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Colombia Demographics Profile 2017

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Population47,220,856 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 24.57% (male 5,940,903/female 5,659,594)
15-24 years: 17.54% (male 4,216,437/female 4,066,079)
25-54 years: 41.82% (male 9,788,057/female 9,958,982)
55-64 years: 8.9% (male 1,973,215/female 2,230,609)
65 years and over: 7.17% (male 1,412,209/female 1,974,771) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 45.6
youth dependency ratio: 35.4
elderly dependency ratio: 10.2
potential support ratio: 9.8 (2015 est.)
Median agetotal: 29.6 years
male: 28.7 years
female: 30.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.02% (2016 est.)
Birth rate16.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate5.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate-0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanizationurban population: 76.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major cities - populationBOGOTA (capital) 9.765 million; Medellin 3.911 million; Cali 2.646 million; Barranquilla 1.991 million; Bucaramanga 1.215 million; Cartagena 1.092 million (2015)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth21.4 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 14.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 17.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 75.7 years
male: 72.6 years
female: 79 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.02 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate79.1% (2009/10)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.48% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS146,000 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths2,300 (2015 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 96.8% of population
rural: 73.8% of population
total: 91.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 26.2% of population
total: 8.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 85.2% of population
rural: 67.9% of population
total: 81.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 14.8% of population
rural: 32.1% of population
total: 18.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
Nationalitynoun: Colombian(s)
adjective: Colombian
Ethnic groupsmestizo and white 84.2%, Afro-Colombian (includes mulatto, Raizal, and Palenquero) 10.4%, Amerindian 3.4%, Romani <.01, unspecified 2.1% (2005 est.)
ReligionsCatholic 79%, Protestant 14% (includes Pentecostal 6%, mainline Protestant 2%, other 6%), other 2%, unspecified 5% (2014 est.)
Demographic profileColombia is in the midst of a demographic transition resulting from steady declines in its fertility, mortality, and population growth rates. The birth rate has fallen from more than 6 children per woman in the 1960s to just above replacement level today as a result of increased literacy, family planning services, and urbanization. However, income inequality is among the worst in the world, and more than a third of the population lives below the poverty line.
Colombia experiences significant legal and illegal economic emigration and refugee flows. Large-scale labor emigration dates to the 1960s; Venezuela and the United States continue to be the main host countries. Colombia is the largest source of Latin American refugees in Latin America, nearly 400,000 of whom live primarily in Venezuela and Ecuador. Forced displacement remains prevalent because of violence among guerrillas, paramilitary groups, and Colombian security forces. Afro-Colombian and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. As of February 2017, an estimated 7.4 million persons have been internally displaced since 1985, the highest amount in the world. These estimates may undercount actual numbers because not all internally displaced persons are registered. Historically, Colombia also has one of the world's highest levels of forced disappearances. About 30,000 cases have been recorded over the last four decades - although the number is likely to be much higher - including human rights activists, trade unionists, Afro-Colombians, indigenous people, and farmers in rural conflict zones.
Forced displacement continues to be prevalent because of violence among guerrillas, paramilitary groups, and Colombian security forces. Afro-Colombian and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Even with the Colombian Government’s December 2016 peace agreement with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the risk of displacement remains as other rebel groups fill the void left by the FARC. As of February 2017, an estimated 7.4 million persons have been internally displaced since 1985, the highest total in the world. These estimates may undercount actual numbers because many internally displaced persons are not registered. Historically, Colombia also has one of the world’s highest levels of forced disappearances. About 30,000 cases have been recorded over the last four decades—although the number is likely to be much higher—including human rights activists, trade unionists, Afro-Colombians, indigenous people, and farmers in rural conflict zones.
Because of political violence and economic problems, Colombia received limited numbers of immigrants during the 19th and 20th centuries, mostly from the Middle East, Europe, and Japan. More recently, growth in the oil, mining, and manufacturing sectors has attracted increased labor migration; the primary source countries are Venezuela, the US, Mexico, and Argentina. Colombia has also become a transit area for illegal migrants from Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean who are en route to the US or Canada.
LanguagesSpanish (official)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.7%
male: 94.6%
female: 94.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2015)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 988,362
percentage: 9%
note: data represent children ages 5-17 (2009 est.)
Education expenditures4.5% of GDP (2015)
Maternal mortality rate64 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight3.4% (2010)
Health expenditures7.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density1.57 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density1.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate20.7% (2014)

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on July 9, 2017

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