6 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of narrow money$3.509 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$3.255 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$93.89 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$81.28 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of broad money$11.62 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$10.64 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$458.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$382.2 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Taxes and other revenues44.3% of GDP (2012 est.)22.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)13.5% of GDP (2012 est.)-4.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 20.7%
government consumption: 18%
investment in fixed capital: 14.1%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 78.9%
imports of goods and services: -31.7%
(2012 est.)
household consumption: 48.9%
government consumption: 13.5%
investment in fixed capital: 25.7%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 87.1%
imports of goods and services: -75.3%
(2012 est.)

Energy

BruneiMalaysia
Electricity - production3.723 billion kWh (2011 est.)118 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - consumption3.391 billion kWh (2011 est.)112 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - exports0 kWh (2010 est.)88 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports0 kWh (2010 est.)33 million kWh (2010 est.)
Oil - production166,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)603,400 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Oil - imports0 bbl/day (2011 est.)199,100 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Oil - exports155,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)269,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Oil - proved reserves1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2012 est.)2.9 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves390.8 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)2.35 trillion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Natural gas - production11.8 billion cu m (2010 est.)66.5 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption2.97 billion cu m (2010 est.)35.7 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports8.83 billion cu m (2010 est.)31.99 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports0 cu m (2010 est.)2.94 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity894,000 kW (2009 est.)25.24 million kW (2009 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production14,720 bbl/day (2008 est.)649,700 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption14,640 bbl/day (2011 est.)542,900 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports0 bbl/day (2008 est.)213,800 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports1,016 bbl/day (2008 est.)178,200 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy8.271 million Mt (2010 est.)181.9 million Mt (2010 est.)

Telecommunications

BruneiMalaysia
Telephones - main lines in use70,933 (2012)4.589 million (2012)
Telephones - mobile cellular469,700 (2012)41.325 million (2012)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: service throughout the country is good; international service is good to Southeast Asia, Middle East, Western Europe, and the US
domestic: every service available
international: country code - 673; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable network provides new links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2011)
general assessment: modern system featuring good intercity service on Peninsular Malaysia provided mainly by microwave radio relay and an adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; international service excellent
domestic: domestic satellite system with 2 earth stations; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 140 per 100 persons
international: country code - 60; landing point for several major international submarine cable networks that provide connectivity to Asia, Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean) (2011)
Internet country code.bn.my
Internet users314,900 (2009)15.355 million (2009)
Internet hosts49,457 (2012)422,470 (2012)
Broadcast mediastate-controlled Radio Television Brunei (RTB) operates 5 channels; 3 Malaysian TV stations are available; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite and cable systems; RTB operates 5 radio networks and broadcasts on multiple frequencies; British Forces Broadcast Service (BFBS) provides radio broadcasts on 2 FM stations; some radio broadcast stations from Malaysia are available via repeaters (2009)state-owned TV broadcaster operates 2 TV networks with relays throughout the country, and the leading private commercial media group operates 4 TV stations with numerous relays throughout the country; satellite TV subscription service is available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates multiple national networks as well as regional and local stations; many private commercial radio broadcasters and some subscription satellite radio services are available; about 55 radio stations overall (2012)

Transportation

BruneiMalaysia
Roadwaystotal: 3,029 km
paved: 2,425 km
unpaved: 604 km (2010)
total: 144,403 km (does not include local roads)
paved: 116,169 km (includes 1,821 km of expressways)
unpaved: 28,234 km (2010)
Waterways209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m; the Belait, Brunei, and Tutong rivers are major transport links) (2012)7,200 km (Peninsular Malaysia 3,200 km; Sabah 1,500 km; Sarawak 2,500 km) (2011)
Pipelinescondensate 33 km; condensate/gas 86 km; gas 628 km; oil 492 km (2013)condensate 354 km; gas 6,439 km; liquid petroleum gas 155 km; oil 1,937 km; oil/gas/water 43 km; refined products 114 km; water 26 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Muara
oil/gas terminal(s): Lumut, Seria
Bintulu, Johor Bahru, George Town (Penang), Port Kelang (Port Klang), Tanjung Pelepas
Merchant marinetotal: 9
by type: chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 8
foreign-owned: 2 (UK 2) (2010)
total: 315
by type: bulk carrier 11, cargo 83, carrier 2, chemical tanker 47, container 41, liquefied gas 34, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 86, roll on/roll off 2, vehicle carrier 5
foreign-owned: 26 (Denmark 1, Hong Kong 8, Japan 2, Russia 2, Singapore 13)
registered in other countries: 82 (Bahamas 13, India 1, Indonesia 1, Isle of Man 6, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 11, Panama 12, Papua New Guinea 1, Philippines 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Singapore 27, Thailand 3, US 2, unknown 2) (2010)
Airports1 (2013)114 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
total: 39
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
Heliports3 (2013)4 (2013)

Military

BruneiMalaysia
Military branchesRoyal Brunei Armed Forces: Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Brunei) (2013)Malaysian Armed Forces (Angkatan Tentera Malaysia, ATM): Malaysian Army (Tentera Darat Malaysia), Royal Malaysian Navy (Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia, TLDM), Royal Malaysian Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia, TUDM) (2013)
Military service age and obligation17 years of age for voluntary military service; non-Malays are ineligible to serve; recruits from the army, navy, and air force all undergo 43-week initial training (2013)17 years 6 months of age for voluntary military service (younger with parental consent and proof of age); mandatory retirement age 60; women serve in the Malaysian Armed Forces; no conscription (2013)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 112,688
females age 16-49: 117,536 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 7,501,518
females age 16-49: 7,315,999 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 95,141
females age 16-49: 99,386 (2010 est.)
males age 16-49: 6,247,306
females age 16-49: 6,175,274 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 3,572
female: 3,465 (2010 est.)
male: 265,008
female: 254,812 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP2.4% of GDP (2011)2.03% of GDP (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues

BruneiMalaysia
Disputes - internationalper Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; nonetheless, Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Louisa Reefwhile the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions over the Spratly Islands, it is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties; Malaysia was not party to the March 2005 joint accord among the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam on conducting marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; disputes continue over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's land reclamation, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, ICJ awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge; land and maritime negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Muslim southern provinces prompts measures to close and monitor border with Malaysia to stem terrorist activities; Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo; per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
Illicit drugsdrug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penaltydrug trafficking prosecuted vigorously and carries severe penalties; heroin still primary drug of abuse, but synthetic drug demand remains strong; continued ecstasy and methamphetamine producer for domestic users and, to a lesser extent, the regional drug market
Refugees and internally displaced personsstateless persons: 21,009 (2012); note - thousands of stateless persons, often ethnic Chinese, are permanent residents and their families have lived in Brunei for generations; obtaining citizenship is difficult and requires individuals to pass rigorous tests on Malay culture, customs, and language; stateless residents receive an International Certificate of Identity, which enables them to travel overseas; the government is considering changing the law prohibiting non-Bruneians, including stateless permanent residents, from owning landrefugees (country of origin): 84,671 (Burma) (2012)
stateless persons: 40,001 (2012); note - Malaysia's stateless population consists of Rohingya refugees from Burma, ethnic Indians, and the children of Filipino and Indonesian illegal migrants; Burma stripped the Rohingya of their nationality in 1982; Filipino and Indonesian children who have not have been registered for birth certificates by their parents or who received birth certificates stamped "foreigner" are not eligible to go to government schools; these children are vulnerable to statelessness should they not be able to apply to their parents' country of origin for a passport

Source: CIA Factbook