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Brazil vs. Uruguay

Introduction

BrazilUruguay
BackgroundFollowing more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Having successfully weathered a period of global financial difficulty in the late 20th century, Brazil was seen as one of the world’s strongest emerging markets and a contributor to global growth. The awarding of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the first ever to be held in South America, was seen as symbolic of the country’s rise. However, since about 2013, Brazil has been plagued by a shrinking economy, growing unemployment, and rising inflation. Political scandal resulted in the impeachment of President Dilma ROUSSEFF in May 2016, a conviction that was upheld by the Senate in August 2016; her vice president, Michel TEMER, will serve as president until 2018, completing her second term.
Montevideo, founded by the Spanish in 1726 as a military stronghold, soon took advantage of its natural harbor to become an important commercial center. Claimed by Argentina but annexed by Brazil in 1821, Uruguay declared its independence four years later and secured its freedom in 1828 after a three-year struggle. The administrations of President Jose BATLLE in the early 20th century launched widespread political, social, and economic reforms that established a statist tradition. A violent Marxist urban guerrilla movement named the Tupamaros, launched in the late 1960s, led Uruguay's president to cede control of the government to the military in 1973. By yearend, the rebels had been crushed, but the military continued to expand its hold over the government. Civilian rule was restored in 1985. In 2004, the left-of-center Frente Amplio Coalition won national elections that effectively ended 170 years of political control previously held by the Colorado and National (Blanco) parties. Uruguay's political and labor conditions are among the freest on the continent.

Geography

BrazilUruguay
LocationEastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Argentina and Brazil
Geographic coordinates10 00 S, 55 00 W
33 00 S, 56 00 W
Map referencesSouth America
South America
Areatotal: 8,515,770 sq km
land: 8,358,140 sq km
water: 157,630 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
total: 176,215 sq km
land: 175,015 sq km
water: 1,200 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than the US
about the size of Virginia and West Virginia combined; slightly smaller than the state of Washington
Land boundariestotal: 16,145 km
border countries (10): Argentina 1,263 km, Bolivia 3,403 km, Colombia 1,790 km, French Guiana 649 km, Guyana 1,308 km, Paraguay 1,371 km, Peru 2,659 km, Suriname 515 km, Uruguay 1,050 km, Venezuela 2,137 km
total: 1,591 km
border countries (2): Argentina 541 km, Brazil 1,050 km
Coastline7,491 km
660 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or the edge of continental margin
Climatemostly tropical, but temperate in south
warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown
Terrainmostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 320 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m
mean elevation: 109 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro Catedral 514 m
Natural resourcesbauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
arable land, hydropower, minor minerals, fish
Land useagricultural land: 32.9%
arable land 8.6%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 23.5%
forest: 61.9%
other: 5.2% (2011 est.)
agricultural land: 87.2%
arable land 10.1%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 76.9%
forest: 10.2%
other: 2.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land54,000 sq km (2012)
2,380 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsrecurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south
seasonally high winds (the pampero is a chilly and occasional violent wind that blows north from the Argentine pampas), droughts, floods; because of the absence of mountains, which act as weather barriers, all locations are particularly vulnerable to rapid changes from weather fronts
Environment - current issuesdeforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
water pollution from meat packing/tannery industry; inadequate solid/hazardous waste disposal
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - notelargest country in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador
second-smallest South American country (after Suriname); most of the low-lying landscape (three-quarters of the country) is grassland, ideal for cattle and sheep raising
Population distributionthe vast majority of people live along, or relatively near, the Atlantic coast in the east; the population core is in the southeast, anchored by the cities of Sao Paolo, Brazilia, and Rio de Janeiro
most of the country's population resides in the southern half of the country; approximately 80% of the populace is urban, living in towns or cities; nearly half of the population lives in and around the capital of Montevideo

Demographics

BrazilUruguay
Population205,823,665 (July 2016 est.)
3,351,016 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 22.79% (male 23,905,185/female 22,994,222)
15-24 years: 16.43% (male 17,146,060/female 16,661,163)
25-54 years: 43.84% (male 44,750,568/female 45,489,430)
55-64 years: 8.89% (male 8,637,011/female 9,656,370)
65 years and over: 8.06% (male 7,059,944/female 9,523,712) (2016 est.)
0-14 years: 20.44% (male 348,547/female 336,435)
15-24 years: 15.78% (male 267,848/female 260,990)
25-54 years: 39.23% (male 649,702/female 664,933)
55-64 years: 10.41% (male 164,201/female 184,784)
65 years and over: 14.13% (male 189,197/female 284,379) (2016 est.)
Median agetotal: 31.6 years
male: 30.7 years
female: 32.4 years (2016 est.)
total: 34.7 years
male: 33 years
female: 36.4 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate0.75% (2016 est.)
0.27% (2016 est.)
Birth rate14.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
13 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate6.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
-0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 18 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
total: 8.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 73.8 years
male: 70.2 years
female: 77.5 years (2016 est.)
total population: 77.2 years
male: 74.1 years
female: 80.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate1.76 children born/woman (2016 est.)
1.81 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.58% (2015 est.)
0.48% (2015 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian
noun: Uruguayan(s)
adjective: Uruguayan
Ethnic groupswhite 47.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 43.1%, black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)
white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%, Amerindian (practically nonexistent)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS826,700 (2015 est.)
10,100 (2015 est.)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Roman Catholic 47.1%, non-Catholic Christians 11.1%, nondenominational 23.2%, Jewish 0.3%, atheist or agnostic 17.2%, other 1.1% (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths15,300 (2015 est.)
300 (2015 est.)
LanguagesPortuguese (official and most widely spoken language)
note: less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages
Spanish (official), Portunol, Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on the Brazilian frontier)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 92.2%
female: 92.9% (2015 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.5%
male: 98.2%
female: 98.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2014)
total: 16 years
male: 14 years
female: 17 years (2010)
Education expenditures6% of GDP (2013)
4.4% of GDP (2011)
Urbanizationurban population: 85.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.17% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 95.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.53% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 87% of population
total: 98.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 13% of population
total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 93.9% of population
total: 99.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 6.1% of population
total: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 88% of population
rural: 51.5% of population
total: 82.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 12% of population
rural: 48.5% of population
total: 17.2% of population (2015 est.)
improved:
urban: 96.6% of population
rural: 92.6% of population
total: 96.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.4% of population
rural: 7.4% of population
total: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)
Major cities - populationSao Paulo 21.066 million; Rio de Janeiro 12.902 million; Belo Horizonte 5.716 million; BRASILIA (capital) 4.155 million; Fortaleza 3.88 million; Recife 3.739 million (2015)
MONTEVIDEO (capital) 1.707 million (2015)
Maternal mortality rate44 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
15 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight2.2% (2007)
4.5% (2011)
Health expenditures8.3% of GDP (2014)
8.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.85 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
3.94 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density2.3 beds/1,000 population (2012)
2.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate20.1% (2014)
27.6% (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 959,942
percentage: 3%
note: data represent children ages 5-13 (2009 est.)
total number: 51,879
percentage: 7% (2006 est.)
Demographic profileBrazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas.
Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.
Uruguay rates high for most development indicators and is known for its secularism, liberal social laws, and well-developed social security, health, and educational systems. It is one of the few countries in Latin America and the Caribbean where the entire population has access to clean water. Uruguay's provision of free primary through university education has contributed to the country's high levels of literacy and educational attainment. However, the emigration of human capital has diminished the state's return on its investment in education. Remittances from the roughly 18% of Uruguayans abroad amount to less than 1 percent of national GDP. The emigration of young adults and a low birth rate are causing Uruguay's population to age rapidly.
In the 1960s, Uruguayans for the first time emigrated en masse - primarily to Argentina and Brazil - because of economic decline and the onset of more than a decade of military dictatorship. Economic crises in the early 1980s and 2002 also triggered waves of emigration, but since 2002 more than 70% of Uruguayan emigrants have selected the US and Spain as destinations because of better job prospects. Uruguay had a tiny population upon its independence in 1828 and welcomed thousands of predominantly Italian and Spanish immigrants, but the country has not experienced large influxes of new arrivals since the aftermath of World War II. More recent immigrants include Peruvians and Arabs.
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 44.7
youth dependency ratio: 33.3
elderly dependency ratio: 11.3
potential support ratio: 8.8 (2015 est.)
total dependency ratio: 55.9
youth dependency ratio: 33.4
elderly dependency ratio: 22.5
potential support ratio: 4.4 (2015 est.)

Government

BrazilUruguay
Country nameconventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil
etymology: the country name derives from the brazilwood tree that used to grow plentifully along the coast of Brazil and that was used to produce a deep red dye
conventional long form: Oriental Republic of Uruguay
conventional short form: Uruguay
local long form: Republica Oriental del Uruguay
local short form: Uruguay
former: Banda Oriental, Cisplatine Province
etymology: name derives from the Spanish pronunciation of the Guarani Indian designation of the Uruguay River, which makes up the western border of the country and whose name later came to be applied to the entire country
Government typefederal presidential republic
presidential republic
Capitalname: Brasilia
geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins third Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in February
note: Brazil has three time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands
name: Montevideo
geographic coordinates: 34 51 S, 56 10 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres
Independence7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
25 August 1825 (from Brazil)
National holidayIndependence Day, 7 September (1822)
Independence Day, 25 August (1825)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988; amended many times, last in 2016 (2016)
several previous; latest approved by plebiscite 27 November 1966, effective 15 February 1967; amended several times, last in 2004 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law; note - a new civil law code was enacted in 2002 replacing the 1916 code
civil law system based on the Spanish civil code
Suffragevoluntary between 16 to 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branchchief of state: President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 31 August 2016); Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 31 August 2016); Vice President (vacant)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 October 2014 with runoff on 26 October 2014 (next to be held October 2018)
election results: Dilma ROUSSEFF reelected president in a runoff election; percent of vote - Dilma ROUSSEFF (PT) 51.6%, Aecio NEVES (PSDB) 48.4%
note: on 12 May 2016, Brazil's Senate voted to hold an impeachment trial of President Dilma ROUSSEFF, who was then suspended from her executive duties; Vice President Michel TEMER then took over as acting president; on 31 August 2016 the Senate voted 61-20 in favor of conviction and her removal from office; TEMER will now serve as president for the remainder of ROUSSEFF's term until 1 January 2019
chief of state: President Tabare VAZQUEZ (since 1 March 2015); Vice President Raul Fernando SENDIC Rodriguez (since 1 March 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Tabare VAZQUEZ (since 1 March 2015); Vice President Raul Fernando SENDIC Rodriguez (since 1 March 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the General Assembly
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 26 October 2014, with a runoff election on 30 November 2014 (next to be held on 27 October 2019, and a runoff if needed on 24 November 2019)
election results: Tabare VAZQUEZ elected president in a runoff election; percent of vote - Tabare VAZQUEZ (Socialist Party) 56.5%, Luis Alberto LACALLE Pou (Blanco) 43.4%
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members each from 26 states and 3 from the federal district directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 8-year terms, with one-third and two-thirds of the membership elected alternately every 4 years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Federal Senate - last held on 5 October 2014 for one-third of the Senate (next to be held in October 2018 for two-thirds of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 5 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)
election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PMDB 5, PSDB 4, PDT 4, PSB 3, DEM (formerly PFL) 3, PT 2, PSD 2, PTB 2, PP 1, PR 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PT 70, PMDB 66, PSDB 54, PSD 37, PP 36, PR 34, PSB 34, PTB 25, DEM (formerly PFL) 22, PRB 21, PDT 19, SD 15, PSC 12, PROS 11, PCdoB 10, PPS 10, PV 8, PHS 5, PSOL 5, PTN 4, PMN 3, PRP 3, PEN 2, PTC 2, PSDC 2, PTdoB 1, PSL 1, PRTB 1
description: bicameral General Assembly or Asamblea General consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (31 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; the vice-president serves as the presiding ex-officio member; elected members serve 5-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (99 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators - last held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); Chamber of Representatives - last held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Frente Amplio 15, National Party 10, Colorado Party 4, Independent Party 1; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Frente Amplio 50, National Party 32, Colorado Party 13, Independent Party 3, Popular Unit Movement 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Federal Court or Supremo Tribunal Federal (consists of 11 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: Tribunal of the Union, Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the president and appointed in joint conference of the General Assembly; judges appointed for 10-year terms, with reelection after a lapse of 5 years following the previous term
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; District Courts (Juzgados Letrados); Peace Courts (Juzgados de Paz); Rural Courts (Juzgados Rurales)
Political parties and leadersBrazilian Communist Party or PCB [Ivan Martins PINHEIRO]
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]
Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Cristiane BRASIL]
Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]
Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Marcos Antonio PEREIRA]
Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Aecio NEVES]
Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Carlos Roberto SIQUEIRA de Barros]
Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]
Christian Social Democratic Party or PSDC [Jose Maria EYMAEL]
Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]
The Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL)
Free Homeland Party or PPL [Sergio RUBENS]
Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA]
Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Eduardo MACHADO]
Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE]
National Ecologic Party or PEN [Adilson Barroso OLIVEIRA]
National Labor Party or PTN [Jose Masci de ABREU]
National Mobilization Party or PMN [Telma RIBEIRO dos Santos]
Party of the Republic or PR [Alfredo NASCIMENTO]
Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto Joao Pereira FREIRE]
Progressive Party or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA]
Progressive Republican Party or PRP [Ovasco Roma Altimari RESENDE]
Republican Social Order Party or PROS [Euripedes JUNIOR]
Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Guilherme CAMPOS]
Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]
Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Luiz ARAUJO]
Solidarity or SD [Paulo PEREIRA DA SILVA]
United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [Jose Maria DE ALMEIDA]
Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]
Workers' Party or PT [Rui FALCAO]
Broad Front (Frente Amplio) - (a broad governing coalition that includes Uruguay Assembly [Danilo ASTORI], Progressive Alliance [Rodolfo NIN NOVOA], New Space [Rafael MICHELINI], Socialist Party [Monica XAVIER], Vertiente Artiguista [Enrique RUBIO], Christian Democratic Party [Juan Andres ROBALLO], For the People’s Victory [Luis PUIG], Popular Participation Movement (MPP) [Jose MUJICA], Broad Front Commitment [Raul SENDIC], Big House [Constanza MOREIRA], Communist Party [Marcos CARAMBULA], The Federal League [Dario PEREZ]
Colorado Party (including Vamos Uruguay (or Let's Go Uruguay) [Pedro BORDABERRY], Open Space [Tabare VIERA], and Open Batllism [Ope PASQUET])
Independent Party [Pablo MIERES]
National Party or Blanco (including All Forward [Luis LACALLE POU] and National Alliance [Jorge LARRANAGA])
Popular Assembly [Gonzalo ABELLA]
Political pressure groups and leadersLandless Workers' Movement or MST
other: industrial federations; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church
B'nai Brith
Catholic Church
Chamber of Commerce and Export of Agriproducts
Chamber of Industries (manufacturer's association)
Exporters Union of Uruguay
National Chamber of Commerce and Services
PIT/CNT (powerful federation of Uruguayan Unions - umbrella labor organization)
Rural Association of Uruguay (rancher's association)
Uruguayan Network of Political Women
other: students
International organization participationAfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS, OIF (observer), OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Sergio Silva do AMARAL (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Alberto GIANELLI Derois (since 23 July 2015)
chancery: 1913 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 331-1313
FAX: [1] (202) 331-8142
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Liliana AYALDE (since 31 October 2013)
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia
mailing address: Unit 7500, DPO, AA 34030
telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000
FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136
consulate(s) general: Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
chief of mission: Ambassador Kelly KEIDERLING (since 6 December July 2016)
embassy: Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo 11200
mailing address: APO AA 34035
telephone: [598] (2) 1770-2000
FAX: [598] (2) 1770-2128
Flag descriptiongreen with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress); the current flag was inspired by the banner of the former Empire of Brazil (1822-1889); on the imperial flag, the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow stood for the Habsburg Family of his wife; on the modern flag the green represents the forests of the country and the yellow rhombus its mineral wealth (the diamond shape roughly mirrors that of the country); the blue circle and stars, which replaced the coat of arms of the original flag, depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - the day the Republic of Brazil was declared; the number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27 (one for each state and the Federal District)
note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, and Vanuatu
nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating with blue; a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face (delineated in black) known as the Sun of May with 16 rays that alternate between triangular and wavy; the stripes represent the nine original departments of Uruguay; the sun symbol evokes the legend of the sun breaking through the clouds on 25 May 1810 as independence was first declared from Spain (Uruguay subsequently won its independence from Brazil); the sun features are said to represent those of Inti, the Inca god of the sun
note: the banner was inspired by the national colors of Argentina and by the design of the US flag
National anthem"name: ""Hino Nacional Brasileiro"" (Brazilian National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Joaquim Osorio Duque ESTRADA/Francisco Manoel DA SILVA
note: music adopted 1890, lyrics adopted 1922; the anthem's music, composed in 1822, was used unofficially for many years before it was adopted
"
"name: ""Himno Nacional"" (National Anthem of Uruguay)
lyrics/music: Francisco Esteban ACUNA de Figueroa/Francisco Jose DEBALI
note: adopted 1848; the anthem is also known as ""Orientales, la Patria o la tumba!"" (""Uruguayans, the Fatherland or Death!""); it is the world's longest national anthem in terms of music (105 bars; almost five minutes); generally only the first verse and chorus are sung
"
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Southern Cross constellation; national colors: green, yellow, blue
Sun of May (a sun-with-face symbol); national colors: blue, white, yellow
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3-5 years

Economy

BrazilUruguay
Economy - overviewBrazil is the eighth-largest economy in the world, but is recovering from a recession in 2015 and 2016 that ranks as the worst in the country’s history. Falling commodity prices reduced export revenues and investment, which weakened the Brazilian Real and cut tax revenues. The weaker real made existing public debt, which was largely denominated in foreign currency, more expensive. Lower tax revenues strained the government budget.

Economic reforms proposed in 2016 aim to slow the growth of government spending and reduce barriers to foreign investment. Government spending growth helped to push public debt to 70% of GDP at the end of 2016 up from 50% in 2012. Policies to strengthen Brazil’s workforce and industrial sector, such as local content requirements, may have boosted employment at the expense of investment.

Former President Dilma ROUSSEFF was impeached and convicted in August 2016 for moving funds among government budgets; the economy has also been affected by multiple corruption scandals involving private companies and government officials. Sanctions against the firms involved—some of the largest in Brazil—has limited their business opportunities, producing a ripple effect on associated businesses and contractors. In addition, investment in these companies has declined because of the scandals.

Brazil is a member of the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), a trade bloc including Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela. After the Asian and Russian financial crises, the trade bloc adopted a protectionist stance to guard against exposure to the volatility of foreign markets. Brazil and its Mercosur partners have pledged to open the bloc to more trade and investment, but changes require approval of all five members, which makes policy adjustments to difficult to enact.
Uruguay has a free market economy characterized by an export-oriented agricultural sector, a well-educated workforce, and high levels of social spending. Uruguay has sought to expand trade within the Common Market of the South (Mercosur) and with non-Mercosur members, and President VAZQUEZ has maintained his predecessor’s mix of pro-market policies and a strong social safety net.

Following financial difficulties in the late 1990s and early 2000s, Uruguay's economic growth averaged 8% annually during the period 2004-08. The 2008-09 global financial crisis put a brake on Uruguay's vigorous growth, which decelerated to 2.6% in 2009. Nevertheless, the country managed to avoid a recession and keep positive growth rates, mainly through higher public expenditure and investment; GDP growth reached 8.9% in 2010 but slowed markedly in 2012-16 as a result of a renewed slowdown in the global economy and in Uruguay's main trade partners and Mercosur counterparts, Argentina and Brazil. Reforms in those countries should give Uruguay an economic boost.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$3.081 trillion (2016 est.)
$3.192 trillion (2015 est.)
$3.371 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$73.25 billion (2016 est.)
$72.74 billion (2015 est.)
$71.68 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - real growth rate-3.5% (2016 est.)
-3.8% (2015 est.)
0.1% (2014 est.)
0.7% (2016 est.)
1% (2015 est.)
3.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$14,800 (2016 est.)
$15,400 (2015 est.)
$16,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
$20,300 (2016 est.)
$22,000 (2015 est.)
$21,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 5.2%
industry: 22.7%
services: 72%
(2016 est.)
agriculture: 6.3%
industry: 26.1%
services: 67.6% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line"3.7%
note: approximately 4% of the population are below the ""extreme"" poverty line (2016 est.)
"
9.7% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 41.6% (2014 est.)
lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 30.8% (2014 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)6.7% (2016 est.)
10.7% (2015 est.)
9.9% (2016 est.)
9.4% (2015 est.)
Labor force101.9 million (2016 est.)
1.736 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 10%
industry: 39.8%
services: 50.2%
(2016 est.)
agriculture: 13%
industry: 14%
services: 73% (2010 est.)
Unemployment rate11.8% (2016 est.)
8.9% (2015 est.)
7.1% (2016 est.)
7.5% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index49.7 (2014)
55.3 (2001)
41.6 (2014)
41.9 (2013)
Budgetrevenues: $311.9 billion
expenditures: $262.6 billion (2016 est.)
revenues: $14.29 billion
expenditures: $14.81 billion (2016 est.)
Industriestextiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
food processing, electrical machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, textiles, chemicals, beverages
Industrial production growth rate-8.4% (2016 est.)
3.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - productscoffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
Cellulose, beef, soybeans, rice, wheat; dairy products; fish; lumber, tobacco, wine
Exports$189.7 billion (2016 est.)
$191.1 billion (2015 est.)
$6.861 billion (2016 est.)
$7.675 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commoditiestransport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, automobiles
beef, soybeans, cellulose, rice, wheat, wood, dairy products, wool
Exports - partnersChina 18.6%, US 12.7%, Argentina 6.7%, Netherlands 5.3% (2015)
China 15%, Brazil 14.4%, US 6.5%, Argentina 4.8% (2015)
Imports$134.2 billion (2016 est.)
$171.4 billion (2015 est.)
$7.788 billion (2016 est.)
$9.489 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics
refined oil, crude oil, passenger and other transportation vehicles, vehicle parts, cellular phones
Imports - partnersChina 17.9%, US 15.6%, Germany 6.1%, Argentina 6% (2015)
Brazil 18.4%, China 17.5%, Argentina 12%, US 9.2%, Germany 4.5%, Nigeria 4.1% (2015)
Debt - external$544.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$542.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$21.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$20.07 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange ratesreals (BRL) per US dollar -
3.39 (2016 est.)
3.3315 (2015 est.)
3.3315 (2014 est.)
2.3535 (2013 est.)
1.95 (2012 est.)
Uruguayan pesos (UYU) per US dollar -
32.03 (2016 est.)
27.52 (2015 est.)
27.52 (2014 est.)
23.246 (2013 est.)
20.31 (2012 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
calendar year
Public debt73.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
66.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
62.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
66.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$373.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$368.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$14.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$15.63 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Current Account Balance-$23.51 billion (2016 est.)
-$58.88 billion (2015 est.)
-$547 million (2016 est.)
-$1.119 billion (2015 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$1.77 trillion (2016 est.)
$58.5 billion (2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$753.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$615 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$23.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$21.65 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$295 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$288.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$272.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$153.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$490.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$843.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.02 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$175.4 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$174.6 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$156.9 million (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate13.75% (31 December 2016 est.)
14.25% (31 December 2015)
9% (31 December 2012)
8.75% (31 December 2011)
note: Uruguay's central bank uses the benchmark interest rate, rather than the discount rate, to conduct monetary policy; the rates shown here are the benchmark rates
Commercial bank prime lending rate47.4% (31 December 2016 est.)
43.96% (31 December 2015 est.)
15.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
15.84% (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$2.076 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.644 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$17.87 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of narrow money$107 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$85.64 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$4.121 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.022 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of broad money$928.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$835.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$8.568 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$8.919 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues17.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
26.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
-0.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 15%
male: 12.3%
female: 18.7% (2013 est.)
total: 19.2%
male: 15.8%
female: 24% (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 62.2%
government consumption: 20%
investment in fixed capital: 19.8%
investment in inventories: -0.5%
exports of goods and services: 12.8%
imports of goods and services: -14.3% (2016 est.)
household consumption: 67.2%
government consumption: 14.2%
investment in fixed capital: 19.3%
investment in inventories: -0.2%
exports of goods and services: 22%
imports of goods and services: -22.5% (2016 est.)
Gross national saving17.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
16.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
16.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
17.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
16.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

Energy

BrazilUruguay
Electricity - production577 billion kWh (2014 est.)
13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption518 billion kWh (2014 est.)
10 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports3 million kWh (2014 est.)
1.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports34 billion kWh (2014 est.)
700 million kWh (2012 est.)
Oil - production2.532 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Oil - imports394,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
42,060 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - exports397,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Oil - proved reserves16 billion bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves471.1 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Natural gas - production20.35 billion cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption37.57 billion cu m (2014 est.)
60 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports100 million cu m (2014 est.)
0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports17.32 billion cu m (2014 est.)
60 million cu m (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity135 million kW (2014 est.)
4.4 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels18.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
44.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants69.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
53.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels1.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources10.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production2.811 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
45,860 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption3.144 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
59,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports296,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
538 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports519,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
12,820 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy535 million Mt (2013 est.)
7.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
Electricity accesspopulation without electricity: 800,000
electrification - total population: 99.5%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 97% (2013)
population without electricity: 20,106
electrification - total population: 99.4%
electrification - urban areas: 99.7%
electrification - rural areas: 93.8% (2012)

Telecommunications

BrazilUruguay
Telephones - main lines in usetotal subscriptions: 43,677,141
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 21 (July 2015 est.)
total subscriptions: 1,106,431
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (July 2015 est.)
Telephones - mobile cellulartotal: 257.814 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 126 (July 2015 est.)
total: 5.495 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 164 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: good working system including an extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations
domestic: fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable in recent years and stand at about 20 per 100 persons; less-expensive mobile-cellular technology has been a major driver in expanding telephone service to the lower-income segments of the population with mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 125 per 100 persons
international: country code - 55; landing point for a number of submarine cables, including Americas-1, Americas-2, Atlantis-2, GlobeNet, South America-1, South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus, and UNISUR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station (2015)
general assessment: fully digitalized
domestic: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; nationwide microwave radio relay network; overall fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity over 195 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 598; the UNISOR submarine cable system provides direct connectivity to Brazil and Argentina; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Internet country code.br
.uy
Internet userstotal: 120.676 million
percent of population: 59.1% (July 2015 est.)
total: 2.159 million
percent of population: 64.6% (July 2015 est.)
Broadcast mediastate-run Radiobras operates a radio and a TV network; more than 1,000 radio stations and more than 100 TV channels operating - mostly privately owned; private media ownership highly concentrated (2007)
mixture of privately owned and state-run broadcast media; more than 100 commercial radio stations and about 20 TV channels; cable TV is available; many community radio and TV stations; adopted the hybrid Japanese/Brazilian HDTV standard (ISDB-T) in December 2010 (2010)

Transportation

BrazilUruguay
Railwaystotal: 28,538 km
broad gauge: 5,822.3 km 1.600-m gauge (498.3 km electrified)
dual gauge: 492 km 1.600-1.000-m gauge
standard gauge: 194 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 23,341.6 km 1.000-m gauge (24 km electrified) (2014)
total: 1,673 km (operational; government claims overall length is 2,961 km)
standard gauge: 1,673 km 1.435-m gauge (2016)
Roadwaystotal: 1,580,964 km
paved: 212,798 km
unpaved: 1,368,166 km
note: does not include urban roads (2010)
total: 77,732 km
paved: 7,743 km
unpaved: 69,989 km (2010)
Waterways50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2012)
1,600 km (2011)
Pipelinescondensate/gas 251 km; gas 17,312 km; liquid petroleum gas 352 km; oil 4,831 km; refined products 4,722 km (2013)
gas 257 km; oil 160 km (2013)
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): Belem, Paranagua, Rio Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Sao Sebastiao, Tubarao
river port(s): Manaus (Amazon)
dry bulk cargo port(s): Sepetiba ore terminal, Tubarao
container port(s) (TEUs): Santos (2,985,922), Itajai (983,985)(2011)
oil terminal(s): DTSE/Gegua oil terminal, Ilha Grande (Gebig), Guaiba Island terminal, Guamare oil terminal
LNG terminal(s) (import): Pecem, Rio de Janiero
major seaport(s): Montevideo
Merchant marinetotal: 109
by type: bulk carrier 18, cargo 16, chemical tanker 7, container 13, liquefied gas 11, petroleum tanker 39, roll on/roll off 5
foreign-owned: 27 (Chile 1, Denmark 3, Germany 6, Greece 1, Norway 3, Spain 12, Turkey 1)
registered in other countries: 36 (Argentina 1, Bahamas 1, Ghana 1, Liberia 20, Marshall Islands 1, Panama 3, Singapore 9) (2010)
total: 16
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 2, chemical tanker 3, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 8 (Argentina 1, Denmark 1, Greece 1, Spain 5)
registered in other countries: 1 (Liberia 1) (2010)
Airports4,093 (2013)
133 (2013)
Airports - with paved runwaystotal: 698
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 179
914 to 1,523 m: 436
under 914 m: 49 (2013)
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runwaystotal: 3,395
1,524 to 2,437 m: 92
914 to 1,523 m: 1,619
under 914 m: 1,684 (2013)
total: 122
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 40
under 914 m: 79 (2013)

Military

BrazilUruguay
Military branchesBrazilian Army (Exercito Brasileiro, EB), Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil, MB, includes Naval Air and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2011)
Uruguayan Armed Forces: Uruguayan National Army (Ejercito Nacional Uruguaya, ENU), Uruguayan National Navy (Armada Nacional del Uruguay, includes naval air arm, Naval Rifle Corps (Cuerpo de Fusileros Navales, Fusna), Maritime Prefecture in wartime), Uruguayan Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Uruguaya, FAU) (2012)
Military service age and obligation"18-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 10-12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are ""long-service"" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s, when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps (2012)
"
18-30 years of age (18-22 years of age for navy) for male or female voluntary military service; up to 40 years of age for specialists; enlistment is voluntary in peacetime, but the government has the authority to conscript in emergencies; minimum 6-year education (2013)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP1.39% of GDP (2015)
1.35% of GDP (2014)
1.33% of GDP (2013)
1.38% of GDP (2012)
1.41% of GDP (2011)
1.8% of GDP (2015)
1.49% of GDP (2014)
1.86% of GDP (2013)
1.77% of GDP (2012)
1.76% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

BrazilUruguay
Disputes - internationaluncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Brazil's border region with Venezuela
in 2010, the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay's operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River, which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regime; uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border
Illicit drugssecond-largest consumer of cocaine in the world; illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area (2008)
small-scale transit country for drugs mainly bound for Europe, often through sea-borne containers; law enforcement corruption; money laundering because of strict banking secrecy laws; weak border control along Brazilian frontier; increasing consumption of cocaine base and synthetic drugs

Source: CIA Factbook